Alderman, Haddad, and Udry (1996) estimate that reducing inequalities in human capital, physical capital, and current inputs between male and women farmers in sub-Saharan Africa could potentially increase agricultural productivity by 10–20 percent. Fish ponds where at least 50 percent of tasks were controlled by women demonstrated higher yields than other ponds in Cambodia (Nadeesha 1994).
Women and other marginalized groups often hold local knowledge of low-impact, low-cost methods and coping strategies that can prove to be vital in building capacity for resilient farming systems in response to climate change. Tapping into this knowledge and combining it with new research can make significant contributions to environmental sustainability Westermann, Ashby, and Pretty (2005), in their study of the natural resource management outcomes of 33 rural programs in 20 countries in Latin America, Africa and Asia, found that collaboration, solidarity, and conflict resolution increase among all program group members when women are members of groups.
Gender is a cross-cutting theme for CRP 1.3. However, CRP 1.3 is cognizant of the fact that gender issues tend to be marginalized when dealt within other themes. Also, gender mainstreaming tends to address gender issues in a fragmented way. This is why CRP1.3 gender strategy includes not only gender mainstreaming, but keeps a separate them on gender equity so that the focus on gender is not lost and the work on gender becomes truly transformative.
Who is setting the priority? How agriculture is being defined: narrowly just as production or as food systems? Conventional definitions have been gender biased, focusing on the production of field crops, which are more likely to be male activities, and relatively neglecting homestead gardens, postharvest processing, supply chains, and consumption and nutrition outcomes, which are often of greater salience to women. Indeed, instead of focusing on agriculture, thinking in terms of food is likely to lead to a more gender-balanced picture. R&D: it is important to look beyond these public-sector institutions as a source of innovation and to also consider private-sector R&D, as well as the research conducted by farmers themselves, and the extent to which each of these address the needs of women Extension: it is important to consider not only formal public extension services, but also private-sector and farmer-to-farmer dissemination, and how effective each of these is in recognizing and reaching women as producers and consumers
Workshop: Gender in Aquatic Agricultural Systems
Gender in AAS Science Week WorldFish Penang, Malaysia July 21, 2011
<ul><li>Reducing gender inequality in agriculture could potentially increase productivity by 10-20% in SSA (Alderman et al., 1996) </li></ul><ul><li>Fish ponds, where at least 50% of tasks were controlled by women demonstrated higher yields than other ponds in Cambodia (Nadeesha 1994). </li></ul>Why is it important to address gender in AAS?
<ul><li>Redistribution of assets in favor of women has the potential of </li></ul><ul><li>- increasing productivity </li></ul><ul><li>- increasing household food security </li></ul><ul><li>- improving nutrition & </li></ul><ul><li>- increasing child education </li></ul>Why is it important to address gender in AAS?
<ul><li>Addressing gender in AAS may lead to increased agricultural sustainability in face of climate change </li></ul><ul><li>- Women often hold local knowledge of low-impact, low-cost methods & coping strategies relevant for resilient farming systems </li></ul><ul><li>- Participation of women in AAS increases collaboration, solidarity & conflict resolution </li></ul>Why is it important to address gender in AAS?
<ul><li>Thus, addressing gender in agriculture is not only a matter of ideology but </li></ul><ul><li>a matter of development effectiveness. </li></ul>
1: Sustainable increases in system productivity 2: Equitable access to markets 3: Social-ecological resilience and adaptive capacity 4: Gender equity 5: Policies and institutions to empower AAS users 6: Knowledge sharing, learning and innovation Themes of CRP1.3
<ul><li>Transformative action includes: </li></ul><ul><li>Creating opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Creating new commodities </li></ul><ul><li>Creating services </li></ul><ul><li>Changing the way people do things </li></ul><ul><li>Changing the way people perceive & react to change </li></ul>Gender as a transformative theme of action
Action area 1: Gender gap mapping and use of interactive social media for changing attitudes and behavior relating to gender roles and relations. Action area 2: The program proposes a livelihood-trajectory & decision-making tool to enhance decision-making capacity of women at the community, national & regional levels. Proposed gender transformative action
Action area 3: A gender & assets action network is proposed as a mechanism for assessing the current status of policies & processes for gender-equitable access to a wide range of productive assets in AAS & fast-tracking the implementation of gender mainstreaming in these policies & processes.
Priority setting Reflection of differential needs, interests and priorities of women and men. Research in development Researchers are attuned to gender issues; consult & involve females & males Gender mainstreaming in stages of research in development cycle requires ensuring
Extension Female & male extension workers deliver extension services; female & male producers receive them; gender sensitive intervention approach Adoption of innovations Factors such as lack of necessary cash, labor, skills, and property rights, differing for men and women do not constrain adoption of innovation.
Evaluation & impact assessment Gender differences are taken into account in deciding on criteria or indicators that assess the costs and benefits of agricultural innovation and their related distribution.
Another great thing about CRP1.3 gender strategy is that budgetary allocation has been ensured for it