Integrated Agriculture-Aquaculture Systems – (a short) History and Future Jharendu Pant
<ul><li>Outline: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IAA farming systems –  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1.1 what does it entail? </li...
1.1. what does it entail? <ul><ul><li>IAA Farming Systems: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Concurrent or sequential linkage...
<ul><li>Common IAA systems types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rice – Fish culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional Chinese...
<ul><li>IAA Farming – [believed to be] vital to diversification of rural livelihoods </li></ul><ul><li>[Diversity decrease...
1.2.  a historical perspective <ul><ul><li>IAA farming evolved in China: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2 nd  Centuries B....
1.2. IAA farming systems: a historical perspective <ul><ul><li>Developed empirically by trial-and-error by farmers over ce...
 
<ul><li>(Chinese traditional) IAA systems – introduced to a number of countries in Asia  </li></ul><ul><li>Successful repl...
 
1.3. lessons learned  <ul><li>IAA farming systems - relatively a new in many countries </li></ul><ul><li>Promoted as a pro...
<ul><ul><li>Example 1:  Buffalo/fish integrated system in Thailand:   </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive on-station exper...
<ul><li>Example 2:  Small-scale integrated  duck/fish  system in Thailand: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>System functioned well du...
Example 3:  Greater Harvest and Economic Return from Shrimp(GHER)‘  -  Bangladesh  <ul><li>Focus – increasing productivity...
<ul><ul><li>Focus:   food & nutrition security; augmentation of family income;  and women’s empowerment </li></ul></ul><ul...
<ul><ul><li>Asian aquaculture largely dominated by small-scale production systems (mostly IAA systems) </li></ul></ul><ul>...
2. IAA system: future… <ul><li>WorldFish CCER of IAA systems research, 2009 concluded: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many IAA syst...
<ul><li>IAA  systems focus in CRPs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CRP 1: Integrated Agricultural Systems for the Poor and Vulnerab...
3. Some of our endeavors in diverse contexts  <ul><li>3.1 Bangladesh:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a number of on-going/recently...
Salinity Trend in the Southern Region Monthly Salinity Monitoring  (Data Source: Department of Environment, DOE)
3.2. Laos: <ul><li>Reservoirs and Livelihoods (Challenge Program  - MK1) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Piloting rice – fish (seque...
3.3. Solomon Islands:  <ul><ul><li>Aquaculture likely to become a viable option for livelihoods diversification </li></ul>...
3.4. Timor-Leste <ul><li>Aquaculture for food and nutrition security  </li></ul><ul><li>Development of National Aquacultur...
Fig: Social System-ecosystem interactions (Rambo, 1983)
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Science forum Day 2 - Jharendu Pant - Integrated agriculture aquaculture systems

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Science forum Day 2 - Jharendu Pant - Integrated agriculture aquaculture systems

