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Bangladesh: Country Overview on the Importance of Fish for Nutrition and the Current Activities in Fisheries and Aquaculture. By Mrityunjoy Kunda, Sarah Castine and Shakuntala Thilsted.
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Bangladesh: Country Overview on the Importance of Fish for Nutrition and the Current Activities in Fisheries and Aquaculture. By Mrityunjoy Kunda, Sarah Castine and Shakuntala Thilsted.


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Fish and Nutrition Workshop Day 2 (Country Presentations - Bangladesh)

Fish and Nutrition Workshop Day 2 (Country Presentations - Bangladesh)

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  • Hello, I’m Sarah, based at Worldfish Penang
    Over the last year I’ve been working with the different teams from WorldFish Bangladesh who have been testing and disseminating technologies to produce small fish in either wetlands or in ponds.
    My work comprised both a review of the literature and an analysis of some of the over arching trends emerging from the datasets produced by these teams
    Today I will focus mainly on the data resulting from the work in ponds and touch on wetland systems for my last slides
    Regarding the pond technology the three teams in Bangladesh have been working under the bilaterals IFAD, FtF and CSISA
    These are represented by the three interventions shown here in different colours
    These teams have been working in 7 districts across Bangladesh;
    Dinajpur, Rangpur, Mymensingh, Faridpur, Jessor, Khulna and Barisal
    Collectively they’ve reached over 8000 (IFAD = 1590 + AIN = 4615, CSISA = 2325) households
  • Each intervention used slightly different techniques to engage with communities
    Each intervention ran for multiple years but they differed in the length of time that they engaged with any one household.
    In intervention 1 farmers were engaged for two years and in the other two interventions farmers were engaged for one year
    All farmers in all interventions received mola broodstock
    And demo farmers in intervention 2 and 3 also received additional inputs and training
    In intervention one lead farmers were selected and they were trained with the skills necessary to them train other farmers
    And likewise the demo farmers in intervention 2 and 3 were tasked with sharing their skills and knowledge with surrounding farmers,
    Especially during critical stages of the production cycle such as stocking and harvesting
    Int. 1 = IFAD
    Int. 2 = AIN
    Int. 3 = CSISA
  • The mean yields achieved under each interventions are presented in this table with the ranges presented in the brackets.
    The units are in tons per ha per season.
    The mean productivity of all of these ponds are similar and confirm Mrityunjoy’s statement earlier, small fish comprise between 10-15% of total production
    Looking now at the numbers inside the brackets - the huge range between the lowest yielding and highest yielding ponds is notable.
    For example, under intervention 1 the lowest yielding ponds were producing only 300 kg per ha per season whereas the highest yielding ponds were producing 4 t per ha per season.
  • These differences are also reflected in the literature with quite a large range found even under the reasonably controlled conditions of experimental plots or intensively managed or supported farmers plots.
    These differences could be driven by a number of factors including differences in management practices, differences in the size and condition of the pond, differences in the connectivity of the pond to surrounding canals, water bodies or rice fields or even differences in the training or way that extension or project staff engage with farmers in different villages and under different interventions
    These factors are being explored in more detail by some of the individual teams under each intervention but the take home message here is that there really is a lot of opportunity to bring some of the poorer performing households up to speed in terms of the productivity of their ponds,
    To do this we really need to elucidate the factors driving these differences in productivity and work with farmers to find ways to overcome some of the barriers currently hindering productivity, whether they are social, economic or technical barriers.
  • We can also dive a bit deeper into these production figures and look at the seasonality of production
    Both the production of large fish and small fish tend smooth the seasonal trends which are seen in production of wetlands.
    However, there are slight seasonal trends, especially for large fish
    Households are able to start harvesting mola about a month after stocking and their productivity remains relatively stable throughout the year,
    Producing around 10 kg per ha per month
    Whereas large fish can first be harvested after about 5 months and their
    productivity climbs steadily over the course of a production cycle and not surprisingly peaks early in the new year when most of the harvesting takes place.
    This steady supply of small amounts of mola could potentially make a valuable contribution to household nutrition provided those that need them most are consuming them regularly.
