Fish and food security: securing blue growth of aquaculture
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Fish and food security: securing blue growth of aquaculture

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Presented by Michael Phillips and Malcolm Beveridge at the Asia Conference on Oceans, Food Security and Blue Growth, held in Bali, Indonesia, from the 18th to the 21st of June, 2013.

Presented by Michael Phillips and Malcolm Beveridge at the Asia Conference on Oceans, Food Security and Blue Growth, held in Bali, Indonesia, from the 18th to the 21st of June, 2013.

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  • This presentation discusses two themes Briefly, the importance of fish to food security, and roles of both wild capture fisheries and aquaculture, with special emphasis on the poor and vulnerable The growth of aquaculture, and the opportunities to transition aquaculture towards a lower impact pathway - or “blue growth"
  • Population and wealth are the two major drivers of growth in consumption of fish, and other animal source foods.
  • This is reflected in the growing demand for fish – which has been growing fast in line with other animal sources foods. Further demand will continue to grow, particularly with strong wealth-drive demand in Asia
  • This graph shows the growth of aquaculture which has made an increasing contribution to fish supply, and will continue to grow. Anticipated that another 50 million tonnes, perhaps a nearly doubling of production by 2030, ie in within next 20 years
  • Scenarios of future demand show something more of this requirement. Clearly Asia is a demand center. But, also look at Africa where unprecedented increase in fish is essential. This is starting from a low base, but still represents a significant challenge.
  • Rather than eating more, we need to look at future food demands from the perspective of need – there is still a huge malnutrition challenge. No more is the more serious among children. Fish – which provides protein, fats and essential micro-nutrients - has an important role to play in addressing such problems. The extent of the problem, within the region and Sub-Saharan Africa, shows that despite the growth of the sector we have not done well in addressing the challenge of the one billion people that remain undernourished.
  • This also brings to another point, that wild fisheries, and particularly small-scale fisheries are critically important for the poor – that will not be easily replaced by aquaculture in many countries. There are differences in access, nutrition and products from aquaculture and wild fisheries that need to be understood, and actions taken accordingly. To protect and better manage wild fisheries, particularly small-scale fisheries, and to better manage and grow aquaculture to meet the challenge of the time in food security and poverty for the poor.
  • There is no doubt that aquaculture itself needs major transformation if it is to grow sustainably, and meet the demand, and needs of people. And this transformation to so-called “blue growth” will need to occur in Asia. There are social and economic dimensions to this discussion, but here I will concentrate on environmental aspects.
  • Aquaculture is predominantly an Asia story. this map rescales the continents based on their relative contribution to global aquaculture production. It also shows that current large producers are not all targeted on the regions of most need, particularly Africa. Clearly what happens in Asia will have a large role in aquacultures footprint on the global food system.
  • Aquaculture is a success story, and it is worth noting that to is a diverse system with many species, each with different impacts. About half from seas, half from inland – but with connections. Many lower impact species.
  • Life cycle analysis technique used to look in detail at production system.
  • Results give us a major overview of the sector, and in fact a basis for assessments and monitoring and identification of solutions.
  • Although there are impacts, it is worth noting that - a key point - aquaculture can produce with less impact than other animal source foods. But still considerable scope for improvement.
  • Planetary boundaries Need for solution, rather than adding to problems
  • Option for changing current trajectories
  • Blue Frontiers identified five major intervention domains where a difference can be made.
  • Secondly as demand goes up, so does the ecological footprint – frontiers etc; opportunities to zero the footprint – this will need investment, and in some cases very patient investment, but the rewards can be huge. Consider the 3x improvements possible – with that, it is possible to grow production without increased footprint – interesting possibilities for zeroing the ecological footprint
  • Opportunities for improvement this will need investment, and in some cases very patient investment, but the rewards can be huge.

