The challenges of Reversing Effort  Stampede  in Ghana’s Coastal Fisheries “ If we can crack this one……we can do anything!”
Long-term vision:  Ghana’s coastal and marine ecosystems are being developed and conserved in a sustainable manner—the goo...
<ul><li>Annual yield around 750,000 t </li></ul><ul><li>Just under half is marine </li></ul><ul><li>84% from small-scale s...
 
Emphasis of WorldFish components <ul><li>Telling the ‘real stories’ of fishery status – beyond statistics </li></ul><ul><l...
Our foot soldiers - NSVs
The real stories – what’s wrong with the CPUE data?
Artisanal fleet – what the  fishers  say! 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 5 years ago 10 years ago Now (reference year) Relative catch p...
Change in recorded landings – small pelagics
Fleet change - canoes
Back to basics  - re-entering raw data
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 CPUE (kg/trip) - An example of problems if change is ignored Dixcove DGN catches Av CPUE...
Changing fishing practices – technology development <ul><li>Ghanaian fishers are innovators by nature – a long history sho...
Effort creep indicators <ul><li>Boats are getting bigger! </li></ul><ul><li>Engines are getting larger </li></ul><ul><li>N...
Effort creep: One man’s story 22 ft 2-man canoe Paddles 26 ft 3-man canoe 8 hp outboard Vessel power  increase Fishing wit...
Evidence of stress – thresholds 1972-1988 1989-1997 1998-2008
Evidence of stress – thresholds <ul><li>The “green-green” </li></ul><ul><li>Filamentous algal bloom </li></ul><ul><li>Star...
<ul><li>4 distinct phases recognised </li></ul><ul><li>1 – Colonial fisheries management </li></ul><ul><li>2 – From tradit...
<ul><li>Fishery that is clearly in crisis </li></ul><ul><li>All indicators heading the wrong way </li></ul><ul><li>Massive...
<ul><li>Some sectors of the fishery very keen for change </li></ul><ul><li>Strong political voice </li></ul><ul><li>Strong...
<ul><li>Subsidies may be ‘too hot to handle’ for now </li></ul><ul><li>Strong emphasis on capacity building required </li>...
Reasons for the collapse of CBFM in Ghana <ul><li>absence of a constitution to regulate/enforce tenure of office  </li></u...
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Science Forum Day 1 - Dave Mills - Reversing Effort Stampede in Ghana's Coastal Fisheries

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  • The data system, while robust in design, was very ‘narrow sighted’ and over the years has not been able to track changes in the fishery. You can see here the adoption of light fishing by fishers in the western region as recorded from our fisher surveys. A fair number of chief fishermen were able
  • Science Forum Day 1 - Dave Mills - Reversing Effort Stampede in Ghana's Coastal Fisheries

