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Exposure to solar radiation can have positive effects on the human body, but it can also cause damages and melanoma is the most significant among those. The aim of the present study was to gather information about the effects of solar radiation on the human body and to update available knowledge in accordance with new international data. A systematic literature review took place and included both Greek and international books, articles, studies and related papers on the internet (PubMed, Cinahl, Scopus and Iatrotek databases), published from 1998 to this day. Dissertations and “gray literature” (e.g. conference proceedings) were not included in this study. The following terms (“Ultraviolet radiation, skin cancer, sun, sun exposure, electromagnetic spectrum, conjunctiva, cataract, squamous cell cancer , basal cell cancer, cutaneous melanoma”) were used as key-words. UVR may have an impact on the human body according to wavelength. UVA and UVB exposure may cause photoaging and sunburns, and UVC may induce DNA mutations leading to skin cancer. Ozone is the main protective mechanism since it absorbs most of UVR. Ozone layer depletion in the last decades has lead to increased rates of sun-related damages. Most significant damages include cataract and skin damages such as photoaging and skin cancers. Among skin cancers, melanoma has the highest incidence in ever younger ages reducing life expectancy.
A good part of the international literature focuses on primary prevention measures and interventions that include mole monitoring.