  • We’re also looking at ways to link this production data potential contribution to household nutrition.
    This table shows a selection, just 4 species out of the possible 9-10 species cultured in carp-small fish polyculture ponds and their respective micronutrient contributions.
    Production here is in kg of edible parts per ha per season
    Different species have different micronutrient profiles so some species are more ‘valuable’ nutritionally, than others.
    For example for similar quantities of the large fish catla, mola offers over 100 x the vitamin A content, 23 x the iron content
    There are even differences within the large fish species. For example, over 1000 kg of silver carp doesn’t provide any vitamin A whereas just 200 kg of common carp offers 120 mg of vitamin A
    On these last two rows I’ve totaled up the production figures from the intervention or trained farmers verses those farmers who did not receive any training or mola broodstock.
    These numbers tell a clear story – overall production is higher, protein and iron are higher and the production of vitamin A is 14 times that of the control farmers.
    RAE = retinol activity equivalents
    Ok so that’s the overall picture when producing small fish in ponds but what is the effect of producing small fish in wetlands?
  • Again here’s our map of Bangladesh
    All of these smaller dots represent interventions or projects under which community based fisheries management has been established
    As part of these some of these CBFM projects, mola fisheries have been enhanced through a once off stocking of about 100 g mola per ha
    The areas where this is occurring are represented by the larger circles.
    And I will present some data from the Sunamganj region
    Rajsahaha – raj-sha-hee
  • This table shows the top 6 species by volume which were caught from the water body Soma Nodi, in the Sunamganj area in 2013
    As a side note I want to draw your attention to the fact that these are the top 6 species out of 66 species that were caught that year in this water body in 2013. Now compare this to a possible 9-10 species that are grown in aquaculture ponds and consider the biodiversity in micronutrients that this contributes towards household nutrition!
    In this water body mola were stocked in 2012
    And subsequently ranked 6th in terms of production quantity in 2013.
    I’ve also looked at production data from approximately 60 other water bodies from the wider Sunamganj area between 2008 and 2013
    And the only other time that mola featured in the top ranking species was in 2010 when it came in at number 11
    Mola has only been stocked in Soma Nodi.
    In 2013 in Soma Nodi mola contributed 21 x more vitamin A than punti, which was the “runner up” species in terms of vitamin A contribution
    By conducting a one off stocking of between 100-200 g per ha mola appear to thrive in community managed fisheries systems and have the potential to significantly contribute towards household nutrition
  • But some questions still remain that we need to address…
    One of them being, what do we need to do to take this to scale?
    What sort of barriers do we need to overcome to ensure this goes to scale, are these market barriers? Social barriers? Technical barriers –
    More advanced systems to transport mola?
    Are there any ecological impacts of stocking mola into wetland fisheries? Are mola populations sustained after stocking or do they decline again?
    In some water bodies mola flourish but what are the ecological drivers of this?
    And what do we still need to understand better? Who is actually eating the fish coming out of these systems and how much do they eat?
    Do the most undernourished people actually eat these highly nutritious fish?
