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Shahakarya
 

Shahakarya

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मानवअधिकार, लोकतन्त्र र महिला अधिकारका लागि सङघर्षशील महिलाहरुको साझा ...

मानवअधिकार, लोकतन्त्र र महिला अधिकारका लागि सङघर्षशील महिलाहरुको साझा अभियान महिला मानवअधिकार रक्षकहरुको राष्ट्रिय सञ्जालले आफ्नो पाँचौ साधारणसभा सम्पन्न गरिसकेको छ । मानवअधिकारको आवाज उठाउँदा, आफ्नो कामको पहिचान, सुरक्षा र सम्मानका लागि आवाज उठाउँदा महिला भएकै कारण आफ्नै ज्यान समेत जोखिममा रहेको महिला मानवअधिकार रक्षकहरुले पटक पटक सार्वजनिक गर्दै आएका छन् । मानवअधिकार संरक्षण संबद्र्धनका लागि समुदायस्तरमा राज्यले गर्नुपर्ने तमाम दायित्व महिला मानवअधिकार रक्षकहरुले निर्वाह गर्दै आएको तथ्य हामी सबैका सामु छर्लंगै छ । व्यावहारिक रुपमा उपभोग गर्न अझै सहज नभए पनि सामाजिक संरचनाको कारण दोस्रो तेस्रो दर्जामा राखिएका महिला तथा यौन अल्पसंख्यक अधिकारकर्मीहरुको निरन्तरको वकालतले हिंसा मुक्त भई बाँच्न पाउने अधिकार, सम्मानित जीवन बाँच्न पाउने अधिकार, शारीरिक अखण्डताको अधिकार, यौन तथा प्रजनन अधिकार जस्ता अधिकारहरु सम्बोधन गर्न सरकारलाई बाध्य बनाएको तथ्य सबैले स्वीकार्नै पर्दछ ।
विश्वमा बढ्दै गएको सैनिकीकरण, नव उदारवादी नीतिहरु तथा जडसूत्रवादको कारण झनै वलियो हँुदै गएको पितृसत्तात्मक सामाजिक संरचनामा महिला अधिकारको आवाज उठाउनु आफैमा चुनौतीपूर्ण काम हो । महिलाका मौलिक अधिकार हनन्का घटना विरुद्ध आवाज उठाउने, उनीहरुको सुरक्षा र सम्मानको लागि दबाब सृजना गर्ने, पैरवी गर्ने तथा महिलाको आफ्नो अधिकारप्रति सचेत गराउँदै अधिकार प्राप्तिका लागि संगठित गर्ने जस्ता काममा निरन्तर लाग्ने अधिकारकर्मीहरुको सम्मान र उचित मूल्याङकन नभएसम्म समुदायमा मानवअधिकार संस्कृति निर्माण हुनसक्दैन ।
पित्तृसत्तात्मक मूल्य मान्यतामा आधारित हाम्रो परम्परा, धर्म, संस्कार र चालचलनका हिमायतीहरु महिला मानव

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    Shahakarya Shahakarya Document Transcript

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    • ;DkfbsLo sfdsf] klxrfg, ;Ddfg / ;'/ Iffsf] ;+3if{ dfgjclwsf/ , nf] stGq / dlxnf clwsf/ sf nflu ;ª3if{zLn dlxnfx?sf] ;femf cleofg dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifsx?sf]  / fli6«o ;~hfnn]  cfkmgf]  kfFrf}  ;fwf/ 0f;ef ;DkGg ul/ ;s] sf]  5 . dfgjclwsf/ sf] cfjfh p7fpFbf, cfkmgf] sfdsf] klxrfg, ;'/ Iff / ;Ddfgsf nflu cfjfh p7fpFbf dlxnf ePs} sf/ 0f cfkmg}  Hofg ;d] t hf] lvddf / x] sf]  dlxnf dfgjclwsf/  / Ifsx?n] k6s k6s ;fj{hlgs ub} { cfPsf 5g . dfgjclwsf/  ;+/ If0f ;+a4{gsf nflu ;d'bfo:t/ df / fHon] ug'{kg] { tdfd bfloTj dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifsx?n] lgjf{x ub} { cfPsf] tYo xfdL ;a} sf ;fd' 5n{+u} 5 . Jofjxfl/ s ?kdf pkef] u ug{ cem} ;xh geP klg ;fdflhs ;+/ rgfsf] sf/ 0f bf] ;|f] t] ;|f]  bhf{df / flvPsf dlxnf tyf of} g cNk;+Vos clwsf/ sdL{x?sf]  lg/ Gt/ sf] jsfntn] lx+;f d'Qm eO{ afFRg kfpg] clwsf/ , ;Ddflgt hLjg afFRg kfpg] clwsf/ , zf/ Ll/ s cv08tfsf]  clwsf/ , of} g tyf k|hgg clwsf/ h:tf clwsf/ x? ;Daf] wg ug{ ;/ sf/ nfO{ afWo agfPsf] tYo ;a} n] :jLsfg{} kb{5 . ljZjdf a9b} uPsf] ;} lgsLs/ 0f, gj pbf/ jfbL gLltx? tyf h8;"qjfbsf]  sf/ 0f emg}  jlnof]  xF'b}  uPsf]  lkt[;QfTds ;fdflhs ;+/ rgfdf dlxnf clwsf/ sf] cfjfh p7fpg' cfkm} df r'gf} tLk"0f{ sfd xf]  . dlxnfsf df} lns clwsf/ xgg sf 36gf lj?4 cfjfh p7fpg] , pgLx?sf] ;'/ Iff / ;Ddfgsf]  nflu bafa ;[hgf ug] {, k} / jL ug] { tyf dlxnfsf] cfkmgf]  clwsf/ k|lt ;r] t u/ fpFb} clwsf/ k|flKtsf nflu ;+ul7t ug] { h:tf sfddf lg/ Gt/ nfUg] clwsf/ sdL{x?sf] ;Ddfg /  plrt d"Nofªsg geP;Dd ;d'bfodf dfgjclwsf/ ;+:s[lt lgdf{0f x'g;Sb} g . lkQ[;QfTds d"No dfGotfdf cfwfl/ t xfd|f] k/ Dk/ f, wd{, ;+:sf/  / rfnrngsf lxdfotLx? dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifsx?sf]  sfdnfO{ 7Ls dfGb} gg  . kl/ jf/ b] lv / fHo;+/ rgfsf]  x/ ] s txdf b] lvg] oL k|lts"ntf dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ sf r'gf} tLsf ?kdf / x] sf 5g . log} r'gf} tLsf] ;fdfgf ug{ cfkm"x? ;+ul7t x'g] , ;fd'lxs cfjfh p7fpg] / lg/ Gt/ sfo{If] qdf v6g]  jftfj/ 0f lgdf{0fsf] nflu dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifsx?sf]  / fli6«o ;~hfn lg/ Gt/  lqmofzLn / x] sf]  5  . b] zleq, dfgjclwsf/ xggsf 36gfx?, lx+;fTds sfo{x?af6 kLl8tn] emg kL8f kfpg] / bf] ifLx? ;lhn} plDsg ;Sg]  jftfj/ 0f l;h{gf eO/ x] sf] 5 . jf:tljs 36gf / bf] ifLsf]  vf] hL u/ L ;d'lrt b08sf] Joj:yf ug{' / fHosf] k|d'v bfloTj xf]  . / fHon] cfkmgf] of] bfloTj k'/ f ug{ g;s] s}  sf/ 0f gful/ ssf] cfwf/ e"t :jtGqtfsf nflu n8g] oL dfgjclwsf/ sdL{ clxn] emg a9L hf] lvddf kl/ / x] sf 5g . b] z nf] stflGqs u0ftGqdf kl/ 0ft eO;Sbfsf] cj:yfdf klg lbuf] zflGtsf] k|Tofe"t ePsf] dxz'; ug{ kfpg' t stf xf] stf dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifs ePs} sf/ 0f yk oftgf /  b'Jo{jxf/  v] Kg' kl/ / x] sf]  5  . o:tf]  l:yltsf]  cGTo ug{ ;/ sf/ åf/ f ;r] t ¿kdf dlxnf dfgjclwsf/  / Ifsx?sf]  sfdsf] klxrfg, ;Ddfg u/ L pgLx?sf] ;'/ Iffsf] nflu ljz] if Joj:yfkg ug{ l9nf] eO;s] sf] 5 . o;f] gxF'bf;Dd ;/ sf/ n]  / fli6«o tyf cGt/ f{li6«o If] qdf u/ ] sf]  k|ltj4tf k"/ f x'g;Sb} g  . t;y{ dfgjclwsf/ ;'lglZrttfsf nflu lqmofzLn ;j} n] of]  oyf{ytf dgg ub} { cufl8 a9g' cfjZos 5 . ;DkfbsLo @ != dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifs cleofg===== Ps kl/ ro # @= dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifs / fli6«o ;~hfnsf] ultljlwx? $ #= hjh{:tL s/ 0fL -anfTsf/ _ ;+u hf] l8Psf ;jfnx? bnjxfb'/  wfdL !! $= cGtjf{tf{ s= / fHosf] cfwf sfd 36fPsf] 5 dlxnf dfgjclwsf/  / Ifsx?n] =========Dff] xgf cG;f/ L !% v= / fHon]  dlxnf dfgjclwsf/  / Ifsx?sf]  ;'/ Iffsf]  nflu plrt gLlt agfpg' k5{=======/ flwsf ;fksf] 6f !