MPA management effectiveness in selected areas in the Philippines: <br />Lessons learned and way forward <br />“Enhancing ...
Outline<br />MPA Evaluation in Philippines and project sites<br />Lessons learned <br />Way forward<br />
Background<br />MPAs are useful tools among a suite of management options for fisheries and CRM in the Philippines <br />D...
What is Management Effectiveness?<br />The degree to which management actions are achieving the stated goals and objective...
Why evaluate management effectiveness?<br />	It tells us how a managed area is -- or is not -- meeting its stated goals an...
Does your MPA look more like this?…<br />…or this?<br />Source: Pomeroy et al 2004<br />
1. How is your MPA Doing? (IUCN/Pomeroy et al. 2004)<br />Evaluation of MPA Management Effectiveness <br />3. National CTI...
Indicator-based MPA Management Effectiveness<br />Started in 2002 by joint effort of IUCN – WCPA (Marine), NOAA Coral Reef...
Outline<br />MPA Evaluation in Philippines and project sites<br />Lessons learned <br />Way forward<br />
Lesson 1 - Number of indicators <br />Number of indicators could be reduced to ‘barest’ minimum<br />
Progression/Testing of indicators<br />World Conservation Union (IUCN) - 2004<br />42 indicators:<br />10 Biophysical<br /...
Progression/Testing of indicators<br />“Enhancing MPA Management Effectiveness for the Calamianes Islands MPA Network” - 2...
Progression/Testing of indicators<br />“Capacity building to enhance MPA management effectiveness for the MPA networks in ...
Indicators selected<br />
Study Sites<br />
Lesson 2 – Institutional Partnership<br />Partnership remains essential but may take different configuration<br />
Levels of institutional partnership in MPA evaluation<br />International donors<br />International research agency<br />In...
Roles and Responsibilities<br />overall coordination, technical direction and training of SUCs<br />Funding support, polic...
Lesson 3 – Capacity Building<br />Local SUCs/LGUs may be capacitated to take more active roles in MPA management<br />
Local Capacity Building<br />site coordination, testing/evaluation of MPA indicators<br />Participation in interviews and ...
Happy Faces of Partners! <br />
Lesson 4 – Perception Surveys<br />Social survey needs to be validated with scientific bio-physical surveys<br />
Comparative Perspective<br />People’s perception<br />Scientific findings<br />
Complementary Results in Fisheries Condition<br />People’s perception<br />General decline in fish catch<br />Scientific f...
Discrepancy in Fisheries Condition<br />People’s perception<br />General in fish abundance<br />Scientific findings<br />i...
People’s perception<br />Sagrada-Bogtong – 58% worse now than before<br />Bugor-Sand – 43% worse now than before<br />Scie...
Lesson 5 – Summarizing the Results of Evaluation<br />‘Metrication’ of factors affecting MPA management effectiveness rema...
Various factors related to MPA management effectiveness<br />Source: Pomeroy et al 2004<br />
MPA Rating System adopted by project<br />
Lesson 6 – Baseline Information<br />Need for good baseline remains critical<br />
FISH Project Sites<br />Good biophysical: 2004, 2006 and 2008<br />Limited socio-economic and governance<br />
Outline<br />MPA Evaluation in Philippines and project sites<br />Lessons learned <br />Way forward<br />
Contextualizing MPAs with other economic sectors<br />MPA Site<br />
MPAs: in a nut shell <br />Be based on the fundamental ecology of the organisms and/or habitats to be protected.<br />Limi...
MPA Evaluation and Action:Beyond Rhetorics<br />
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Science Forum Day 1 - Len Garces - Management Effectiveness of Marine Protected Areas in the Philippines

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  • MPA Evaluation – contextual background following the presentations of Ma’am MLP and PerryLessons learned – positive and negative experiencesWay forward
  • Remembering Peter Drucker: Management by Objective
  • Peter Drucker – MBOGoals and objectives in relation to the problems and issues identified
  • LLMAs
  • ICRS 2008 Proceedings – TRNMP (Tubattaha) and CIAD
  • MPA Evaluation – contextual background following the presentations of Ma’am MLP and PerryLessons learned – positive and negative experiencesMany exist in the literatureLessons clustered into 6 groupsWay forward
  • Mostly MPA are to protect coral reef habitatsMost are small-sized MPA i.e., less than 50 haRecently established i.e., 2001 to present.
