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Fish biodiversity and food supply: Species numbers in the wild and exploited; Importance to document the aquatic genetic resources (stocks, populations, strains)

Fish biodiversity and food supply: Species numbers in the wild and exploited; Importance to document the aquatic genetic resources (stocks, populations, strains)



This presentation by Nicolas Bailly, Douglas Beare and John A.H Benzie was delivered as part of a workshop for the "Bay of Bengal Large Marine Ecosystem Network".

This presentation by Nicolas Bailly, Douglas Beare and John A.H Benzie was delivered as part of a workshop for the "Bay of Bengal Large Marine Ecosystem Network".



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  • Thanks to Bill Eschmeyer to use data from CofF
  • 10,849=10,928-79; 57,871 taken from website
  • Abandon Nelson 2006: 3,500 new spp. since 2005.
  • No confusion with WorldFish, formerly ICLARM and WorldFish Center.New: interface, twitter
  • To apply in Asia.
  • Maps from IUCN.
  • In a poster 10 yrs ago, RF and WNE estimated at 35,000.Some are already exploited, but we did not know they were different spp.
  • Importance of the catchment as a management unt.BioFresh.
  • Parameters for modelization. Effort to apply Bayesian statistics (iMarine)
  • Not incl. aquarium tradeOr do we go to only a few spp. like in cattle?
  • Stock mainly from Northern Atlantic
  • Fao db impr: – (e.g. decreasing the high level of data aggregation in certain countries);and through standardized taxonomical
  • covering specific disciplines,specific resources (wild, cultured or in-situ or ex-situ collections) or production methods; compilation ofcase studies. These should be designed to identify and collate primary literature and information from thefield to feed into information systems.and their sustainable use (e.g. indicators ofstatus of resources; area under culture; diversity levels; number of threatened stocks; proportion of fisheriesassessed at species level; the proportion of genetically improved stocks used in aquaculture; extent ofimproved production efficiency; number and/or proportion of AqGR protected).(e.g. inclusion of information on key stocks, strains, their production systems), the addition
  • (like it was done between 1995 and 2000 for fisheries at species rank)
  • No more untouched space to exploit anymore.

Fish biodiversity and food supply: Species numbers in the wild and exploited; Importance to document the aquatic genetic resources (stocks, populations, strains) Fish biodiversity and food supply: Species numbers in the wild and exploited; Importance to document the aquatic genetic resources (stocks, populations, strains) Presentation Transcript