& %= n] v tyf / rgfx? s= dlxnf lx+;f cGTo s;/ L< 8f= /]0f' /fhe08f/L @! v cgf} krfl/ s tyf dgf] / ~hg If] qdf >dLs dlxnfx?sf]  cj:yf /  / fHosf]  bfloTj====;[hgf k'g @@ u= ax'ljjfx, o;sf] c;/ / sfg'gdf ;'wf/ ug'{kg] { kIfx?========;'wf sfkmn]  @% ^= lhNnfsf] ultljlwx? @* &= k|f] kmfOn=====wflbË lhNnf ;~hfn @* *= dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifs sf] x'g < #) o; c+s leq=========== k|wfg ;DkfbsM nIdL cfrfo{ ;Dkfbs d08nM hfg'sf sfsL{ nIdL Gof}kfg] 8f= ljgfos /fhe08f/L ;Nnfxsf/M 8f= /]0f' /fhe08f/L sDKo'6/ n] cfp6M /d]z e08f/L k|sfzsM dlxnf dfgj clwsf/ /Ifsx?sf] /fli6«o ;+hfn ;lrjfnoM afns'df/L, nlntk'/ kmf]g g+= (&&–!–%%@(*$! O{d]n M secretariat@nawhrd.org j]j;fO{6 M www.nawhrd.org 2
    • dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ /Ifs cleofg kl/ro / cfjZostf ljifo k|j] z ;g !*$* df dfgjclwsf/ sf] ljZjJofkL 3f] if0ffkq hf/ L ePkl5 gful/ ssf clwsf/ x?sf]  ;+/ If0f /  ;Ddfg ug{ / fHonfO{ pQ/ bfoL agfpg dfgjclwsf/ / Ifsx?n]  ;Eotfsf]  z'?jft b] lvg}  u/ ] sf]  cys ;+3if{ /  lg/ Gt/  cleofgx? dfgjclwsf/ sf nflu ul/ Psf] cleofgsf]  ?kdf :yflkt ePsf 5g . o; cjlwdf y'k|} dfgjclwsf/  / Ifsx?n] JolQm, ;d'bfosf] cfwf/ e"t :jtGqtf, clwsf/  jxfnL / pkef] usf nflu sfd u/ ] s} cfwf/ df lx+;f, lje] b, oftgf, lt/ :sf/  h] nofqf vKg' k/ ] sf]  5 eg]  s} of} +n]  hLjg pT;u{ ;d] t ug'{k/ ] sf]  5  . c?sf]  clwsf/ sf]  nflu cgj/ t ?kdf nflu kg] { cleoGtfx?n] cfkmg} hLjgdf hf] lvd ef] Ug'kg] { cj:yf l;h{gf ePkl5 To;sf] cGTosf nflu klg dfgjclwsf/ sdL{x?n] cfjfh p7fPsf 5g . dfgjclwsf/  / Ifsx?n]  lg/ Gt/  cfjfh p7fPkl5 ;+o'Qm / fi6«;ª3sf] dxf;efn] ;g !((* df dfgjclwsf/ / Ifsx? ;DaGwL 3f] if0ffkq kfl/ t u¥of]  . ;g @))) df dfgjclwsf/  / Ifsx?sf]  ;+/ If0f ug] { ;+oGqsf]  lgdf{0f u/ L ;+o'Qm / fli6«;ª3Lo dfgjclwsf/  pRrfo'Qmsf]  cg'/ f] wdf ;+o'Qm / fi6«;ª3Lo dxf;lrjåf/ f dfgjclwsf/  / Ifs ;DaGwL ljz] if k|ltlglw lgo'Qm ug] { Joj:yf eof]  . pQm Joj:yfkl5 ;+o'Qm / fi6«;+3Lo dxf;lrjsf]  dfgjclwsf/  / Ifs ;+aGwL ljz] if k|ltlglwx?sf] ?kdf kfls:tfgsL rlr{t dfgjclwsf/ sdL{ jlsn lxgf lhnfgL lgo'Qm eOg . ;+o'Qm / fi6«;ª3Lo dxf;lrjsf ljz] if k|ltlglwåf/ f o; cjlwdf dfgjclwsf/  / Ifsx?sf]  clwsf/  /  ;'/ Iffsf]  k|Tofe"ltsf nflu k|efjsf/ L ?kdf sfo{ ;Dkfbg ub} { cfw'lgs ;Eotfn] :jLsfg{ g;Sg] nHhf:kb dfGotf, k/ Dk/ f, lje] b lx+;fx?sf lj?4 cfkmgf] hLjgnfO{ cToGt} hf] lvddf / fv] /  lg/ Gt/  nflu k/ ] sf dlxnf clwsf/ sf]  If] qdf sfd ug] { dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifsx? pQm clwsf/ / ;'/ Iff k|fKt ug{jf6 jl~rt x'g' kl/ / x] sf] oyfy{tf ;d] tnfO{ ;fj{hlgs ul/ Psf] 5 . o;sf] ;fy} ;+o'Qm / fi6«;+3Lo ljz] if k|ltj] bgn]  dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifsx? ;dfhdf ljleGg hf] lvdx? vk] / sfd ub{5g t/ ;dfh, / fi6« / lkt[;QfTds ;f] +r ePsf JolQmx?sf] afx'Notf ePsf] dfgjclwsf/ cfGbf] ng, ;fdflhs cfGbf] ngx? ;d] tn] pgLx?sf] o:tf sfo{nfO{ dfGotf lbbF} gg / lbO/ x] sf 5} gg, kmn:j?k pgLx?dfly hf] lvd cem a9bf] 5 eGg] tkm{ ;j} sf] Wofgfcfsif{0f u/ fOg . pgn]  cfkmgf]  k|ltj] bgdfkm{t dlxnf dfgjclwsf/  / Ifsx?sf]  klxrfg / ;'/ Iffsf] ljz] if ;+oGq lgdf{0f cfjZos 5 eGg]  ;d] t cfkmgf k|ltj] bgdfkm{t ;fj{hlgs ul/ g . dfgjclwsf/ sf]  If] qdf lqmofzLn ljleGg dfgjclwsf/ jfbL ;ª+3 ;+:yfx?