Science forum Day 2 - Jharendu Pant - Integrated agriculture aquaculture systems
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Science forum Day 2 - Jharendu Pant - Integrated agriculture aquaculture systems

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Science forum Day 2 - Jharendu Pant - Integrated agriculture aquaculture systems Science forum Day 2 - Jharendu Pant - Integrated agriculture aquaculture systems Presentation Transcript

  • Integrated Agriculture-Aquaculture Systems – (a short) History and Future Jharendu Pant
    • Outline:
      • IAA farming systems –
        • 1.1 what does it entail?
        • 1.2 historical perspective
        • 1.3 lessons learned
      • Small-scale IAA systems – future
      • Some of our endeavors in diverse contexts..
  • 1.1. what does it entail?
      • IAA Farming Systems:
        • Concurrent or sequential linkages between two or more human activity (farming) systems (one of which is aquaculture)
      • In IAA Farming System:
        • An output (byproducts) from one sub-system ( which otherwise would go wasted) becomes an input to another sub-system resulting greater efficiency of output
    • Common IAA systems types:
      • Rice – Fish culture
      • Traditional Chinese integrated carp polyculture systems
      • Small-scale IAA systems in tropics (relatively a new practice)
    1.1. IAA farming Systems – what does it entail?
    • IAA Farming – [believed to be] vital to diversification of rural livelihoods
    • [Diversity decreases risks and increases opportunities]
    • IAA Farming in rapidly changing social, economic and environmental contexts (?)
    1.1. IAA farming Systems – what does it entail?
  • 1.2. a historical perspective
      • IAA farming evolved in China:
        • 2 nd Centuries B.C.: Integration of aquatic plants and fish farming
        • From 9 th Century: Rice-fish culture
        • From 14 th – 16 th Century: development of more complex IAA systems (multiple enterprises integrated systems)
  • 1.2. IAA farming systems: a historical perspective
      • Developed empirically by trial-and-error by farmers over centuries
      • Family level crop-livestock-fish systems
      • Evolved in Yangtse and Pearl river basins:
        • Populous areas
        • Favorable resource-base
  •  
    • (Chinese traditional) IAA systems – introduced to a number of countries in Asia
    • Successful replication in Red river Delta of Vietnam (known as VAC systems)
    • How about other countries/locations?
    1.2. IAA farming systems: a historical perspective
  •  
  • 1.3. lessons learned
    • IAA farming systems - relatively a new in many countries
    • Promoted as a prototype of traditional Chinese IAA systems (often following once-size–fits-all approach)
    • However, resource-base and social and economic contexts -- determinants of the success
      • EXAMPLES:
      • Example 1: Buffalo/fish integrated system in Thailand:
      • Positive on-station experimental results BUT
      • inefficient technology once it was tested on-farm
      • (4 t of fresh manure into 200 m 2 pond over 7 months, but obtained only 21 kg of fish!).
        • (AIT, 1994)
    3.1 IAA farming systems: lessons learned
    • Example 2: Small-scale integrated duck/fish system in Thailand:
      • System functioned well during the project BUT
      • once project was withdrawn most units were abandoned
      • because of the constraints in input supply and marketing eggs
        • (AIT, 1994)
    3. IAA farming systems: lessons learned
  • Example 3: Greater Harvest and Economic Return from Shrimp(GHER)‘ - Bangladesh
    • Focus – increasing productivity, viability and quality of shrimp and prawn
    • BMP – access to better market, low production risks
    • Over 15,000 Golda Gher (Rice –Prawn) farmers
    • Over 100% increase in net yields and profitability
    • Over USD 50 million sales; Over 14000 new jobs in the sector
    3. IAA farming systems: lessons learned
      • Focus: food & nutrition security; augmentation of family income; and women’s empowerment
    • Exclusively Women members (majority belonging to Tharu, Darai and Bote — traditional fishing communities)
    Example 4: Women in Aquaculture - Nepal 3. IAA farming systems: lessons learned Pond area /farm (m 2 ) 314.0 Fish production(kg/year/farm) 114.0 Fish Consumption: Household/year (kg) 58.0 Per caput/year (kg) 11.0
      • Fish Consumption Frequency (times/month)
    6.5 Income (US$)/year /cycle 103.0
      • Asian aquaculture largely dominated by small-scale production systems (mostly IAA systems)
      • Role of aquaculture in diversifying livelihoods increasingly visible
      • Obviously, small-scale fish production systems will continue to be source of fish supply in the future too (de Silva and Davy, 2010)
    2. IAA farming systems - future
  • 2. IAA system: future…
    • WorldFish CCER of IAA systems research, 2009 concluded:
      • Many IAA systems primarily depend on limited on-farm resources
      • Judicious use of external inputs vital to realizing the production potential
        • [Shifting focus – beyond HH food security]
    • IAA systems focus in CRPs:
      • CRP 1: Integrated Agricultural Systems for the Poor and Vulnerable
        • CRP 1.3: Harnessing the Development potential of Aquatic Agricultural Systems (AAS) for the Poor and Vulnerable
    2. IAA system: future…
  • 3. Some of our endeavors in diverse contexts
    • 3.1 Bangladesh:
      • a number of on-going/recently completed IAA projects
      • Relatively developed IAA farming systems
      • Issues:
        • Increasing productivity; quality; viability….
        • Minimizing risks (environmental, market…..)
  • Salinity Trend in the Southern Region Monthly Salinity Monitoring (Data Source: Department of Environment, DOE)
  • 3.2. Laos:
    • Reservoirs and Livelihoods (Challenge Program - MK1)
      • Piloting rice – fish (sequential) farming systems in the area impacted on by hydropower dam (planned):
      • Issues:
        • Rice field fisheries vs Rice – fish culture?
        • Inputs and services…
    5. The IAA systems R in D endeavors in diverse contexts
  • 3.3. Solomon Islands:
      • Aquaculture likely to become a viable option for livelihoods diversification
      • Issues:
        • Introduction of exotic spp (Nile tilapia) or relying on indigenous ones?
        • Production technology
        • Inputs and services…
    5. The IAA systems R in D endeavors in diverse contexts
  • 3.4. Timor-Leste
    • Aquaculture for food and nutrition security
    • Development of National Aquaculture Strategy and implementation plans underway
    • Issues:
        • Geographical focus?
        • Production technology?
        • Inputs and services…
    5. The IAA systems R in D endeavors in diverse contexts
  • Fig: Social System-ecosystem interactions (Rambo, 1983)
  • Thank you