  • Fish biodiversity and food supply: Species numbers in the wild and exploited; Importance to document the aquatic genetic resources (stocks, populations, strains) AFBC 2014, Penang Malaysia 13 Feb. 2014 Nicolas BAILLY, Douglas BEARE, John A.H. BENZIE WorldFish n.bailly@cgiar.org
  • Messages For sustainable fish food supply • Taxonomy is important for biodiversity management • Aquatic genetic resources are important to document at global scale
  • Outline • Fish species numbers • Some notes: classification, subspecies • Genetics to species: Taxonomy matters • Species to genetics: Aquatic genetic resources matter • Documenting Aquatic Genetic Resources: an old unresolved issue • Suggestions to move forward • Conclusion: aquatic food supply
  • Fish species numbers
  • Database versions • FishBase (FB): www.fishbase.org 31 January 2014 • Catalog of Fishes (CofF) W.N. Eschmeyer research.calacademy.org/research/ichthyology/catalog/fishcatmain.asp 05 February 2014
  • FB drown by numbers (as of 31 January 2014) 32,780 32,630 93,833 302,953 180,531 31,648 129,060 59,316 18,467 1,666 53,686 49,743 species-group taxa; 99 species have 150 subspecies species [CofF February 2014: 33,065] “synonyms” [86,771 names + 7,062 misappl.] common names in 333 languages for 259 “countries” country rec. for 295 “countries” subcountry rec. for 171 “subcountries” for 6 “countries” ecosystem records for 856 “ecosystems” FAO area records for 27 areas morphology records identification keys for 8,196 species fish images for 18,099 species bibliographic references [592,724 citation rec.] (~3 million rec.; >200 tables, ~60 main)
  • CofF (as of 05 February 2014) • • • • • Orders: Families: Genera: Species: References: 64 (28 suborders) 554 (272 subfamilies) 10,849 Total / 5,078 Valid 57,871 Avail./ 33,065 Valid 27,007 • Recent work on family-level authorship
  • For the most updated numbers Refer to the page in CofF “Species by Family/Subfamily”
  • Number of valid species by milieu Total: Fresh: Brackish: Marine: 32,780 16,338 (49.8%) 2,983 (9.1%) 17,111 (52.2%) Brackish only: 95 (0.3%)
  • Number of species described per year 800 SppAll (59,889) SppValid (32,315) 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000
  • Number of species described per year (1982-2011) 600 One new fish species described per day for the last 15 years SppAll (59,889) SppValid (32,315) 500 400 300 200 100 0 1982 1987 1992 1997 2002 2007 9,654 described (322 / yr); 9,051 valid 603 already put in synonymy, 6.2% - comp 46% total 2012
  • Cumulated number of species described per year 70000 SppAll (59,889) SppValid (32,315) 60000 50000 40000 30000 20000 10000 0 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000
  • http://wp.worldfish.de/?page_id=44
  • Note on the classification of bony fishes www.deepfin.org/ • Betancur-R, R., E. Wiley, M. Miya, G. Lecointre, N. Bailly, and G. Ortí. 2013. New and Revised Classification of Bony Fishes Version 2 (http://www.deepfin.org/Classification_v2.htm). • Betancur-R., R., R.E. Broughton, E.O. Wiley, K. Carpenter, J.A. Lopez, C. Li, N.I. Holcroft, D. Arcila, M. Sanciangco, J. Cureton, F. Zhang, T. Buser, M. Campbell, T. Rowley, J.A. Ballesteros, G. Lu, T. Grande, G. Arratia & G. Ortí. 2013. The tree of life and a new classification of bony fishes. PLoS Currents Tree of Life. 2013 Apr 18.
  • A call for collaboration
  • Note on subspecies in ichthyology • No more subspecies in ichthyology … PLEASE • Issues in matching name in GBIF, and IUCN • Remains a number of subspecies in FishBase: to be treated case by case • Number of discrepancies between FB and CofF are due to subspecies issues
  • Number of species per ocean and some seas 145 177 725 201 560 1,884 1,208 3,704 6,416 5,091 10,030 1,561 283 1,116 1,566
  • Number of species per FAO area Freshwater Marine 145 884 699 1100 1803 5208 5448 6332 1109 2401 778 1685 5246 4080 3458 1744 4265 755 4654 240 2219 170 1893 1753 249 7
  • Genetics  Species
  • Barcode: some studies in progress • Brazil: Potentially 3,7 times more spp. identified through barcode than morphologically recognized (Oliveira, FishBoL Conf. 2012); • Kenya: 3 times more (Nyingi, Bart et coll. TDWG Conf. 2013) • France: Gobio sp. 1  4 spp. (Kottelat, Doadrio et al.); Confirmed by barcode (Denys) • West Africa: Hepsetus 1 sp.  4/5 spp. separated by basins from Senegal to Gabon Decru, Vreven et coll.)
  • Gobio gobio Gobio alverniae Gobio lozanoi Gobio occitanae
  • Gobio gobio Gobio alverniae Gobio lozanoi Gobio occitaniae Maps from IUCN
  • Consequences • Estimation of number of spp.: 33,000 valid spp. today (7,500 exploited, 22.5%) 3 times more potentially with Barcode Should we expect 100,000 spp. in final ??? • Flaws in this estimation: – “Potential” not confirmed yet; – Only in freshwaters (but think about Mugil cephalus that could be a complex 14 different spp. around the world; Durand et coll.)
  • Taxonomy matters • If 100,000 spp.  22,500 species are potentially exploitable (using the same current ratio 33,000 spp. with 7,500 exploited) • Some are already exploited, but we did not know they were different spp. or worse, we still don’t know • Consequences for biodiversity management both for exploitation and conservation
  • Species  Genetics
  • Species  Genetics
  • Fisheries • 4,661 spp. used from subsistence to industrial fisheries: 270 stocks with info in FB. • Characterize populations/stocks (population dynamics parameters) • Population/stocks are trans-boundary • Analysis of global trends (“Fishing down marine food webs”) at species rank only • Need for documentation in accessible databases required