åf/ f dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ x?sf] ;'/ Iff, klxrfg / dfGotf :yflkt ug{ ljz] if cleofgsf] cfjZostf dx;'; u/ L dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifs cleofg ;+rfng ul/ of]  . ;g @))% sf] gf] e] Da/ @( b] lv l8;] Da/ @ ;Dd >Ln+sfsf]  / fhwfgL sf] nDaf] df cfof] lht cGt/ f{li6«o k/ fdz{ uf] i7Låf/ f kfl/ t ;'emfjx?sf cfwf/ df ljZjJofkL ?kdf cufl8 a9fpFb}  nUg] lg0f{o ul/ of]  . g] kfnsf] tTsfnLg / fhgLlts l:yltdf dlxnf clwsf/ If] qdf lqmofzLn dfgjclwsf/ / Ifsx?n]  ef] Ug' k/ ] sf ;d:ofx?, dfgjclwsf/  cfGbf] ngleq dlxnf clwsf/ sdL{x?n]  v] Kg'k/ ] sf]  lje] bh:tf sf/ 0fx?n]  ;d'bfo:t/ b] lv / fli6«o cleofgsf]  cfjZostf dxz'; ul/ of]  . ttkZrft dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ sdL{x?aLr s] Gb|Lo, If] qLo Pj+ ;d'bfo:t/ df ePsf ljleGg ;Dd] ngx?n]  dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ x?sf d'2fx?nfO{ ;+o'Qm ¿kdf cufl8 Nofpg'kg] { cfjZostfnfO{ dx;'; u¥of]  . g] kfndf klg ;g @))^ b] lv dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ ;~hfn :yfkgf eO{ dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifsx?sf] cleofg cufl8 a9of]  . g] kfnleq ;d'bfo:t/ b] lv / fli6«o:t/ ;Dd dfgjclwsf/ , dlxnf clwsf/ sf] If] qdf lqmofzLn dlxnf dfgjclwsf/  / Ifsx?sf klxrfg, ;'/ Iff / clwsf/ sf lglDt lqmofzLn / xg' dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifs ;~hfnsf] k|d'v p2] Zo xf]  . b] zsf &% lhNnfdf o;sf zfvfx? lj:tf/ ePsf 5g . dlxnf dfgjclwsf/  / Ifs ;~hfnn]  dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ sdL{x?sf]  Ifdtf ljsf;df hf] 8 lbFb} ;d'bfo:t/ df p7] sf dlxnf;Fu ;DalGwt ;jfnx?nfO{ ;Daf] wg ug{ ;lsg] d'2fx? lhNnf ;~hfnx?dfkm{t ;d'bfo :t/ df ;Daf] wg ug] { ul/ Psf] 5 eg]  ;Daf] wg x'g g;s] sf ;jfnx? lhNnf:t/ Lo ;~hfndfkm{t / fli6«o txdf NofO{ pQm ;jfnx? ;Daf] wgsf nflu cfjZos gLlt lgdf{0f, ;+zf] wg tyf kl/ dfh{gsf nflu kxn ug] { ul/ Psf]  5  . lhNnf :t/ Lo ;~hfnx?dfkm{t klxrfg ul/ Psf ;jfnx?sf ;DaGwdf cfjZostf cg'?k a} 7s a:g] , ;Daf] wgsf nflu kxn ug] {, ;d'lrt Gofo lbnfpg] nufot kLl8tx?nfO{ k/ fdz{ ;] jf k|bfg ug] { tyf sfg'gL pkrf/ lbg] sfo{x? klg ug] { ul/ Psf] 5 . o;sf ;fy} cfkm"x?n] dlxnf clwsf/ , nf] stGq ljlwsf] ]  zf;gsf]  nflu cfjfh p7fPs}  sf/ 0f hf] lvddf k/ ] sf]  h'g;'s}  If] q /  k] zfdf / x] sf]  dlxnf dfgjclwsf/  / Ifsx?nfO{ cfjZos ;xof] u ug] {, ;'/ Iff k|bfg ub} { pgLx?sf]  sfdnfO{ pRr ;Ddfg lbg] lqmofsnfkx? dlxnf dfgjclwsf/  / Ifx?sf] / fli6«o ;~hfnn] ug] { dxTjk"0f{ sfdx? / x] sf 5g . 3 != dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifs cleofg Ps kl/ ro
