India is rice in fish diversity. Consequently, it is the second largest fish producing country in the world. For inland fishery too, it is the second largest in the world. If we see fish production statistics, these figures mainly represent marine fishes, shell fishes and carps. Small fishes are sidelined as ornamental fish and no effort is paid to their nutritional quality.
Ecological diversity: India villages intake fish from mainly three types managed resources. Wild capture from rice field also contribute to their food. However, these resources are limitedly explored and not scientifically managed.
Periphyton fishery-Xeng fishery is common in North East India. Rice-fish itself is a periphyton based fishery. These integrated systems can contribute more nutrients to fish stocked. Withous substrate, merely adding small fish to pond polyculture may not retain nutrients as in natural stock. Nutrient enrichment through periphyton based polyculture
Small Indigenous Fish Species in India: Role in Food Security and Poverty Alleviation. By B. Vishnu Bhat, S..K.Saikia, Bishnupada Sethi and U.C. Goswami.
Small Indigenous Fish Species in India : Role in
Food Security and Poverty Alleviation
B Vishnu Bhat, FDC, DADF, Ministry of Agri., New Delhi
S.K. Saikia, Ph.D., Visva Bharati, West Bengal
Bishnupada Sethi, Comissioner cum Secy. Orissa
U.C. Goswami, Ph.D. Gauhati University, Assam
MALNUTRITION IN INDIA-CURRENT
Year GHI Of
2011 23.7 67 81
2012 22.9 65 79
2013 21.3 63 78
GHI increase from 22.9
(1996) to 23.7 (2011).
GHI ranking shows India is
in critical/ danger
Country wise malnutrition status
BGD BTN CHN IND
Almost half of children (48%) under age five years are chronically malnourished.-
National Family Health Survey, India 2005
India has 2319 fin fish species
(NBFGR, 2010) of which 838 are fresh water
Out of 765 native freshwater species, total
450 fish species have been categorised
under small indigenous fish sp. (Sarkar and
Orissa, Kerala, Adjoining North Bengal to
North Eastern part and North east India are
rich in fish biodiversity.
Freshwater Marine water Brackish water
India is the second largest fish production
country in the World
It is second highest freshwater fish
production country in the World
STATUS OF FISHERIES IN INDIA
India achieved 11-fold increase in fish
production in just six decades, i.e. from
0.75 million tonnes in 1950-51 to 9.06
million tonnes during 2012-13.
West Bengal 239 (Barman
North East India 400 of which
at least 180 sp. are small
Rivers and canals 0.19 million km
Reservoirs 2.91 million ha
Ponds and tanks 2.41 million ha
Inland Fisheries Resources in
proverb goes like
But, we know
that small fishes
are not only
beautiful, but also
There are no
data from all
states on small
Bangana dero Berilius bendelensis Berilius sp.
A large catch of very small fish from beel- a
kind of wetland in Assam –Courtsey-DN Das, Rajiv
Gandhi University, Arunachal Pradesh
A catch of small fish from river in Assam-Courtsey-DN
Das, Rajiv Gandhi University, Arunachal Pradesh
Mixed small fishes in the market of
Bolpur (Santiniketan), West Bengal
Channa sp. Sold in Bolpur
(Santiniketan), West Bengal
People’s Health Diary
and SIF intake
Detailed biology of
SIS, Resource guided
and capacity building
•Feeding habit of small fishes
•Nutrient bioavailability and food intake
in small fishes
•Maximum nutrient retention through
food processing in small fishes
• The Blue
freshwater fish from
aquaculture, has been
stagnating for years
• The government now
wants to exploit the
vast potential of small
fishery to keep pace
with the increasing
fish demand. The only
option for the
government is to
depend on small
• Fish accounts for six
per cent of India’s
food budget as 60 per
cent of the country’s
population eats fish.
This is set for a jump
with increase in
• The national fish
reach 6.3 kg per
capita by 2020 from
5.6 kg in 2011.
• The projected
for 2020 is about
tonnes, of which
90% is expected to
be met from
• But due to lack of
stagnating. Such is
the demand and
that during 2006-
11, prices of fish
• While there are 15
to 20 species for
culture, only 3
species of carps
contribute 87% of
production in India.
It is estimated that
38% of future fish
demand has to be
met from SIS
• The potential is very
high. India’s small
water bodies have a
water spread area
of 2.41 million
to sustain SIS.
The various schemes listed below includes SIS as overall strategy for
increasing fish production in the Country :
Development of Freshwater Aquaculture
Development of Brackish water Aquaculture
Development of cold water Fisheries and Aquaculture in
Development of Water-logged Areas into Aquaculture Estate
Productive Utilization of Inland Saline/Alkaline Soils for
Aquaculture and Inland Capture Resources (reservoirs/rivers,
Establishment of National Fisheries Development Board aimed at
working towards a blue revolution with a focus on increasing the
fish production of the country.
Development of reservoirs, cage culture etc under National
Mission on Protein Supplement.
Realizing the importance of SIS and its role in ameliorating nutritional
status of poorer undernourished populations, the government of India is
formulating several Policies for increasing the overall fish production.
The production of SIS, both from culture and capture
fisheries needs proper documentation for projecting them in the
National Fish Production Statistics.
Presently, SIS Fishery sector is still an unorganised and
unregulated / voluntarily regulated fishery sector in India. Therefore,
SIS fishery has to be organised and regulated.
Capacity building activities related to SIS among fish farmers need
Documenting and protecting the traditional knowledge and farmers’
innovation with regard to SIS resources.
Undertaking and documenting nutrient profile studies of SIS by ICAR
Institutes, Universities etc.
Documenting per capita consumption of SIS in traditional fish
eating populations vis-à-vis their health profile.