  • Transcript

    • 2. Water resources • 0.77 million ha inland closed • 3.93 million ha inland open • 2.61 million ha marine Fisheries Biodiversity • 293 inland fish species • 25 freshwater prawn species • 475 marine fish species • 37 marine shrimp species • 25 exotic fish species Contribution to economy • Export earning 2.76% • GDP 4.39% • Agril. GDP 22.76%
    • 3. Fish production status  Total fish production 3.262 million Mt. Sector-wise contribution of fish to total production in 2011-12 Sector-wise contribution of fish to total production in 1983-84
    • 4. Fish production status  Annual average increment for last 10 years 5.61% Fish production status of Bangladesh over last 12 years
    • 5. Fish consumption status  60% animal protein comes from fish Yearly average fish intake per person 18.94 kg Yearly requirement of fish per person 21.9 kg
    • 6. 12121212 28282828 14141414
    • 7. Mola initiatives Research started from BAU at 1991  DOF also initiated dissemination program on SIS at the same time  Afterward BFRI and other Universities have taken initiative for research  WorldFish started working on SIS during 2011 on pond aquaculture and enhancement in floodplain. What is now  People in many parts of the country accepted Carp-SIS polyculture technology  DoF has taken initiative for dissemination  WorldFish trying to promote small fish in pond aquaculture and floodplain in different part of the country  BFRF, different universities also working on SIS
    • 8. Mostafa Hossain-BAU habitat – where one can catch mola-dhela-darkinahabitat – where one can catch mola-dhela-darkina and other small fishand other small fish almost all freshwater bodiesalmost all freshwater bodies ditches, khalditches, khal ponds and beelsponds and beels haors and baorshaors and baors lakeslakes rice fields and otherrice fields and other inundated crop fieldsinundated crop fields rivers and streamsrivers and streams even available in the estuarieseven available in the estuaries
    • 9. Mostafa Hossain-BAU
    • 10. Introduction of SIS in pond polyculture  Average aquaculture production 2.23 mt/ha  Pond aquaculture production 3.62 mt/ha  Average contribution of SIS in pond aquaculture 10-15%  Do not hamper carp production
    • 11. Introduction of SIS into floodplain  Initiated by WorldFish during 2011-12.  Stocked small qty. of mola during dry season in ditches and enforce regulation on harvesting during breeding season. - According to baseline survey there were no mola - After 1st intervention mola catch was 5% of the total production - After 2nd year intervention mola catch was 15% to the total production
    • 12. Chalan Beel - the largest watershed Haor area – Sylhet Mymensingh floodplain Baor area – oxbow lake, dead river Kaptai Lake – the largest man- made lake Sundarbans – the largest contiguous mangrove forest of the world
    • 13. Pond technology is being disseminated in 7 districts through 3 different interventions (projects)
    • 14. 3 interventions, 3 different ways of engaging with communities Intervention 1 •2 year engagement •All farmers get mola •DoF involved •Lead farmers selected and trained to conduct further training with village farmers once every 15 days for 17 sessions Intervention 2 •1 year engagement •All farmers get mola •NGO involvement •Demo farmers selected and receive inputs •During stocking or harvesting, other farmers are invited onto the demo farmers plot Intervention 3 •1 year engagement •All farmers get mola •NGO involvement •Demo farmers selected and receive inputs •Demo farmers encouraged to share with other farmers •Project staff hold training on demo farm
    • 15. The yield gap presents opportunity……. *Figures have been standardized to tons per hectare per year Small fish include: mola, punti, chela, delaha
    • 16. The yield gap presents opportunity……. *Figures have been standardized to tons per hectare per year Small fish include: mola, punti, chela, delaha
    • 17. Adding small fish has big implications for micronutrient production Species Productiona Protein (kg) Iron (g) Vitamin A (mg RAE) Catla 460 68 4 101 Common carp 217 36 2 120 Silver carp 1 289 221 57 0 Mola 496 73 94 11 036 Total – intervention 3 062 500 166 11 412 Total – control 1 158 195 29 833 a Production is adjusted using the ‘edible proportion coefficient; kg (of edible parts) per ha per season
    • 18. CBFM is occurring throughout Bangladesh. Mola have been stocked in: Rajsahahi Mymensingh Gaibandha Sunamganj
    • 19. Mola ranked 6th in production volume Species Productiona Protein (kg) Iron (g) Vitamin A (mg RAE) River prawn (Macrobrachium lamarrei) 62 9.7 7.8 1.9 Meni (Nandus nandus) 40 6.6 0.3 23.8 Jat Puti (Puntius sophore) 50 7.8 1.1 27.6 Tengra (Mystus tengara) 42 6.3 1.7 5.0 Chanda spp. 32 Mola (Amblypharyngodon mola) 22 3.9 1.3 600.8 a Production is adjusted using the ‘edible proportion coefficient; kg (of edible parts) per ha per season
    • 20. What do we need to do to take this to scale?
    • 21. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Dr. M. A. Wahab Dr. M.A.R. Hossain Dr. Benoy Kumar Barman