    • @= dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifs / fli6«o ;~hfn ;lrjfnåf/ f ;~rflnt ultljlw @=@ dlxnf lx+;f lj?4df lhNnf sfof{no cufl8 lj/ f] w k|bz{g kf} if !@ ut] l;+xb/ jf/ sf] blIf0f 9f] sfdf wgf{ u/ L ;'? ul/ Psf]  cfGbf] ngsf]  Ps r/ 0fsf]  sfo{qmdsf]  b] ze/  ;DkGg ePkl5, dlxnf lx+;fsf 36gfdf kmf:6 6«ofs sf] 6{sf] cfjZostfnfO{ km] l/  Psk6s k'li6 u/ ] sf]  kfOof]   . kmfi6 6«ofs sf] 6{sf]  Joj:yfsf] dfu ub} { lhNnf k|zf;g sfo{no cufl8 wgf{ ul/ Psf]  lyof]   . @)^( df3 !@ ut] dlxnf dfgjclwsf/  / Ifs ;~hfn nufot pQm If] qdf sfd ug] { ;Dk"0f{ ;ª3 ;+:yfx?sf] ;xsfo{df dlxnf lx+;f lj?4sf] cfGbf] ngdf dlxnf dfgjclwsf/  / Ifs / fli6«o ;~hfnn]  b] ze/  lhNnf k|zf;g kl/ g . cfk|jf;g ljefudf sd{rf/ Lx?n] ;f] wk'5sf] nflu eg] / lgoGq0fdf lnO{ pgL;Fu ePsf] / sd n'6g'sf ;fy} ToxfF sfo{/ t k|x/ Ln] pgsf] anfTsf/ u/ ]  . To:t} wflbË :yfO{ 3/  ePsL ;/ :jtL ;'j] bL -clwsf/ L_ sf] d+l;/ #) ut] cgfdgu/  sf7df08f} l:yt s[i0f k|;fFOsf]  3/ df 3/ ] n' sfdbf/ sf]  ¿kdf sfd ub} { cfPsf] ;dodf / x:odo d[To' ePsf] t/ To;sf]  5fgjLg ;d] t gePsf] , To:t} alb{of u'n] l/ of * sL !( jifL{of lzjf xf;dLnfO{ d+l;/ @@ k] 6«f] n vGofP/ ul/ Psf]  xTof, af/ f k|:6f] –% sL laGb' 7fs'/ sf] / x:odo xTof ePsf]  lyof]  . oL ;j} 36gfx?df k|x/ Lsf] plrt 5fgjLgsf] cefj, Gofo kfpg] bjfj lbg' kg] { l:yltsf] lj/ f] w ub} { dlxnfnfO{ Gofo ;'ne agfp eGg] dfu tyf oL ;j} 36gfsf] 5fgjLg kLl8tnfO{ Gofo / ck/ fwLnfO{ sf/ jfxLsf] dfu ub} { @)^( kf} if !@ ut] dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifs ;~hfnn] lx+;f lj?4 l;x+b/ jf/ cufl8 dlxnf lx+;f lj?4 ;/ sf/ sf] z"Go hjfkmb] lxtfla?4 lj/ f] w k|bz{g u/ ] sf]  lyof]   . ;Ltf / fO{, lzjf xf;dL, laGb' 7fs'/ tyf ;/ :jtL ;'j] bL, nufotsf kLl8tsf]  Gofosf] dfu ub} { lgikIf 5fgljg u/ L ck/ fwLnfO{ sf/ jfxLsf]  dfu ub} { ;du| dlxnf lx+;fsflj?4df k|bz{g ul/ Psf] lyof]  . l;+xb/ jf/ sf]  u] 6df ul/ Psf]  lj/ f] wk|lt P] Soj4tf hf/ L ub} { b] ze/  dlxnf dfgjclwsf/  / Ifs ;~hfnåf/ f lhNnf k|zf;g sfof{no cufl8 wgf{, k|d'v lhNnf clwsf/ Ldfkm{t k|wfgddGqLnfO{ 1fkg kq a'emfpg] , ¥ofnL, h'n';, / fi6«kltsf]  Wofgfsif{0f h:tf ljleGg sfo{qmdx? ul/ Psf] lyof]  . kf} if !# ut] b] lv :jtGq gful/ sx?åf/ f jfn'jf6f/ df ;~rflnt wgf{ sfo{qmddf dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifs ;~hfnsf] P] Soj4tf / x] sf]  lyof]   . dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifs ;~hfn Ps ultzLn ;~hfn xf]  . ;~hfnsf x/ ] s ;b:o cfkm"n]  ;~rfng u/ ] sf]  cleofgx?nfO{ lgisif{df k'¥ofpg nflu k/ ] sf 5g . tL ;Dk"0f{ cleofgx?df dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifsx?sf] / fli6«o ;~hfn ;lrjfnon]  P] Soj4tf hfx] / ub} { ;lqmo ;xof] u k'¥ofpFb} cfPsf] 5 . dlxnf clwsf/ sf ;jfnx?nfO{ cufl8 a9fpg] qmddf b] zaflx/  dlxnf dfgjclwsf/  / Ifsx?, dfgjclwsf/ sdL{x?