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Small Indigenous Fish Species in India: Role in Food Security and Poverty Alleviation. By B. Vishnu Bhat, S..K.Saikia, Bishnupada Sethi and U.C. Goswami.
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Small Indigenous Fish Species in India: Role in Food Security and Poverty Alleviation. By B. Vishnu Bhat, S..K.Saikia, Bishnupada Sethi and U.C. Goswami.


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Fish and Nutrition Workshop Day 2 (Country Presentations - India)

Fish and Nutrition Workshop Day 2 (Country Presentations - India)

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  • India is rice in fish diversity. Consequently, it is the second largest fish producing country in the world. For inland fishery too, it is the second largest in the world. If we see fish production statistics, these figures mainly represent marine fishes, shell fishes and carps. Small fishes are sidelined as ornamental fish and no effort is paid to their nutritional quality.
  • Ecological diversity: India villages intake fish from mainly three types managed resources. Wild capture from rice field also contribute to their food. However, these resources are limitedly explored and not scientifically managed.
  • Fish diversity
  • Periphyton fishery-Xeng fishery is common in North East India. Rice-fish itself is a periphyton based fishery. These integrated systems can contribute more nutrients to fish stocked. Withous substrate, merely adding small fish to pond polyculture may not retain nutrients as in natural stock. Nutrient enrichment through periphyton based polyculture
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    • 1. Small Indigenous Fish Species in India : Role in Food Security and Poverty Alleviation B Vishnu Bhat, FDC, DADF, Ministry of Agri., New Delhi S.K. Saikia, Ph.D., Visva Bharati, West Bengal Bishnupada Sethi, Comissioner cum Secy. Orissa U.C. Goswami, Ph.D. Gauhati University, Assam
    • 2. MALNUTRITION IN INDIA-CURRENT SCENARIO Year GHI Of India Rank Total country 2011 23.7 67 81 2012 22.9 65 79 2013 21.3 63 78  GHI increase from 22.9 (1996) to 23.7 (2011).  GHI ranking shows India is in critical/ danger condition. WHO, 2013
    • 3. Country wise malnutrition status (from 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 BGD BTN CHN IND %ofMalnutritionPrevalence<childrenof5yearsold 1980-1995 2005-2010 Almost half of children (48%) under age five years are chronically malnourished.- National Family Health Survey, India 2005 (65.8-62.5)/ (40.8-37.9) (68.5-49.7)/ (44.9-41.0)
    • 4. India has 2319 fin fish species (NBFGR, 2010) of which 838 are fresh water species. Out of 765 native freshwater species, total 450 fish species have been categorised under small indigenous fish sp. (Sarkar and Lakra, 2011) Orissa, Kerala, Adjoining North Bengal to North Eastern part and North east India are rich in fish biodiversity. 36 59 5 Freshwater Marine water Brackish water India is the second largest fish production country in the World It is second highest freshwater fish production country in the World STATUS OF FISHERIES IN INDIA India achieved 11-fold increase in fish production in just six decades, i.e. from 0.75 million tonnes in 1950-51 to 9.06 million tonnes during 2012-13. West Bengal 239 (Barman 2007) North East India 400 of which at least 180 sp. are small fishes.
    • 5. Rivers and canals 0.19 million km Reservoirs 2.91 million ha Ponds and tanks 2.41 million ha Inland Fisheries Resources in India
    • 6. The famous proverb goes like this…small is beautiful…. But, we know that small fishes are not only beautiful, but also highly nutritious… 54 51 4 SIF OIF There are no authorized and classified data from all states on small fish species.TAG-ORNAMENTAL
    • 7. Bangana dero Berilius bendelensis Berilius sp. A large catch of very small fish from beel- a kind of wetland in Assam –Courtsey-DN Das, Rajiv Gandhi University, Arunachal Pradesh A catch of small fish from river in Assam-Courtsey-DN Das, Rajiv Gandhi University, Arunachal Pradesh
    • 8. Mixed small fishes in the market of Bolpur (Santiniketan), West Bengal Channa sp. Sold in Bolpur (Santiniketan), West Bengal Photo:S.K.Saikia Photo:S.K.Saikia Rs.200.00/kg Rs.400.00-600.00/kg
    • 9. Immediate Concern….. Revisiting malnutrition status through People’s Health Diary and SIF intake Detailed biology of SIS, Resource guided nutrient profiling, Integrating nutrient diversity Promotion, awareness and capacity building programmes
    • 10. 1 •Feeding habit of small fishes 2 •Nutrient bioavailability and food intake in small fishes 3 •Maximum nutrient retention through food processing in small fishes 1 2 3
    • 11. • The Blue Revolution, which initially triggered production of freshwater fish from aquaculture, has been stagnating for years now. • The government now wants to exploit the vast potential of small fishery to keep pace with the increasing fish demand. The only option for the government is to depend on small fishery. • Fish accounts for six per cent of India’s food budget as 60 per cent of the country’s population eats fish. This is set for a jump with increase in overall income • The national fish consumption will reach 6.3 kg per capita by 2020 from 5.6 kg in 2011. • The projected additional demand for 2020 is about 3.21 million tonnes, of which 90% is expected to be met from freshwater sources. • But due to lack of species diversification and declining yield, freshwater aquaculture is stagnating. Such is the demand and supply imbalance that during 2006- 11, prices of fish doubled. • While there are 15 to 20 species for commercial culture, only 3 species of carps contribute 87% of freshwater aquaculture production in India. It is estimated that 38% of future fish demand has to be met from SIS • The potential is very high. India’s small water bodies have a water spread area of 2.41 million hectares, the potential ecosystem to sustain SIS.
    • 12. The various schemes listed below includes SIS as overall strategy for increasing fish production in the Country :  Development of Freshwater Aquaculture  Development of Brackish water Aquaculture  Development of cold water Fisheries and Aquaculture in Hilly Regions  Development of Water-logged Areas into Aquaculture Estate  Productive Utilization of Inland Saline/Alkaline Soils for Aquaculture and Inland Capture Resources (reservoirs/rivers, etc.).  Establishment of National Fisheries Development Board aimed at working towards a blue revolution with a focus on increasing the fish production of the country.  Development of reservoirs, cage culture etc under National Mission on Protein Supplement. Realizing the importance of SIS and its role in ameliorating nutritional status of poorer undernourished populations, the government of India is formulating several Policies for increasing the overall fish production.
    • 13. The production of SIS, both from culture and capture fisheries needs proper documentation for projecting them in the National Fish Production Statistics.  Presently, SIS Fishery sector is still an unorganised and unregulated / voluntarily regulated fishery sector in India. Therefore, SIS fishery has to be organised and regulated.  Capacity building activities related to SIS among fish farmers need urgent attention.  Documenting and protecting the traditional knowledge and farmers’ innovation with regard to SIS resources. Undertaking and documenting nutrient profile studies of SIS by ICAR Institutes, Universities etc. Documenting per capita consumption of SIS in traditional fish eating populations vis-à-vis their health profile. Way Forward
    • 14. THANKYOU