Considerations about dissemination ofimproved fish strains for aquaculturePonzoni, R.W., N.H. Nguyen, H.L. Khaw, C.E. Lind...
overviewCurrent status and generalapproach to genetic improvementEffective dissemination ofgenetic gainsTechnical consider...
A few remarks about cultured aquatic animals                 • Most production from aquatic animals is                   b...
Design and implementation of a genetic    improvement program•    Describe the production     system(s)•    Choose the spe...
Design and implementation of a genetic    improvement program•    Describe the production     system(s)•    Choose the spe...
Effectivedissemination
Effectivedissemination
Genetic improvement takesplace in a very small fraction of    the overall population  effective multiplication of    genet...
Genetic improvement takesplace in a very small fraction of    the overall population  effective multiplication of    genet...
Genetic improvement takesplace in a very small fraction of    the overall population  effective multiplication of    genet...
basic elements in multiplication and dissemination  brood stock replaced periodically (2-3 years)                         ...
basic elements in multiplication and disseminationgeneral aspects to be addressed1. total demand for seed and its   geogra...
centralized model single operation conducts    ‘centralized’ in terms of geographicbreeding and multiplication   location ...
decentralized model                         generally easier to                         implement but will                ...
problem in aquaculture is...  technicalconsiderations                difficult to maintain pedigree                       ...
inbreeding can be managed  technical               through proper hatchery                            practices and traini...
inbreeding can be managed  technical        through proper hatchery                     practices and trainingconsideratio...
inbreeding can be managed  technical        through proper hatchery                     practices and trainingconsideratio...
inbreeding can be managed  technical        through proper hatchery                     practices and trainingconsideratio...
Convincing hatcheries that they neednot produce brood stock replacementsnot easy, requires change in perceptionDoing so ca...
Both private and governmenthatcheries should be considered ineffective dissemination strategyPrivate:- established product...
Structuring multiplier-nucleus arrangementsHatchery access to the nucleuscould take on various forms- Open access; no  agr...
Creation of a network of accredited hatcheries                          • Terms of the agreement                          ...
NONE OF THIS   Branding               most (all?) aquaculture seed is               distributed without verification of   ...
MORE LIKE THIS                 Branding                 most (all?) aquaculture seed is                 distributed withou...
genetic improvement  current technology enablessustained gains of at least 10 per      cent per generationnational breedin...
effective dissemination of gain     high reproductive rate of fish     offers great opportunities in  terms of multiplying...
effective dissemination of gain  experience shows that effective    dissemination will not occur     ‘naturally’, spontane...
Improved fish have no impact     unless they reach the farmerseasier to achieve genetic improvementthan to be successful a...
Thank you
photo credits:                                  full manuscript:1.          Hooi Ling Khaw                      Ponzoni, R...
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Considerations about dissemination of improved fish strains for aquaculture

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One of the largest aquaculture and aquarium shows in Asia, Aqua Aquaria India 2013, was recently held in Vijayawada, AndhraPradesh, India, from 8 – 10 February.

Hosted by the Marine Products Export Development Authority of the Government of India (MPEDA), the event showcased the latest production and marketing technologies in aquaculture and ornamental fish culture to hatchery operators and breeders, technical staff, and more than 5000 local fish and shrimp farmers.

National and international experts on aquaculture and ornamental fish presented technical sessions sharing their experience and research findings.

Aquaculture and Genetic Improvement scientist, Dr. Curtis Lind, made a presentation based on a WorldFish publication entitled ‘Considerations about the dissemination of improved fish strains’ authored by R.W. Ponzoni, H.L. Khaw, N.H. Nguyen and B.M. Rodriguez Jr. (Download publication here: http://www.worldfishcenter.org/resources/publications/considerations-about-dissemination-improved-fish-strains).

The publication summarizes key strategies, knowledge and experience related to the multiplication and dissemination of improved fish strains, and makes recommendations on how some of the practices may be improved.
If implemented, these improved practices may help fish farmers increase the productivity and profitability of their farms.