  • Utility of collaborative evaluation4 major partners supportive LGUs and MPA management boardsactive community participation
  • Engagement of non-traditional partners – DOST / Involvement of DOST (as non-traditional partner) More localized
  • International and national level providing more technical supervision, policy direction and other catalytic/support role
  • Local academe taking more active roleWith support of established academic institutions – eg MSI/MSN with Dr Perry Alino
  • You cannot rely on perception surveys aloneMajority of coastal rural dwellers believe in mermaidsTo date, no sirena and siyokoy has been captured and publicly displayed
  • Implications of difference between bio-physical and socio-economicGeographical:Orientation: inside and outspatial scaleBias of latest recollection (shifting baselines)Specificity (100% components of corals)Respondent’s background profile
  • Does not provide a overall pictureMore on quantitative contributionMEAT – provide scores + diagramsCI - MIDAs
  • Baseline data as reference points
  • Other MPA sites have very scanty secondary informationMainly gray literature
  • MPA Evaluation – contextual background following the presentations of Ma’am MLP and PerryLessons learned – positive and negative experiencesWay forward – where do we go from here? What are the next steps that we could undertake in relation to the issues, problems and opportunities that have been identified.
  • No MPA is an islandMPAs do not exist in isolation – not stand alone measuresImpacts from upland/terrestrial activitiesICM context of MPA – EO 530 of 2006
  • Continuing challenge beyond academic exerciseSeeking more consensus like MSN – MPA Support NetworkShortening the gap and/or gulf between science and management
  • Science Forum Day 1 - Len Garces - Management Effectiveness of Marine Protected Areas in the Philippines

    1. 1. MPA management effectiveness in selected areas in the Philippines: <br />Lessons learned and way forward <br />“Enhancing Marine Protected Areas (MPA) Management in the Philippines” <br />Len Garces, Mike Pido<br />Maripaz Perez and Mark Tupper<br />
    2. 2. Outline<br />MPA Evaluation in Philippines and project sites<br />Lessons learned <br />Way forward<br />
    3. 3. Background<br />MPAs are useful tools among a suite of management options for fisheries and CRM in the Philippines <br />Despite potential benefits of MPAs to coastal management programs, majority of MPAs do not meet their management objectives.<br />only 10% of the over 3,000 MPAs globally meet their target goals and objectives<br />At least 10-15% of the MPAs have been effectively managed (Alino 2001, PAMS 2008). <br />
    4. 4.
    5. 5. What is Management Effectiveness?<br />The degree to which management actions are achieving the stated goals and objectives of a protected area<br />Source: Pomeroy et al 2004<br />
    6. 6. Why evaluate management effectiveness?<br /> It tells us how a managed area is -- or is not -- meeting its stated goals and objectives<br />Source: Pomeroy et al 2004<br />
    7. 7. Does your MPA look more like this?…<br />…or this?<br />Source: Pomeroy et al 2004<br />
    8. 8. 1. How is your MPA Doing? (IUCN/Pomeroy et al. 2004)<br />Evaluation of MPA Management Effectiveness <br />3. National CTI CC MPA Management Effectiveness Assessment Tool (MEAT) <br />2. WCPA/DENR Management Effectiveness Tracking Tool (METT) <br />4. Others methods <br />Figure 1. Some methodologies used in the evaluation of MPA management effectiveness in the Philippines.<br />
    9. 9. Indicator-based MPA Management Effectiveness<br />Started in 2002 by joint effort of IUCN – WCPA (Marine), NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program and WWF.<br />2004: Publication of “How is Your MPA Doing?” guidebook by Pomeroy et al.<br />Used in some Palawan MPAs<br />WorldFish rafting and testing of indicators in the Philippines since 2008-2009 (NOAA project) & 2009-2010 (DOST projects)<br />
