From Concept to Course
Designing
Developing
Evaluating
Why Design?
The target of any design is meeting needs when specific
situations, for users (human, animal and vegetable) an...
The Process of Design Thinking
Creating Courses Is a Design Process
Goal: Assemble the Components into a Coherent Whole

1. Create a thematic structure f...
Design Follows Logic
The Nine Events of Instruction
1. Gain attention
2. Inform learners of objectives
3. Stimulate recall of prior learning
4....
The 4A’s of Learning Design
Attraction:
An attractive module draws the user in, engages them and leaves them satisfied.
At...
Developing Technical Training
Requires a Structured Approach
For Developing Classroom and
Online Instructional Materials t...
The Content Performance Matrix

Apply

Remember

Facts

Concepts

Processes

Procedures

Principles

Ruth Colvin Clark, 19...
Facts
Consist of unique, specific concrete items, precise data, or one-of-a-kind
association among concepts.

Apply

Remem...
How to Teach Facts
 When listing steps or guidelines for job tasks, look at each

step or guidelines to identify all rela...
Concepts
Are classes of items that share common features and are known by a common name. All
concept groups include multip...
How to Teach Concepts
 Focus on critical features that all concepts of a class share

in common, not irrelevant features ...
Processes
Are descriptions of how things work. There are two basic types of processes:
• Business – which describe workflo...
How to Teach Processes
 Write objectives that require knowing how things like







corporate functions, software ap...
Procedures
Are series of clearly defined steps that result in successful completion of a job task. Linear
procedures consi...
How to Teach Procedures
 Procedures are taught most effectively at the application






level of learning by hands-o...
Making It
Come to Life

Learning
from the
LearnerEye-Level
Framing a Scenario

 List a purpose for the

scenario
 Imagine some user
characters
 Explore what is/could be
working/n...
Concept to Scenario
A concept helps define an underlying or guiding
principle for the learner, one that will be employed
b...
The Story
What should the nurse
do first?
What should the nurse
do now?
Is the consent valid at
this point?

 A patient a...
The Story as Scenario
Your Objectives and Evaluation . . . .

Are Bookends That Hold Up the Content of the
Course, Set Its Boundaries and Define...
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Instructional Design Primer

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Designing Developing Evaluating