Related project:
Unleashing the potential of GIFT tilapia on the Indian subcontinent led by the WorldFish Genetics Team in partnership with the Rajiv Gandhi Center for Aquaculture (RGCA). (See more information on the project here http://www.worldfishcenter.org/ongoing-projects/unleashing-potential-gift-tilapia-indian-subcontinent).

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Considerations about dissemination of improved fish strains for aquaculture

  1. 1. Considerations about dissemination ofimproved fish strains for aquaculturePonzoni, R.W., N.H. Nguyen, H.L. Khaw, C.E. Lind & B.M. Rodriguez JrPresented at:Aqua Aquaria 2013, Vijayawada, INDIA, 8-10 February, 2013
  2. 2. overviewCurrent status and generalapproach to genetic improvementEffective dissemination ofgenetic gainsTechnical considerationsInstitutional arrangements andpartnershipsConcluding remarks
  3. 3. A few remarks about cultured aquatic animals • Most production from aquatic animals is based on unimproved stock, or has undergone only limited genetic improvement (this is particularly so in developing countries) • So, in the rare instances that we have an improved strain, we have to make sure it reaches the farmers • Multiplication and dissemination of improved stock are a challenge because: – We have little experience (few improved strains) – They entail influencing people
  4. 4. Design and implementation of a genetic improvement program• Describe the production system(s)• Choose the species, strains and breeding system• Formulate the breeding objective• Develop selection criteria• Design system of genetic evaluation• Select animals and mating system• Monitor and compare alternative programs• Design system for expansion
  5. 5. Design and implementation of a genetic improvement program• Describe the production system(s)• Choose the species, strains and breeding system• Formulate the breeding objective• Develop selection criteria• Design system of genetic evaluation• Select animals and mating system• Monitor and compare alternative programs• Design system for expansion
  6. 6. Effectivedissemination
  7. 7. Effectivedissemination
  8. 8. Genetic improvement takesplace in a very small fraction of the overall population effective multiplication of genetic gains is critical Effective dissemination
  9. 9. Genetic improvement takesplace in a very small fraction of the overall population effective multiplication of genetic gains is critical most often, breeding centers don’t exist Effective dissemination
  10. 10. Genetic improvement takesplace in a very small fraction of the overall population effective multiplication of genetic gains is critical hatcheries attempt their own breeding most often, breeding centers don’t exist often leads to problems inbred, genetically vulnerable stocks
  11. 11. basic elements in multiplication and dissemination brood stock replaced periodically (2-3 years) producing brood stock not required specialized facilities not needed
  12. 12. basic elements in multiplication and disseminationgeneral aspects to be addressed1. total demand for seed and its geographical distribution2. presence or absence of private and govt. hatcheries3. skill level and access to resources of hatcheries4. farmers’ need for additional training, education and technical support
  13. 13. centralized model single operation conducts ‘centralized’ in terms of geographicbreeding and multiplication location or control over germplasm deals directly may require significant with farmers resources for infrastructure
  14. 14. decentralized model generally easier to implement but will forego some control investment risk is shared better geographical coverage, accessible to more farmers
  15. 15. problem in aquaculture is... technicalconsiderations difficult to maintain pedigree high reproductive rate (a good thing too!) large populations from a few breeders rapid inbreeding, poor productivity low effective population size (Ne) how to manage industry-wide?
  16. 16. inbreeding can be managed technical through proper hatchery practices and trainingconsiderations production level diversity not critical …and a developed if maintained in industry structure nucleus generally not present
  17. 17. inbreeding can be managed technical through proper hatchery practices and trainingconsiderations rotational mating schemes to avoid inbreeding
  18. 18. inbreeding can be managed technical through proper hatchery practices and trainingconsiderations rotational mating schemes to avoid inbreeding