    10. 10. Outline<br />MPA Evaluation in Philippines and project sites<br />Lessons learned <br />Way forward<br />
    11. 11. Lesson 1 - Number of indicators <br />Number of indicators could be reduced to ‘barest’ minimum<br />
    12. 12. Progression/Testing of indicators<br />World Conservation Union (IUCN) - 2004<br />42 indicators:<br />10 Biophysical<br />16 Socioeconomic<br />16 Governance<br />
    13. 13. Progression/Testing of indicators<br />“Enhancing MPA Management Effectiveness for the Calamianes Islands MPA Network” - 2008<br />23 indicators:<br />6 Biophysical<br />8 Socioeconomic<br />9 Governance<br />
    14. 14. Progression/Testing of indicators<br />“Capacity building to enhance MPA management effectiveness for the MPA networks in the Philippines” – 6 sites<br />13 indicators:<br />1 Biophysical<br />6 Socioeconomic<br />6 Governance<br />
    15. 15. Indicators selected<br />
    16. 16. Study Sites<br />
    17. 17. Lesson 2 – Institutional Partnership<br />Partnership remains essential but may take different configuration<br />
    18. 18. Levels of institutional partnership in MPA evaluation<br />International donors<br />International research agency<br />International project <br />National government agencies<br />State universities and colleges<br />Local government units, MPA management boards, fishing associations, etc<br />
    19. 19. Roles and Responsibilities<br />overall coordination, technical direction and training of SUCs<br />Funding support, policy and advocacy <br />technical support to SUCs & facilitation of stakeholder workshops<br />Provision of secondary literature, site assistance<br />
    20. 20. Lesson 3 – Capacity Building<br />Local SUCs/LGUs may be capacitated to take more active roles in MPA management<br />
    21. 21. Local Capacity Building<br />site coordination, testing/evaluation of MPA indicators<br />Participation in interviews and workshops<br />LGUs/ community members<br />
    22. 22. Happy Faces of Partners! <br />
    23. 23. Lesson 4 – Perception Surveys<br />Social survey needs to be validated with scientific bio-physical surveys<br />
    24. 24. Comparative Perspective<br />People’s perception<br />Scientific findings<br />
    25. 25. Complementary Results in Fisheries Condition<br />People’s perception<br />General decline in fish catch<br />Scientific findings<br />in fish biomass<br />
    26. 26. Discrepancy in Fisheries Condition<br />People’s perception<br />General in fish abundance<br />Scientific findings<br />in fish density<br />
    27. 27. People’s perception<br />Sagrada-Bogtong – 58% worse now than before<br />Bugor-Sand – 43% worse now than before<br />Scientific findings<br /> or no change in live hard coral cover<br />Discrepancy in Reef Condition<br />
    28. 28. Lesson 5 – Summarizing the Results of Evaluation<br />‘Metrication’ of factors affecting MPA management effectiveness remains a lingering question<br />
    29. 29. Various factors related to MPA management effectiveness<br />Source: Pomeroy et al 2004<br />
    30. 30. MPA Rating System adopted by project<br />
    31. 31. Lesson 6 – Baseline Information<br />Need for good baseline remains critical<br />
    32. 32. FISH Project Sites<br />Good biophysical: 2004, 2006 and 2008<br />Limited socio-economic and governance<br />
    33. 33. Outline<br />MPA Evaluation in Philippines and project sites<br />Lessons learned <br />Way forward<br />
    34. 34. Contextualizing MPAs with other economic sectors<br />MPA Site<br />
    35. 35. MPAs: in a nut shell <br />Be based on the fundamental ecology of the organisms and/or habitats to be protected.<br />Limited by capacity of institutions and stakeholders involved.<br />Socioeconomic and political issues cause more MPA failures than ecological problems.<br />Be part of an integrated coastal management plan that addresses land and sea uses and their interactions<br />
    36. 36. MPA Evaluation and Action:Beyond Rhetorics<br />

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