Where are Nepali Women in MDG
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Where are Nepali Women in MDG

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Nepal has committed itself to the Millennium Development Goals (MDG), 2000. Since then, Nepal has gone through many transformations: an armed conflict has ended; a monarchy has been abolished; the ...

Nepal has committed itself to the Millennium Development Goals (MDG), 2000. Since then, Nepal has gone through many transformations: an armed conflict has ended; a monarchy has been abolished; the creation of a democracy has begun; a constituent assembly elected, dissolved and second constituent assembly elected; abortion has been legalized. However, while there has been a move towards equality and democracy, the status of women still remains a concern.
While Nepal has been commended for its National Action Plan on UNSCR 1325 and 1820, women’s inclusion in peace-building and transitional justice is still not deemed a priority. As a consequence of this, victims of sexual violence in conflict were excluded from the interim relief plan for conflict victims, and women continue to be excluded in political and decision-making positions at all levels. Impunity, political protection, and a patriarchal state and society continue denying access to justice for women facing gender-based violence. The legal system continues to discriminate against women with, among other provisions:
a. Unequal rights to citizenship,
b. A narrow definition of rape,
c. A 35-day statute of limitation on reporting cases of rape,
d. A ban on women under 30 years migrating to the Gulf for informal work such as domestic work, thus curtailing women’s freedom to mobility.

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Where are Nepali Women in MDG Where are Nepali Women in MDG Document Transcript