  1. 1. From Concept to Course Designing Developing Evaluating
  2. 2. Why Design? The target of any design is meeting needs when specific situations, for users (human, animal and vegetable) and products (space, component, contents…): 1. Among these needs, designing deals with the way it works internally and externally. 2. We refer to situations, related to context and means: places, devices, clothes, paper, webs…
  3. 3. The Process of Design Thinking
  4. 4. Creating Courses Is a Design Process Goal: Assemble the Components into a Coherent Whole 1. Create a thematic structure for the course 2. Select or create an instructional strategy 3. Integrate the course structure and the instructional strategy to create an overall scheme of learning activities
  5. 5. Design Follows Logic
  6. 6. The Nine Events of Instruction 1. Gain attention 2. Inform learners of objectives 3. Stimulate recall of prior learning 4. Present the content 5. Provide "learning guidance" 6. Elicit performance (practice) 7. Provide feedback 8. Assess performance 9. Enhance retention and transfer to the job The Principles of Instructional Design, Robert Gagne, 1985
  7. 7. The 4A’s of Learning Design Attraction: An attractive module draws the user in, engages them and leaves them satisfied. Attraction will ensure the user wants to use this intervention instead of another. Attention: This model shifts the focus to the content of the module. The first ‘A’ has already attracted the user. Attention will narrowly focus the learning. Availability: Albert Einstein said with great wisdom, “It’s not what you know, but knowing where to find it”. Availability will ensure the content is up to date and always retrievable. Application: The most important stage of the learning intervention design is to entice the user to apply what they have gained in knowledge to a real life situation. Application will drive the motivation to use the new information. Neil Lasher, 2006
  8. 8. Developing Technical Training Requires a Structured Approach For Developing Classroom and Online Instructional Materials to Teach the 5 Basic Content Types:  Facts  Concepts  Processes  Procedures  Principles
  9. 9. The Content Performance Matrix Apply Remember Facts Concepts Processes Procedures Principles Ruth Colvin Clark, 1999
  10. 10. Facts Consist of unique, specific concrete items, precise data, or one-of-a-kind association among concepts. Apply Remember the Facts Remember What is your Windows password? Facts Concepts Processes Procedures Principles
  11. 11. How to Teach Facts  When listing steps or guidelines for job tasks, look at each step or guidelines to identify all related facts and concepts.  Facts can be processed only at the remember level. Recall of information in isolation should be avoided. Learning objectives should require applying facts to perform tasks.  Display facts using statements, diagrams with labels, lists or charts.  Use paper-based or online cues to organize facts and summarize them.
  12. 12. Concepts Are classes of items that share common features and are known by a common name. All concept groups include multiple specific examples. Most technical training involve many concepts related to the procedures staff need to learn for effective job performance. Classify New Examples Which file name is valid? A. 043MYFILE B. MYFILE9 Apply Remember the Definition Remember Define a valid file name. Facts Concepts Processes Procedures Principles
  13. 13. How to Teach Concepts  Focus on critical features that all concepts of a class share in common, not irrelevant features on which specific examples vary.  Concrete concepts have parts and boundaries. Abstract concepts cannot be illustrated with a diagram.  Memorizing key features or definitions of concepts helps in learning and recall. Use activities that help with recall.  Show definitions, examples, non-examples and analogies. Rely on diagrams for concrete concepts and text or verbal presentation of abstract concepts.
  14. 14. Processes Are descriptions of how things work. There are two basic types of processes: • Business – which describe workflows • Technical – which describe how things work in equipment or natural systems Solve a Problem, Make An Inference Apply Manager asks if an employee has fulfilled training. Where should you check first? Remember the Stages Remember Describe how transcript requests are processed. Facts Concepts Processes Procedures Principles
  15. 15. How to Teach Processes  Write objectives that require knowing how things like     corporate functions, software applications, or clinical operations work, not how to do things. Identify essential processes and write objectives at the application level. If processes are extensive and detailed, treat them as a single lesson or module. Use processes as a course framework and embed lessons that require tasks for each stage. Include problem solving or inference creation for testing at the application level of learning.
  16. 16. Procedures Are series of clearly defined steps that result in successful completion of a job task. Linear procedures consist of a single stream of steps. Decision procedures contain two or more linear procedures that are chosen based on clearly defined criteria. Perform the Procedure Apply Log on to the computer Remember the Steps Remember List the steps to log onto the computer Facts Concepts Processes Procedures Principles
  17. 17. How to Teach Procedures  Procedures are taught most effectively at the application     level of learning by hands-on activity. Action tables and decision trees in manuals, job aides and wall charts enhance learning procedures. Demonstrations and practices accelerate learning procedures. Include scenarios and simulations in OLT along with prompts that display details of required steps. Assess learning of procedures through performance tests, in-person or online.
  18. 18. Making It Come to Life Learning from the LearnerEye-Level
  19. 19. Framing a Scenario  List a purpose for the scenario  Imagine some user characters  Explore what is/could be working/not working  State how and what you want the employee to learn
  20. 20. Concept to Scenario A concept helps define an underlying or guiding principle for the learner, one that will be employed by the learner to discern appropriate behavior. Concept or Principle Drives What Behavior?
  21. 21. The Story What should the nurse do first? What should the nurse do now? Is the consent valid at this point?  A patient arrived for ambulatory surgery from a group home with group home caregivers accompanying. The surgical consent was signed on behalf of the patient by her grandmother.  There was no paperwork on the chart to indicate that the grandmother had legal guardianship. The group home caregiver gave the nurse a document with the group home logo that stated the grandmother had guardianship.  The nurse asked the caregiver to contact the group home director to obtain court documents to support the claim of the grandmother. Anesthesiology starts to interview the patient, who is known to have epilepsy, seizure within past 48 hours, brain tumor, mild MR, diabetes M, and she was previously PEC’ed within 24 – 48 hours of this on Psych 1. Her left wrist had a very thick bandage placed after excessive biting and possible suicide attempt. Surgical residents were attentive to progress being made but were not overbearing. Anesthesiology attending contacted grandmother before any paperwork arrived and they obtained consent.  Nurse raised issue up chain of command to her supervisors, in case any legal paperwork was present from the recent admission. In the meantime, the GH director repeatedly denied possessing any documents proving guardianship. The nurse asked the GH director to contact probate court to obtain legal documents and send them here. ANM noted Anesthesiology attempting to leave preop area with patient prior to paperwork on chart and intervened to stop transfer into OR. Scott called Judy, who intervened with probate court to obtain the documents that did prove the grandmother’s guardianship status.
  22. 22. The Story as Scenario
  23. 23. Your Objectives and Evaluation . . . . Are Bookends That Hold Up the Content of the Course, Set Its Boundaries and Define Its Success.

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