Nutrition Enhancement through Orang-fleshed Sweetpotato

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Improved nutrition in Zambia – the role of agricultural research

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Nutrition Enhancement through Orang-fleshed Sweetpotato

  1. 1. Nutrition Enhancement throughOrange-Fleshed Sweetpotato: Adoption and Dissemination in Eastern & Central Province Research on Agriculture for Improved Nutrition in Zambia Protea Hotel, Arcades Shopping Centre Lusaka 20 March 2012 Emily Mueller (CIP-SSA) Martin Chiona (ZARI)
  2. 2. Concerns of Malnutrition in ZambiaUnderinvestment in agriculture, prominence of HIV/AIDS, frequent inclement weather patterns contributing to prominent hunger issues and persistent chronic undernutrition Source: Deutsche Weilthungerhilfe et al. 2010 % Children < 5 yrs Prevalence of Proportion of Chronically Underweight among Children Dying Undernourished Children (< 5 yrs) before 5 yrs Country 1990 2010 1990 2010 1990 2010 Malawi 45 29 24.4 15.5 22.5 10 Mozambique 59 37 28.4 21.2 12 9.8 Tanzania 28 35 25.1 16.7 15.7 10.4 Uganda 19 15 19.7 16.4 18.6 13.5 Zambia 40 45 19.5 14.9 17.2 14.8High levels (54%) of Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) in children < 5 yearsOther vulnerable groups include pregnant & lactating women, food insecure and HIV/AIDS affected householdsVAD can limit growth, weaken immunity, cause xeropthalmia leading to blindness, and increased mortality risk
  3. 3. Major Sources of Vitamin A Expensive animal sources (eggs, liver), highly bioavailable as is preformed retinol (vitamin A itself) Provitamin A carotenoids are found in plant foods such as dark green leafy vegetables, and orange vegetables and fruits, and orange-fleshed sweetpotato (OFSP). B-carotene is major provitamin A carotenoid and the dominant one in OFSP.  Retinol Activity Equivalents (RAE):  12 beta-carotene: 1 retinol  Rates of conversion also depend on:  Whether fat is consumed (small amounts increase absorption)  Health status (deficient individuals convert at higher rates than replete)
  4. 4. Zambia: Sweetpotato widely grown on a small scale & potential area expansion Sweetpotato Production (tons) in Zambia 2010 252,867 2005 66,929 0 50,000100,000150,000200,000250,000300,000 Source: Sixth National Development Plan 2011-1015, page 126.  278% increase  Dominant variety Chingovwa: yellow-fleshed
  5. 5. Can OFSP significantly contribute To improving vitamin A status? Efficacy Study Among School Children in South Africa ResistoBosbok Efficacy studies 1. Completed in South Africa in 2004 Potential of OFSP 2. Modified relative dose response method in combating VAD 3. 120 gm. fed to school children for 5 days a week for 3 months significantly improved amounts of Vitamin A stored in the liver van Jaarsveld et al., AJCN 81, 1080-87, 2005.
  6. 6. What is required to get impact at the community level? Evidence from Central Mozambique (2003-2004) demonstrated that an integrated approach resulted in 15% decline in VAD prevalence 1) Agriculture 2) Nutrition 3) MarketingAccess to OFSP varieties Dietary change through demand Accelerates sustainedthat produce better than creation & caregiver adoption, increases income local landraces empowerment & diversifies use Low, JW et al., Journal of Nutrition 137: 1320-1327, 2007
  7. 7. Follow-up study (Reaching EndUsers) proved we could go to scale (24,000 hhs) cost-effectively Wolfgang H PFEIFFERHigh adoption rates (>60%) & positive outcomes on Vitamin A intakesamong children and their mothers in 2 very different settings CHILDREN 3.5–6 YEARS (MOZAMBIQUE) AND MOZAMBIQUE 5-7 YEARS (UGANDA) AT ENDLINE Impact: ΔM-ΔC 1104 Baseline Endline Model 1: 249 µg RAE/day 863 Model 2: 209 µg RAE/day 615 UGANDA 571 530.4 556.2 575 458.2 Impact: ΔM-ΔC 350 Model 1: 314 µg RAE/day 203.5 198.7 187.8 Model 2: 628 µg RAE/day EAR for children 4-8 years Model 1 Model 2 Control Model 1 Model 2 Control = 275 µg RAE per day MOZAMBIQUE UGANDA Hotz, C. et al., British Journal of Nutrition , 2011
  8. 8. Integrating Orange in Zambia PROJECT GOALS: • To increase intake of Vitamin A, esp. by young children and their mothers • To reduce food insecurity in Eastern Province • Raise awareness in Central Province OBJECTIVES DURING FIRST 4 YEARS: • Adoption of OFSP sweetpotato in 15,000 targeted households • Establishment of access to quality planting material • Establishment of 2 profitable value chains • Establishment of active, knowledgeable community integrating OFSP into maize-dominant cropping systems
  9. 9. On-Farm Varietal Assessment of OFSP Collaboration with ZARI & GART First two years with emphasis in formative research: On-farm research Crop management Vine multiplication• Determine where varieties perform best• Identify entry points of OFSP * into existing food systems
  10. 10. Improving Farmer Access to Quality Planting Materials Establish clean, disease- free foundation stock In-vitro culture for OFSP varieties ZARI, CIP-Mozambique Maintenance of clean planting material on-farm Training, promotion of Evaluation of root local farmers as storage methods for multipliers extended growing season
  11. 11. Vine Dissemination & Market DevelopmentEstablishment of vine multiplication plots Centralized at Research Stations (Msekera, Mansa, Mt. Makulu) Decentralized at local farms Dissemination through collaboration Development of OFSP market Preservation recipes (Katapola Farm Institute) Promotion of OFSP along roadside markets Processed foods (chips, bakery)
  12. 12. Expected Outcomes and ChallengesOUTCOMES OFSP root consumption will significantly contribute to improved vitamin A intake & status & increased production to improved food security Improved agronomic practices in sweetpotato management will lead to increased adoption in maize-dominant systems CHALLENGES  Acceptance of orange-fleshed sweetpotato varieties  Developing effective vine delivery & conservation practices in drought prone areas  Building partnerships to maximize nutritional impact of OFSP through joint promotion campaigns & links to community nutrition interventions
  13. 13. AcknowledgementsWolfgang H PFEIFFER Visit the Sweetpotato Knowledge Portal www. sweetpotatoknowledge.org

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