  • Aquaculture • 364 farmed spp.: 74 strain stocks in FB. • Characterize strains • Characterize populations/stocks (growth parameters, disease resistance, environmental plasticity) as genetic ressource • GIFT tilapia: result of hybridization of wild populations. Will it still possible in the future for other commodities? • The agriculture community has still to fully recognize that genetic resources matters also for aquatic environment (not only cattle, plants, forest, bacteria)
  • Population/Genetic “rank” “Rank” cultured strain hybrid subspecies wild stock/population “Stock” # Spp # 74 8 10 51 270 … for 125 species … 6 30 91
  • Different goals between fresh and marine water • In freshwater basins, interest will be in characterizing species and populations for potential farming. • while in the sea the main focus will be on characterizing population and stocks for adapted catch fisheries management plans.
  • Genetics and climate change • Which species are the winners? Which ones the loosers? • Hotspots • Requires a database at regional/global levels to refine the prediction crudly based on occurrences and environmental parameters (so-called niche-modeling)
  • 2010
  • 2050
  • 23 hotspots in Coral Triangle seas in 2010 2010
  • 29 hotspots in Coral Triangle seas in 2050 2050
  • Adaptation to climate change • Depends on genetics diversity • For example, for respiration and digestion systems that impact growth • Use phylogeography linked to genetic diversity analysis • Requires databases linking traits and genes • Extend the predictions only based on occurrences and environmental parameters (so-called niche-modeling)
  • Bleaching in Anilao area
  • Bleaching in Anilao area
  • Documenting Aquatic Genetic Resources (AqGR)
  • A global database for Aquatic Genetic Resources • CGFRA: Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (FAO) *SGRP, INGA, SINGER, …+ • Aquatic organisms barely recognized as animals (or all gathered under “fish”) • No global database like for cattle, crops, … • Rejection by the commission of all projects submitted for the past 20 years (last attempt in 2013)
  • An old issue • Pullin, R.S.V., D.M. Bartley and J.Kooiman, eds. 1999. Towards policies for conservation and sustainable use of aquatic genetic resources. ICLARM Conf. Proc. 59, 277pp. • Bartley, D.M.; Harvey, B.J.; Pullin, R.S.V. eds. 2007. Workshop on Status and Trends in Aquatic Genetic Resources: a Basis for International Policy. 8–10 May 2006, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. FAO Fisheries Proceedings. No. 5. Rome, FAO. 179p. • Reviews in Aquaculture: Special Issue: Special Issue on Use and Exchange of Genetic Resources of Cultured Aquatic Organisms. Volume 1, Issue 3-4, Sep.–Dec. 2009 • Halwart M., Hett K., García Gómez R., eds. 2012. Aquaculture Service (. Improving the Information Base for Aquatic Genetic Resources for The State of the World’s Aquatic Genetic Resources FAO International Expert Workshop. Madrid, Spain, 1–4 March 2011. Rome, 57 pp. • www.fao.org/fishery/publications/search/en
  • Preparing the Status of the World of the AqGR • Strengthening national data compilation capacity • Implement a correct framework for data sharing – National and international standard procedures – Training on standard operating procedures – Improvement of FAO databases – Improvement of AqGR resource identification at species level – Improvement and linking to the ongoing efforts to the FAO fisheries and aquaculture questionnaires
  • Preparing the Status of the World of the AqGR • Provision of additional resources to key databases for AqGR • Additional capacity building opportunities in data handling, archiving, collation and dissemination. • Compilation of scattered information on AqGR through expert consultancies • Standardization of the collection of primary and secondary data • Development of key targets and indicators necessary to determine the effectiveness of actions and to monitor progress in tracking the state of the world’s AqGR • Targeted introductions of changes to data collections to industry sectors or countries of particular importance (e.g. because of the volume of production or trade, the threatened nature of the resource, or particular lack of information). • Specific actions to collate information in areas for which information in existing databases is inadequate.
  • Suggestions • Data are scattered in many publications: It requires a massive effort for data entry • FishBase and SeaLifeBase are structured to accommodate population/genetics entries (See poster on FB data encoding training) • Advocacy for AqGR to your national delegate in FAO • Start by regional scale in addition to national like in Portugal
  • Atlas of fish genetic diversity Portugal www.fishatlas.net/atlas.htm Achondrostoma occidentale Achondrostoma oligolepis Anaecypris hispanica Iberochondrostoma almacai Iberochondrostoma lemmingii Iberochondrostoma lusitanicum Luciobarbus bocagei Luciobarbus comizo Luciobarbus microcephalus Luciobarbus sclateri Pseudochondrostoma duriensis Pseudochondrostoma polylepis Pseudochondrostoma willkommii Squalius aradensis Squalius carolitertii Squalius pyrenaicus Squalius torgalensis
  • Conclusions Exploitation and conservation must be balanced for sustainable fish food supply. Dedicated information systems such as FishBase are fundamental for reaching this goal for the biodiversity part. Remains to link to socio-economics systems. A key issue is education at all level of society.
  • Acknowledgements Funded under the Framework Programme 7 iMarine http://www.i-marine.eu (Contract No. 283644) for AquaMaps, and for hotspots study of the European Commission BioFresh for maintaing the freshwater taxonomy in FB (through FADA) www.freshwaterbiodiversity.eu (Contract No. 226874)
  • Maraming Salamat Po
  • Other initiatives • BoLD, GenBank, IUCN, ZooBank, CoL, ITIS, Wo RMS, FADA , IRMNG , GBIF, OBIS, BioFresh • Importance to keep system separate with different goals • Difficulty to organise the synchronization • Necessity for research on webservices