  • Where are Nepali Women in MDG Nepal has committed itself to the Millennium Development Goals (MDG), 2000. Since then, Nepal has gone through many transformations: an armed conflict has ended; a monarchy has been abolished; the creation of a democracy has begun; a constituent assembly elected, dissolved and second constituent assembly elected; abortion has been legalized. However, while there has been a move towards equality and democracy, the status of women still remains a concern. While Nepal has been commended for its National Action Plan on UNSCR 1325 and 1820, women’s inclusion in peace-building and transitional justice is still not deemed a priority. As a consequence of this, victims of sexual violence in www.worecnepal.org www.nawhrd.org conflict were excluded from the interim relief plan for conflict victims, and women continue to be excluded in political and decision-making positions at all levels. Impunity, political protection, and a patriarchal state and society continue denying access to justice for women facing gender-based violence. The legal system continues to discriminate against women with, among other provisions: a. Unequal rights to citizenship, b. A narrow definition of rape, c. A 35-day statute of limitation on reporting cases of rape, d. A ban on women under 30 years migrating to the Gulf for informal work such as domestic work, thus curtailing women’s freedom to mobility. 1
  • 2 Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger Significant gender gaps have been observed in employment rates. Women are in exploitative forms of employment and have less access to social protection. Women continue to bear a greater share of the work burden, and continue to have lower incomes, less paid work, and less control over assets and resource than men. 1 MDG 1 Employment: 77% of married women are employed but 61% of them are not paid, whereas 98% of men are employed and only 12% of them are not paid . Average monthly wages : It is USD 35 for women against USD 58 for men. Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women While women’s employment in the non-agricultural sector has more than doubled since 2000, their employment in government service remains minimal.4 While the proportion of women holding seats in national parliament was at 33% until 2012, the commitment of political parties to upholding this inclusion has faltered in the last election. Sexual and gender-based violence continues to happen and so do impunity, a taboo around women’s sexuality, and violations against women’s bodily integrity. MDG 3 Gender-Based Violence • Cases registered in a Year in Police5 677 cases of rape 245 cases of attempt to rape 144 cases of human trafficking 350 cases of polygamy 1800 cases of domestic 1 National Demographic Health Survey (NDHS), 2011 2 Central Bureau of Statistics (2009) 3 National Demographic Health Survey (NDHS), 2011 4 Nepal Millennium Development Goals, Progress Report (2013) 5 Registered at the Women and Children Service Directorate of the Nepal Police (2012-2013) id Western r Western estern Domestic violence 61% Social Violence 17% Rape 11% Attempted Rape 2% Murder 2% Attempted Murder 1% Sexual Violence 3% Trafficking 1% Suicide 1% Others 1% Types of VAW VAW cases percentage out ot total 1703 (Source: Anbeshi 2013, WOREC) Types of VAW (July 2012- June 2013) We highlight the following areas of MDG that demonstrate gaps in the status of gender equality and women’s rights:
  • Improve Maternal Health While progress towards MDG 5 has continued to look promising, the picture continues to show disparities between urban and rural settings, geographic regions, and social and economic groups.8 Discriminatory practises, such as chhaupadi and child marriage continue. MDG 5 In November 2012, 20-year-old Sita Rai returned to Nepal after three years of working as domestic helper in Saudia Arabia. She was arrested at the airport for possessing a fake passport, and taken to the immigrations department. There a police constable, Parsuram Basnet, robbed her of all her savings from her three years of work, around USD 2,300. After a night, she was allowed to go home. Basnet offered to help her, but instead took her to a hotel and raped her repeatedly. A case of rape against Basnet, and cases of cheating and corruption against all four of the accused were filed only after much pressure from civil society. Basnet has received only five and a half years in prison for the rape, and Sita is to receive compensation of only around USD 500 in the case of rape. Two seniors have been exonerated by the lower court, while Khanal and Basnet have received one year in prison and a fine of Rs. 5,000 for the robbery. The case of corruption is on-going at a special court. A 20-year-old was robbed of all her savings, and raped. Through a combination of abusive state officials, a negligent state, and a problematic legal framework, the accused have received minimal punishment and Sita still has not received the full amount that was stolen from her. Case Study: Sita Rai • Women that have suffered from physical violence at some point since age 15: 22% 6 • Women who have suffered from spousal or partner abuse at some point in time: 32% 7 Political participation: There are 30% of women in current Constituent Assembly (CA), which is less than in the previous CA and constitutional mandate (33%). Gender Inequality Index: 102 out of 148. • Though the maternal mortality ratio has reduced from 415 in 2000 to 170 in 20139 , it is still high. • At least 10% of women suffer from uterine prolapse.10 • Births delivered in a health facility (% of births) is 35% but there is wide gap between urban (71%) and rural (32%). 6 National Demographic Health Survey, 2011 7 Ibid 8 Nepal Millennium Development Goals, Progress Report (2013) 9 Maternal Mortality Ratio per 100,000 live births; Nepal Millennium Development Goals, Progress Report 2013 10 Amnesty International 2014 3
  • We advocate for following demands instance reports of violence against women are registered immediately. Ensure action against police officers who do not register reports. Create a judicial system that respects and responds to the rights of women and survivors of gender-based violence. 5) Create immediately a mechanism where conflict-era cases of sexual violence are investigated and prosecuted. 8 years have passed since the end of the conflict – cases of sexual violence, amongst other war crimes, need to be investigated and prosecuted. 6) Change attitudes. Create a state and society that respects a woman’s right to bodily integrity, her right to control over her actions, ideas, aspirations, mobility. And ensure her access to remedy in cases of violation of any of these rights. WOREC Nepal PO Box 13233, Kathmandu, Nepal Tel: (977)-1-2123124; (977)-1-5006373. Fax: (977)-1-5006271 Email: ics@worecnepal.org National Alliance of Women Human Rights Defenders (NAWHRD) Balkumari, Lalitpur, Nepal Tel: (977)-1-5529841 Email: secretariat@nawhrd.org www.worecnepal.org www.nawhrd.org 1) Ensure women’s representation in the Constituent Assembly. There are 26 candidates left to be nominated to the Constituent Assembly by the Council of Ministers. Lobby with the Council to ensure that at least 50% of those candidates nominated are women. 2) Strengthen national mechanisms to address gender-based violence. Make the National Women’s Commission and the National Human Rights Commission independent constitutional bodies with the power to initiate action against cases of violence against women, including conflict-era cases. 3) Ensure proper documentation of cases of gender-based violence. Ensure thorough and systemized documentation of cases of gender-based violence, including conflict-era cases. 4) Ensure women’s access to justice. Create a mechanism to ensure first B1_3-2014 4