åf/ f ;~rflnt sfo{qmdx?nfO{ ;lrjfnon] ;xof] u k'¥ofpg]  ub{5 . ut ;] K6] Da/ @! b] lv dfr{ cf7;Dd ;lrjfnon]  ljleGg sfo{qmdx?sf]  ;+of] hg u/ ] sf]  lyof] , h;dWo]  k|d'v ?kdf ;] K6] Dj/ @! Dff dlxnfdfly x'g] lje] b;DjGwL ;+o'Qm / fli6«o ;ª3Lo sfo{ ;ldlt;Fu PkL8Jn'Pn8L, cf] / ] s g] kfn;Fusf]  ;xsfo{df / fli6«o uf] i7Lsf]  cfof] hgf ul/ Psf]  lyof]  . To:t} jfudtL lsgf/ fdf / x] sf] ;'s'Daf;L j:tLdf ;/ sf/ n]  u/ ] sf]  HofbtLlj?4 ul/ Psf]  cfGbf] ng /  dlxnf lx+;f lj?4sf] !^ lbg] cleofgdf ;~hfnn] ;lqmo ?kdf sfo{qmd u/ ] sf]  lyof]   . @=! dlxnf lx+;flj?4 cleofg ;~rfng of] cjlwdf d'n'se/ dlxnf lx+;fsf h3Go 36gf eP . dlxnf lx+;f cGTosf]  dfu ub} { b] z} e/  dlxnf dfgjclwsf/  / Ifsx?n]  la/ f] w k|bz{g u/ ]  . dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifs / fli6«o ;~hfnn]  @)^( kf} if !@ ut] b] lv / fhwfgL tyf / fhwfgL aflx/ wgf{, h'n';, gf/ fx? ;lxtsf]  lj/ f] w k|bz{g u/ ] sf]  lyof]   . o;}  qmddf j} b] lzs / f] huf/ sf]  nflu ;fpbL c/ j uPsL @) jifL{o ;Ltf / fO{ kms{Fbf g] kfnsf] Po/ kf] 6{df @)^( d+;L/ @# ut] cGt/ f{li6«o ljdfg:yndf cs} {sf] kf;kf] 6{ ;lxt kqmfp4
    • sfo{no cufl8 a[xt k|bz{g u/ ] sf] lyof]  . sf7df08f} df k|wfgdGqL sfof{nonfO{ nlIft ub} { l;+xb/ jf/ blIf0f 9f] sf cufl8 k|bz{g ul/ Psf] lyof]  . k|bz{gdf kmf:6 6«ofs sf] 6{sf]  cljnDj Joj:yf ug{ dfu ul/ Psf] lyof]  . o;s} lg/ Gt/ tfsf] ?kdf @)^( ;fn df3 @$ ut] j'wjf/  lbgsf] ! jh] b] lv # jh] ;Dd lhNnf k|zf;g sfof{no cufl8 lj/ f] w k|bz{g ul/ Psf]  lyof]  . dlxnf dfgjclwsf/  / Ifs / fli6«o ;~hfnsf]  g] t[Tjdf ePsf]  lj/ f] w sfo{qmddf lhNnf k|zf;g sfo{no jj/ dxn cufl8 wgf{ lbg'sf ;fy} dlxnf lx+;f lj?4sf gf/ f nufOPsf] lyof]  . sf7df08f} lhNnf k|d'vdfkm{t k|wfgdGqL 8f=afa'/ fd e§/ fO{ ;dIf b] ze/  dlxnf lx+;f cGTosf nflu ;/ sf/ sf] hjfkmb] lxtfsf] dfu ub} { e} / x] sf]  cGbf] ngx?k|lt ;/ sf/ sf]  z"Go hjfkmb] lxtfsf]  la/ f] wdf dlxnf clwsf/ sdL{x?sf]  ;+slnt x:tfIf/  ;lxt Wofgfsif{0f kq j'emfPsf] lyof]  . Wofgfsif{0f kqsf] ;fy}  dlxnf dfgjclwsf/  / Ifssf]  kfFrf}  ;fwf/ 0f ;efn]  hf/ L u/ ] sf] dsjfgk'/ 3f] if0ff kq @)^( ;d] t Wofgfsif{0f kqsf ;fy j'emfOPsf] lyof]  . df3 @$ ut] lj/ f] w k|bz{g cl3 / lj/ f] w ug] { qmddf dlxnf lx+;fk|lt z"Go hjfkmb] lxtf la?4 P] Soa4tf clkn k|sflzt ub} { dlxnf lx+;f cGTosf nflu clanDa ;Daf] wg ug'{kg] { !) aF'b] dfu pNn] lvt krf{ pkTosfe/ ljt/ 0f ul/ Psf] lyof]  . tL dfux? o;k|sf/  / x] sf lyP M != ;/ :jtL ;'j] bLsf]  / x:odo d[To'jf/ ]  :jtGq /  k|efjsf/ L cg';Gwfg u/ L bf] ifLdfly sf/ jfxL ul/ of] ;  . @= dlxnfnfO{ Gofodf kx'Fr lbnfpg clxn] sf] emGeml6nf]  Gofo Joj:yfnfO{ ;+zf] wg u/ L ;jf] {Rr cbfnsf] cfb] z jdf] lhd kmf:6 6«fS6 sf] 6{sf] cljnDa Joj:yf ul/ of] ; . #= j} b] lzs / f] huf/  