  1. 1. Integrated Agriculture-Aquaculture Systems – (a short) History and Future Jharendu Pant
  2. 2. <ul><li>Outline: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IAA farming systems – </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1.1 what does it entail? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1.2 historical perspective </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1.3 lessons learned </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small-scale IAA systems – future </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some of our endeavors in diverse contexts.. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. 1.1. what does it entail? <ul><ul><li>IAA Farming Systems: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Concurrent or sequential linkages between two or more human activity (farming) systems (one of which is aquaculture) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In IAA Farming System: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An output (byproducts) from one sub-system ( which otherwise would go wasted) becomes an input to another sub-system resulting greater efficiency of output </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Common IAA systems types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rice – Fish culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional Chinese integrated carp polyculture systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small-scale IAA systems in tropics (relatively a new practice) </li></ul></ul>1.1. IAA farming Systems – what does it entail?
  5. 5. <ul><li>IAA Farming – [believed to be] vital to diversification of rural livelihoods </li></ul><ul><li>[Diversity decreases risks and increases opportunities] </li></ul><ul><li>IAA Farming in rapidly changing social, economic and environmental contexts (?) </li></ul>1.1. IAA farming Systems – what does it entail?
  6. 6. 1.2. a historical perspective <ul><ul><li>IAA farming evolved in China: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2 nd Centuries B.C.: Integration of aquatic plants and fish farming </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>From 9 th Century: Rice-fish culture </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>From 14 th – 16 th Century: development of more complex IAA systems (multiple enterprises integrated systems) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. 1.2. IAA farming systems: a historical perspective <ul><ul><li>Developed empirically by trial-and-error by farmers over centuries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Family level crop-livestock-fish systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolved in Yangtse and Pearl river basins: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Populous areas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Favorable resource-base </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>(Chinese traditional) IAA systems – introduced to a number of countries in Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Successful replication in Red river Delta of Vietnam (known as VAC systems) </li></ul><ul><li>How about other countries/locations? </li></ul>1.2. IAA farming systems: a historical perspective
  9. 11. 1.3. lessons learned <ul><li>IAA farming systems - relatively a new in many countries </li></ul><ul><li>Promoted as a prototype of traditional Chinese IAA systems (often following once-size–fits-all approach) </li></ul><ul><li>However, resource-base and social and economic contexts -- determinants of the success </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EXAMPLES: </li></ul></ul>
  10. 12. <ul><ul><li>Example 1: Buffalo/fish integrated system in Thailand: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive on-station experimental results BUT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>inefficient technology once it was tested on-farm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(4 t of fresh manure into 200 m 2 pond over 7 months, but obtained only 21 kg of fish!). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(AIT, 1994) </li></ul></ul></ul>3.1 IAA farming systems: lessons learned
  11. 13. <ul><li>Example 2: Small-scale integrated duck/fish system in Thailand: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>System functioned well during the project BUT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>once project was withdrawn most units were abandoned </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>because of the constraints in input supply and marketing eggs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(AIT, 1994) </li></ul></ul></ul>3. IAA farming systems: lessons learned
  12. 14. Example 3: Greater Harvest and Economic Return from Shrimp(GHER)‘ - Bangladesh <ul><li>Focus – increasing productivity, viability and quality of shrimp and prawn </li></ul><ul><li>BMP – access to better market, low production risks </li></ul><ul><li>Over 15,000 Golda Gher (Rice –Prawn) farmers </li></ul><ul><li>Over 100% increase in net yields and profitability </li></ul><ul><li>Over USD 50 million sales; Over 14000 new jobs in the sector </li></ul>3. IAA farming systems: lessons learned
  13. 15. <ul><ul><li>Focus: food & nutrition security; augmentation of family income; and women’s empowerment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Exclusively Women members (majority belonging to Tharu, Darai and Bote — traditional fishing communities) </li></ul>Example 4: Women in Aquaculture - Nepal 3. IAA farming systems: lessons learned Pond area /farm (m 2 ) 314.0 Fish production(kg/year/farm) 114.0 Fish Consumption: Household/year (kg) 58.0 Per caput/year (kg) 11.0 <ul><ul><li>Fish Consumption Frequency (times/month) </li></ul></ul>6.5 Income (US$)/year /cycle 103.0
  14. 16. <ul><ul><li>Asian aquaculture largely dominated by small-scale production systems (mostly IAA systems) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Role of aquaculture in diversifying livelihoods increasingly visible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obviously, small-scale fish production systems will continue to be source of fish supply in the future too (de Silva and Davy, 2010) </li></ul></ul>2. IAA farming systems - future
  15. 17. 2. IAA system: future… <ul><li>WorldFish CCER of IAA systems research, 2009 concluded: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many IAA systems primarily depend on limited on-farm resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Judicious use of external inputs vital to realizing the production potential </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>[Shifting focus – beyond HH food security] </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 18. <ul><li>IAA systems focus in CRPs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CRP 1: Integrated Agricultural Systems for the Poor and Vulnerable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CRP 1.3: Harnessing the Development potential of Aquatic Agricultural Systems (AAS) for the Poor and Vulnerable </li></ul></ul></ul>2. IAA system: future…
  17. 19. 3. Some of our endeavors in diverse contexts <ul><li>3.1 Bangladesh: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a number of on-going/recently completed IAA projects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relatively developed IAA farming systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Issues: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing productivity; quality; viability…. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Minimizing risks (environmental, market…..) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 20. Salinity Trend in the Southern Region Monthly Salinity Monitoring (Data Source: Department of Environment, DOE)
  19. 21. 3.2. Laos: <ul><li>Reservoirs and Livelihoods (Challenge Program - MK1) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Piloting rice – fish (sequential) farming systems in the area impacted on by hydropower dam (planned): </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Issues: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rice field fisheries vs Rice – fish culture? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inputs and services… </li></ul></ul></ul>5. The IAA systems R in D endeavors in diverse contexts
  20. 22. 3.3. Solomon Islands: <ul><ul><li>Aquaculture likely to become a viable option for livelihoods diversification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Issues: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction of exotic spp (Nile tilapia) or relying on indigenous ones? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Production technology </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inputs and services… </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>… </li></ul></ul></ul>5. The IAA systems R in D endeavors in diverse contexts
  21. 23. 3.4. Timor-Leste <ul><li>Aquaculture for food and nutrition security </li></ul><ul><li>Development of National Aquaculture Strategy and implementation plans underway </li></ul><ul><li>Issues: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Geographical focus? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Production technology? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inputs and services… </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>… </li></ul></ul></ul>5. The IAA systems R in D endeavors in diverse contexts
  22. 24. Fig: Social System-ecosystem interactions (Rambo, 1983)
  23. 25. Thank you
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