  19. 19. inbreeding can be managed technical through proper hatchery practices and trainingconsiderations rotational mating schemes to avoid inbreeding
  20. 20. Convincing hatcheries that they neednot produce brood stock replacementsnot easy, requires change in perceptionDoing so can benefit the industry as awhole, through better access togenetic gains made in nucleusProblem is sociological and economic, Institutionalmuch more than genetic arrangements and partnerships
  21. 21. Both private and governmenthatcheries should be considered ineffective dissemination strategyPrivate:- established production areas- attractive investment opportunitiesGovernment:- areas insufficiently served by private Institutional hatcheries arrangements- areas where lack of competition may and partnerships result in abuse of market- stimulate industry in regions with future production potential- eventually role taken over by private sector
  22. 22. Structuring multiplier-nucleus arrangementsHatchery access to the nucleuscould take on various forms- Open access; no agreements, open to all- Accreditation; specific criteria established Nucleus-multiplier agreements could also have many variations- Restricted access; criteria established, sole discretion - Joint ventures of the nucleus - Licensing (e.g. fees) - Contracted production - Combinations of the above
  23. 23. Creation of a network of accredited hatcheries • Terms of the agreement – Financial – Operational (brood stock replacement) • Training and education of hatchery managers • Brand name for marketing • Product standards - Fingerling size and survival - Transport and count accounting - Management of inbreeding - Breeders’ age (lag) - Lag and options for refreshing • Controlling ‘genetic piracy’
  24. 24. NONE OF THIS Branding most (all?) aquaculture seed is distributed without verification of strain or origin
  25. 25. MORE LIKE THIS Branding most (all?) aquaculture seed is distributed without verification of strain or origin branded fish seed would likely capture attention of farmers positive experiences, testimonies can help add value to a brand, increase willingness to pay like with all brands, novelty wears out quickly if product not satisfactory
  26. 26. genetic improvement current technology enablessustained gains of at least 10 per cent per generationnational breeding programs can have very favourable cost-to- Concluding benefit ratios remarks attention to design of geneticimprovement program essential
  27. 27. effective dissemination of gain high reproductive rate of fish offers great opportunities in terms of multiplying genetic gains creation of a formal structure at multiplication or hatchery level, Concluding complemented by training andeducation programs, appears essential remarks an area where often we have not been as successful as in achieving and demonstrating genetic gains
  28. 28. effective dissemination of gain experience shows that effective dissemination will not occur ‘naturally’, spontaneously It will happen infrequently unlessresources are specifically allocated to Concluding this activity remarks means trained people with means to influence producers, and to feed back information to the Breeding Center
  29. 29. Improved fish have no impact unless they reach the farmerseasier to achieve genetic improvementthan to be successful at dissemination Concluding remarks dissemination is difficult because it involvesinfluencing and changing the way people do things only through effective dissemination can we expect a positive impact on farmers
  30. 30. Thank you
  31. 31. photo credits: full manuscript:1. Hooi Ling Khaw Ponzoni, R.W. ; Nguyen, N.H. ; Khaw, H.L. ; Rodriguez, B.M. Jr.(2012)2. Flickr/US Fish & Wildlife Service Considerations about effective dissemination of improved fish3. Flickr/Guy Mason strains. WorldFish, Penang, Malaysia. Working Paper: 2012-474-5. Roger Smith http://www.worldfishcenter.org/resources/publications/consideration6. top: Hooi Ling Khaw s-about-dissemination-improved-fish-strains bottom: Flickr/Sukil7. top: Hooi Ling Khaw thanks to: bottom: Curtis Lind Marine Products Export Development Authority (MPEDA),11. Curtis Lind Govt. India, for supporting speaker’s participation at Aqua12. Flickr/ WorldFish Center Aquaria 201315. anon17. Flickr/wokerjabby20. Flickr/ Hapal23. Flickr/Patrick Dugan24. danmeth.com25. Flickr/ linuts Acknowledgements
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