P] gdf ;+zf] wg u/ L dlxnf clwsf/  ;'lglZrt ul/ of] ;  . $= xfn / x] sf] ha/ h:tL s/ 0fL ;DaGwL P] gdf t'?Gt ;+zf] wg u/ L dlxnfx¿sf] clwsf/ ;'lglZrt ug'{sf ;fy} dlxnfn]  Gofo tTsfn kfpg] Joj:yf ul/ of] ; . %= dlxnfdfly x'g] of} ghGo lx+;f lj?4 k|efjsf/ L sfg'g lgdf{0f ul/ of] ;  . ^= b] ze/ xfn 36] sf dlxnf lx+;fsf 36gfx¿sf] cljnDa :jtGq / k|efjsf/ L cg';Gwfg u/ L bf] ifLx¿nfO{ sfg'gL bfo/ fdf NofO{ sf/ jfxL ul/ of] ;  . &= ;Ltf / fO{dfly 36] sf] 36gfsf] ;DaGwdf u[xdGqLn]  ;fj{hlgs ¿kdf dfkmL dfuL bf] ifLdfly t'?Gt sf/ jfxL u/ L pgnfO{ Gofo kfPsf] cg'e"lt u/ fOof] ; . *= alb{of lhNnfsL lzjf xfl;dnfO{ lhpFb} hnfP/ dfg] { bf] ifLnfO{ s8feGbf s8f sf/ jfxL ub} { o:tf h3Go ck/ fw k'gM gbf] xf] l/ g]  jftfj/ 0f tof/  ul/ of] ;  . (= kf} if !) ut] af/ f lhNnfsf] !* jifL{o lszf] / L ljGb' 7fs'/ sf]  lhpFb}  hn] /  / x:odo d[To'sf]  cfjZos 5fgjLg u/ L bf] ifLdfly s8f eGbf s8f sf/ jfxL ul/ of] ; . !)=j9bf] ¿kdf dlxnfdfly ePsf lx+;fsf 36gfx¿sf]  ;DdfggLo k|wfgdGqLåf/ f g} lts ¿kdf lhDd] jf/ L lnO{ o;sf] 5fgljg / cGTosf] nflu tTsfn k|s[of yfngL ul/ of] ;  . @=#= kqsf/ x?;Fusf]  cGt/ lqmof dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifs lhNnf ;~hfn wflbËsf] g] t[Tjdf dw] z ldl8of xfp;, cgfdgu/ sf7df08f} df @)^( df3 @% ut] kqsf/ tyf cGo ;/ f] sf/ jfnf ;ª3 ;+:yfx?sf]  pkl:yltdf cGt/ lqmof sfo{qmd ;DkGg ul/ Psf] lyof]  . wflbËjf6 cfpg' ePsf dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifsx? / flwsf ;fksf] 6f / clDasf ?kfv] tLn] wflbË lhNnfdf dlxnfx?dfly ePsf]  lx+;fsf]  36gfx?sfjf/ ] df hfgsf/ L u/ fpg' ePsf]  lyof]  . ;fy} pxfFn] ljut s] xL jif{b] lvsf] tYof+snfO{ cfwf/  dfGb} ! ;o tLg jif{sf] j[4fb] lv $ jifL{o aflnsfdfly ePsf]  jnfTsf/ sf] 36gfsf] rrf{ ub} { wflbË lhNnfdf aflnsfx? anfTsf/ x'g] >Lv+nf / f] lsg'sf] ;§f emg j[l4 ePsf] ;d] t kqsf/ ;dIf hfgsf/ L u/ fpg' eof]  . Pp6f lhNnfsf] dfq}  o:tf] eofjx cj:yf 5 eg] b] ze/ sf] cj:yf emg s:tf]  xf] nf < olt w] / } 36gfx? x'Fbf klg ;/ sf/ j] vj/ eP/  df} g j;] sf]  tLtf]  oyfy{ ;'gfpFb}  dlxnf clwsf/ sdL{x? dlxnfx?s} Gofosf lgldQ nflu/ x] sf] sf/ 0f cfkm"x? :jo+ klg lbglbg}  c;'/ lIft eO/ x] sf]  /  ;'/ Iffsf]  lhDd] jf/ L lnPsf]  / fHo g} dlxnf clwsf/ sdL{ lj?4df nfu] sf] cg'e"lt ePsf]  s'/ f JoQm ug'{eof]  . Psflt/  kL8s, csf] {lt/  / fhgLlts bn /  / fHos}  lgsfojf6 dlxnf clwsf/ sdL{x? c;'/ lIft alg/ x] sf]  cj:yfn]  cfkm"x?nfO{ uDeL/ agfPsf] jtfpg' ePsf] lyof]  . o:tf 36gfdf dlxnfx?n] jf:tljs Gofo kfpg g;s] sf] , anfTsf/ sf] lzsf/ ePsf kLl8tx?nfO{ Ifltk"lt{ :j?k cbfntn] @) xhf/ b] lv ! nfv;Ddsf] Ifltk"lt{sf] km} ;nf u/ ] klg xfn;Dd Ifltk"lt{ kfpg] sf] ;ªVof cToGt Go"g / x] sf]  hfgsf/ L u/ fpFb}  kL8sx?n]  / fhgLlts ;+/ If0f kfpg]  / b08jf6 pGd"lQm kfpg] x'Fbf dlxnf lx+;f;DjGwL ck/ fw lgoGq0f x'g g;s] sf] cg'ej ;'gfpg' ePsf] lyof]  . 5