    1. 1. The challenges of Reversing Effort Stampede in Ghana’s Coastal Fisheries “ If we can crack this one……we can do anything!”
    2. 2. Long-term vision: Ghana’s coastal and marine ecosystems are being developed and conserved in a sustainable manner—the goods and services produced by coastal ecosystems and fisheries are generating a diversity of long-term socio-economic benefits for coastal communities while sustaining biodiversity. 3 Phases: 1) information integration and analysis (Diagnosis) 2) build constituencies and capacity for an issue-driven approach to ICM and decentralized fisheries management 3) ‘learning by doing’ in policy reform and implementation
    3. 3. <ul><li>Annual yield around 750,000 t </li></ul><ul><li>Just under half is marine </li></ul><ul><li>84% from small-scale sector </li></ul><ul><li>Fish consumption: derived figures 23kg/person/yr – may be 40kg </li></ul><ul><li>4.5% of GDP without value added </li></ul><ul><li>Directly supports 1.5 million people </li></ul><ul><li>Employs around 375,000 of which at least 150,000 are women </li></ul>Ghanaian Fisheries Statistics (BNP)
    4. 5. Emphasis of WorldFish components <ul><li>Telling the ‘real stories’ of fishery status – beyond statistics </li></ul><ul><li>Looking at indicators that will help tell real stories </li></ul><ul><li>Fisher decision-making </li></ul><ul><li>Value chain analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Institutional analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity building </li></ul>
    5. 6. Our foot soldiers - NSVs
    6. 7. The real stories – what’s wrong with the CPUE data?
    7. 8. Artisanal fleet – what the fishers say! 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 5 years ago 10 years ago Now (reference year) Relative catch per trip
    8. 9. Change in recorded landings – small pelagics
    9. 10. Fleet change - canoes
    10. 11. Back to basics - re-entering raw data
    11. 12. 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 CPUE (kg/trip) - An example of problems if change is ignored Dixcove DGN catches Av CPUE - Trips (as per current database) Adjusted for net length Av CPUE hrs 4 8 12 16 20 24 CPUE (Kg/hour)
    12. 13. Changing fishing practices – technology development <ul><li>Ghanaian fishers are innovators by nature – a long history shows us this </li></ul><ul><li>Potentially has a huge impact on catch statistics </li></ul><ul><li>Light fishing increases ‘effective effort’ massively </li></ul><ul><li>There is no allowance for this in the current system </li></ul><ul><li>Technology and operational changes need to be monitored as part of any data system </li></ul>Canoes adopting light fishing (data from our surveys)
    13. 14. Effort creep indicators <ul><li>Boats are getting bigger! </li></ul><ul><li>Engines are getting larger </li></ul><ul><li>Nets are getting longer (doubled since 1980) </li></ul><ul><li>Mesh sizes are getting smaller </li></ul><ul><li>Monofilament gill net now dominated </li></ul><ul><li>Distance to fishing grounds 2.2 times greater in 10 years </li></ul>
    14. 15. Effort creep: One man’s story 22 ft 2-man canoe Paddles 26 ft 3-man canoe 8 hp outboard Vessel power increase Fishing with bottom set net Added Tenga net Fishing power increase Purchased cell phone Technology adoption CPUE (effective) Timeline CPUE (pans/day)
    15. 16. Evidence of stress – thresholds 1972-1988 1989-1997 1998-2008
    16. 17. Evidence of stress – thresholds <ul><li>The “green-green” </li></ul><ul><li>Filamentous algal bloom </li></ul><ul><li>Started 10-15 years ago </li></ul><ul><li>Present for several months most years now </li></ul><ul><li>Huge issue for fishermen </li></ul>
    17. 18. <ul><li>4 distinct phases recognised </li></ul><ul><li>1 – Colonial fisheries management </li></ul><ul><li>2 – From traditional to centralised management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fisheries regulation LI364 introduced in 1964 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus was on providing an administrative framework rather than limiting effort </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3 – Decentralisation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many formally centralised government functions were shifted to DAs, which were formed in 1988/89 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4– Co-management tested </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CBFMC initiated under World Bank program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decentralisation largely failed in the attempt to generate stakeholder participation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>133 CBFMCs formed and constitutions adopted by Das </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most collapsed soon after, with a few being revived (FON, SFLP) </li></ul></ul>Institutional and legal change
    18. 19. <ul><li>Fishery that is clearly in crisis </li></ul><ul><li>All indicators heading the wrong way </li></ul><ul><li>Massive over capacity in all fleets </li></ul><ul><li>Political interference </li></ul><ul><li>HUGE reliance on subsidies (premix) - canoes </li></ul><ul><li>Burnt fingers from past CBFM implementation </li></ul><ul><li>NO spatial definition – migration and fisher behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly all large canoes and semi-industrials use lights </li></ul><ul><li>Limited capacity in all areas </li></ul>What ‘raw materials’ are we left with?
    19. 20. <ul><li>Some sectors of the fishery very keen for change </li></ul><ul><li>Strong political voice </li></ul><ul><li>Strong history of innovation </li></ul><ul><li>Fairly intact traditional institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Lessons from past failures </li></ul>What ‘raw materials’ are we left with?
    20. 21. <ul><li>Subsidies may be ‘too hot to handle’ for now </li></ul><ul><li>Strong emphasis on capacity building required </li></ul><ul><li>Creating multi-tiered governance framework </li></ul><ul><li>Positive deviance model – exposure trips to success stories in the region </li></ul><ul><li>Continue to push the ‘resilience’ story – still hard to get away from sectoral approaches </li></ul><ul><li>World Bank program </li></ul>Moving forwards THANKS
    21. 22. Reasons for the collapse of CBFM in Ghana <ul><li>absence of a constitution to regulate/enforce tenure of office </li></ul><ul><li>lack of or irregular meetings and poor attendance </li></ul><ul><li>members of the committee using illegal fishing gear </li></ul><ul><li>lack of monitoring/supervision of the committees </li></ul><ul><li>no motivation /incentives and dissipation of funds and belligerency of some chief fishermen </li></ul><ul><li>lack of supply of inputs at subsidized rates and inability of committees to be in charge of inputs distribution </li></ul><ul><li>lack of funds for operational costs & equipment for work </li></ul>Braimah, 2009 “Lessons from previous experience of co management initiatives in fisheries in Ghana (prepared for the WB)”
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