Fish and food security: securing blue growth of aquaculture Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Fish and food security: securing blue growth of aquaculture Asia Conference on Oceans, Food Security and Blue Growth (ACOFB 2013). 18-21 June 2013, Bali, Indonesia Michael Phillips and Malcolm Beveridge
  • 2. Outline • Fish and food security • “Blue growth” in aquaculture • Future actions
  • 3. Wealth and population growth are major drivers for animal source food consumption, including fish
  • 4. Fish demand is growing .. along with other animal sources foods source: Hall et al. (2011) Year Production(milliontonnes) 20 40 60 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 80 100 120 Pig Chicken Fish Production targets(national data) Production forecast (this study) Year Production(milliontonnes) 20 40 60 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 80 100 120 FAO (2004) IFPRI (2003) Ye (1999) Fish •Baseline scenario •Technologicaladvances in aquaculture •Ecological collapse of fisheries • Globalconsumption remains at 1996 levels (15.6 kg/y) • Globalconsumption rises to 22.5 kg/y Growing fisheries (0.7% perannum) Stagnant fisheries Year Production(milliontonnes) 20 40 60 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 80 100 120 FAO (2004) Wijkstrom (2003) IFPRI (2003) Ye (1999) Fish •Baseline scenario •Technologicaladvances in aquaculture •Ecological collapse of fisheries • Globalconsumption remains at 1996 levels (15.6 kg/y) • Globalconsumption rises to22.5 kg/y Growing fisheries (0.7% perannum) Stagnant fisheries
  • 5. Aquaculture is growing to meet demand
  • 6. Future fish demand (2007-2015) source: FAO - Cai (2011)
  • 7. Future need
  • 8. Small-scale, wild, fisheries will remain important for the poor, food and nutrition
  • 9. Blue growth of aquaculture
  • 10. The world according to aquaculture… source: Hall et al. (2011)
  • 11. Aquaculture – major species groups, 2008 other aquatic animals freshwater fishes aquatic plants clams, mussels, oysters prawns, shrimps, etc. salmon, trout, etc. marine fishes 5 10 15 20 25 28.8 15.8 13.1 0 5.0 3.3 source: http://www.fao.org/sof/sofia/index_en.htm 1.8 0.6 million tonnes
  • 12. Aquaculture growth impacts ecosystems Major impact categories Eutrophication Freshwater use Land use Ecotoxicity Biodiversity Climate change Energy use
  • 13. Life cycle analysis approach
  • 14. Environmental impacts - a summary source: Hall et al.
  • 15. Farmed fish compares well with other animal source foods
  • 16. But, business as usual doubles impacts of aquaculture by 2030 source: Rockström et al, 2009 Aquaculture impact categories Eutrophication Freshwater use Land use Ecotoxicity Biodiversity Climate change Energy use Biotic depletion source: Rockstrom et al. 2009 Our planetary boundaries
  • 17. Putting blue growth of aquaculture into practice
  • 18. “Blue Frontiers” interventions • Innovation • Regulations and policy • Technologies and management • Monitoring and compliance • Supply, demand and markets source: Hall et al. 2011
  • 19. (1) Innovations • Feeds • Genetics • Systems • Extension • Markets • Mobile tech
  • 20. (2) Regulations and policy • International standards • New regulations and policy • Implementation
  • 21. (3) Lower impact technology
  • 22. Significant scope for improvement in environmental performance .. within species groups … and between species groups
  • 23. (4) Monitoring and compliance
  • 24. source: Cai (2011) (5) Better understand supply and demand scenarios
  • 25. (6) “Blue” Investments • US$50-70 billion in infrastructure • Clear need for private partnerships
  • 26. Messages • Future food and nutrition security requires both aquaculture and fisheries • Aquaculture can be an efficient animal source food producer • Lower impact aquaculture pathways necessary • Change is possible but the challenge is scale • Inclusive partnerships
  • 27. Thankyou – Terima Kasih M.Phillips@cgiar.org WorldFish and CGIAR Research Program on Aquatic Agricultural Systems (AAS) Acknowledgements – Resource Legacy Fund, GIZ and FAO/Allfish