Science Forum Day 2 - Diaa Al Kenawy - Integrated agric-aquaculture, science week july 2011Presentation Transcript
Integration of Agriculture and Aquaculture as Means for Enhancing Water Productivity Diaa Al-Kenawy WorldFish C E N T E R Abbassa, Egypt
planet is becoming increasingly water stressed – 10% increase in demand 2000-2010
population growth 1.6% p a
increasing wealth (GDP 7% pa)
increasing upstream intervention
how to best use water for human well-being without unacceptable adverse impacts on the environment?
Increasing demand for water decreasing supplies of water/ declining water quality
human wellbeing – poor producers?
can poor producers adopt more water productive aquaculture technologies?
assets (cash; education) costs of connecting to markets
MUS – multiple water use systems
… or must the poor only engage in other parts of the aquaculture value chain?
recycle system, Kafr el Sheikh, Egypt producer retailer seed producer consumer seed trader X
Poverty Impacts of Aquaculture Development in the Nile Delta
Aquaculture boom has generated employment in fish farming areas.
Tens of thousands of people are now employed in aquaculture and supporting industries,
Kafr El-Sheikh governorate
Unemployment : 11.2% in 1993 to 7% in 2006 (UNDP 1995 & 2008) .
Poverty: 25.5% poor in 1991 to 13.2% in 2005/2006 14.5% ultra poor to 0.9% in 2005/2006 (UNDP, 1995 & 2008).
a drop of 48% and 94% respectively
Water accounting in the Nile Delta Water Productivity of Aquaculture Systems in the Nile Delta, Egypt
to estimate quantities of water used per unit biomass of fish produced in ponds in the Nile Delta
to prepare water budgets for earthen pond aquaculture to help guide future water allocation policies
to assess the water productivity benefits of different aquaculture technologies and incorporating aquaculture with agriculture
production and incomes
2 sites in Nile delta Abbassa Kafr El-Sheikh
Estimate net water use in pond aquaculture throughout production season at two sites in the Nile Delta
Estimate water loss through different routes (seepage, evaporation, drainage etc…).
Estimate water consumption rates (m 3 ) per kg fish production
Site 1 (Abbassa ponds)
5 ponds, stocked in June 2008
Site 2 (Kafr El Sheikh)
Four ponds for the determination of water loss (evaporation and seepage). Two standing pipes in each pond.
Two ponds for the determination of water loss via seepage only (1 pipe)
two water budgets
range; sources of variability
scope out further research
Water Budget for fish production Daily water loss Daily seepage rate Daily Evaporation Consumptive water used Fish yield Water consumption m3/ha/day m3/ha m3/ha m3/ha kg/ha m3/kg fish Site (1) Mean ± STER (semi intensive) 54.11 ± 1.06 6.267 ± 0.40 47.84 ± 1.11 10806 ± 539 2986 ± 67 3.61 ± 0.12 Site (2) Mean ± STER (intensive) 46.35 ± 7.05 1.03 ± 7.04 45.32 ± 0.10 9284 ± 1412.3 8333 ±252.3 1.12 ± 0.19
source : National Water Resource Statistics (2005), FAO (2004) Water use by different crops Crop Average water use m 3 /ha/crop Production tonne/ha Water use rate m 3 / kg Product value (USD $ /m 3 ) Rice 14476 9.685 1.27 0.05 – 0.18 Fruits 11343 year 11.667 0.74 : 0.97 0.80 - 4.0 Cottons 6719 2.349 2.86 Maize 6271 6.998 0.89 0.03 – 0.22 Soy bean 6326 2.875 2.2 Fish literature review 20000:45000 5.0 4 - 9 0.07 – 1.35 Fish current study 3.0 : 8.3 3.61 : 1.13 0.31 : 1.05
Future work – water quality
seepage and discharge water from ponds has higher levels of nutrients than pond inflows
how does nutrient enriched seepage and discharge water impact on the provision of ecosystem services and poverty?
fishpond discharge, fish farm, Kafr el Sheikh
New multiple water use technologies
Integration & the Environment
Better utilization of Nutrient dynamics in fish ponds.
Rice–fish–wheat systems, Nile Delta
low aquaculture productivity in Nile Delta
Rice–fish–wheat systems, Nile Delta Common Fish Ponds Rice + Fish Ponds Wheat Fish Ponds
Rice Area Fish Area
Rice in Fish Ponds
Rice–fish–wheat systems, Nile Delta fish
Rice production and water consumption Data of rice and wheat production in fish ponds Water consumption m 3 /kg Water consumption for irrigation m 3 /ha production kg/ha 2.99 16804 5800 Rice 0 0 5400 (5975) Year 2011 Wheat Average fish yield of the two systems and traditional fish production system. Fish Kg/ha Rice/Fish system Kg/ha Wheat/Fish system Kg/ha Tilapia 1238.5 400.4 2331.5 Others 455. 6 2.4 365.2 Fingerlings 396 317.5 113 Total 2090.1 720.3 2809.7
Water use in Agric-Aqua Integration 2010 work Ground water Surface water Crops and fruit trees well Crops and fruit trees Intensive fish farm Effluent from fish tanks Irrigation canal Reservoir
Agriculture-Aquaculture Integration 07/25/11
Nutrients (N P K) levels due to use of water for fish farming and mean quantities of nutrients added daily to the effluents. 07/25/11 It is possible to increase water use efficiency through integrating agriculture and aquaculture, thereby reducing use of chemical fertilizers and increasing farm income through increasing productivity per unit of water
Presented here 07/25/11
WorldFish Center Science Week , July 2011 Thank You Thanks to: Malcolm Beveridge, Gamal El-Naggar, Ahmad Nasr-Allah, and all Abbassa team
pond water levels determined weekly using fixed graduated tubes at three locations per pond
water levels determined before and after water was added to compensate for losses
fish sampled monthly to determine growth
water samples taken to determine DO, pH, Secchi disc, N and P
monthly analysis of phytoplankton
tube to measure pond water column height
estimating water use i.e. water consumption per pond = I i – (E + S + Q ± ∆S) water feed + inflow = outflow + ∆S + water fish modified from Nath & Bolte (1998) excluding rain, surface runoff, water feed , and infiltration, inflow can be regarded as water added excluding overflow and water fish outflow can be regarded as change in pond storage plus seepage and evaporation i.e. water consumption per kg fish production = kg fish pond -1 /I i – (E + S + Q ± ∆S) Water in feed
Fluctuation of evaporation loss against water temperature. (site 1)