    • @=$= k|x/ L;Fusf]  cGt/ lqmof sfo{qmd dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifs / fli6«o ;~hfnn] @)^( df3 @^ sf lbg dlxnf tyf afnaflnsf lgb] {zgfno -k|x/ L k|wfg sfof{no_ sf jl/ i7 sd{rf/ Lx?;Fusf] ;xeflutfdf j9 bf] dlxnf lx+;f sd ug{ / dlxnfsf d'2f btf{ ;DjGwdf k|x/ L;Fu ;xof] u / ;xsfo{ ug{sf] nflu kxn ug] { ;DjGwdf Ps 5nkmn sfo{qmd ;DkGg ul/ Psf] lyof]  . sfo{qmddf dlxnf lx+;f ;DaGwdf FIR btf{ gug{'sf sf/ 0f, cg';Gwfg k|lqmof sdhf] / x'g' tyf dlxnfsf d'2fx?df k|df0f sdhf] /  jgfOg'sf] sf/ 0fx? ;DjGwdf Jofks 5nkmn ul/ Psf] lyof]  . 5nkmndf k|x/ L k|wfg sfof{nosf k|x/ L gfoj pk/ LIfs b'uf{ l;+x, k|x/ L pk/ LIfs s[i0f uf} td / k|x/ L jl/ i7 pk/ LIfs / fh jxfb'/  lji6sf]  ;xeflutf / x] sf]  lyof]   . jxfFx?n]  To;}  5nkmndfkm{t dlxnf lx+;fsf]  s] zdf ph'/ L k/ ] sf]  rf} jL; 306fleq btf{ ug{ b] ze/ cfb] z hf/ L ePsf] s'/ f hfgsf/ L u/ fpg' ePsf] lyof] eg] To:tf ph'/ L lng gdfGg] s'g} klg k|x/ L sfof{no jf lhDj] jf/ k|x/ Ldfly sf/ jfxL x'g] k|ltj4tf hgfpg' ePsf] lyof]  . @=%= g] kfndf kmf:6 6«ofs sf] 6{sf] cfjZostf, ;DefJotf / r'gf} tLx? ;DaGwL cGt/ lqmof dlxnf dfgjclwsf/  / Ifsx?sf]  / fli6«o ;~hfn, cf] / ] s g] kfn tyf / fli6«o dlxnf cfof] usf] ;+o'Qm cfof] hgfdf kmfNu'0f !* ut] sf lbg kmfi6 6o«fs sf] 6{sf] cfjZostf ;DefJotf /  r'gf} tLx? ljifos Ps cGt/ lqmof sfo{s|d / fli6«o dlxnf cfof] usf] ;ef sIfdf ;DkGg ePsf] lyof]  . 6 ljleGg / fhgLlts JolQmTj, gful/ s ;dfh ;+:yfx?, dlxnf afnaflnsf tyf ;dfh sNof0f dGqfno, / fli6«o dlxnf cfof] u, sfg'g dGqfno, sfg'gljb, ;/ sf/ L k|ltlglw /  ;DalGwt ;/ f] sf/ jfnfx?dfem kmf:6 6«ofs sf] 6{sf]  ;DaGwdf Jofks 5nkmn u/ L lx+;f k|efljt dlxnfx?nfO{ rfF8f] eGbf rfF8f] ;d'lrt Gofo lbnfpg o;sf] oyfzL3| :yfkgf ug'{kg] { s'/ fdf hf] 8 lbOof]  . g] kfn af/ Pzf] l;P;gsf dxf;lrj ;'lgn kf] v|] n, k"j{ ;ef;b k|f] =;'k|ef l3ld/ ] , k"j{ ;ef;b laGbf kf08] , jl/ i7 clwjQmf ld/ f 9'ªufgf, sfg'gljbx? nufot dlxnf clwsf/ sd{L{x?dfem g] kfndf kmfi6 6«fs sf] 6{sf]  cfjZostf, ;DefJotf, r'gf} tLx? / o;sf] ;+/ rgf ;DaGwdf Jofks 5nkmn ul/ Psf] lyof]  . sfo{qmddf / fli6«o dlxnf cfof] usf cWoIf z] if rfFb tf/ fn]  cWoIftf ug'{ePsf] lyof] eg] dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifsx?sf]  / fli6«o ;~hfnsf cWoIf 8f= / ] 0f' / fhe08f/ Ln]  sfo{qmdsf]  ;xhLs/ 0f ug{'ePsf] lyof]  . ;fy} dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifs ;~hfnsf ;~hfn ;+of] hs nIdL Gof} kfg] n] sfo{s|dsf]  p2] Zodfly k|sfz kfg'{ePsf] lyof]  . sfo{qmddf dlxnf lx+;f lj?4sf] d'2fnfO{ l56f] eGbf l56f] Gofo lbnfpg kmfi6 6«fs sf6{sf] zL3| u7g ug'{kg] {, o;sf] df] 8flnl6 to ug'{kg] {, kmf:6 6«ofs sf] 6{sf] Joj:yf gx'Gh] n;Dd lx+;f k|efljt dlxnfsf d'2fx?df zL3| ?kdf pgLx?nfO{ ;d'lrt Gofo lbnfpg cbfntn] j} slNks ;+oGq v8f ug'{kg] {, kmf:6 6«ofs sf] 6{ :yfkgfsf nflu ljleGg ax;, 5nkmn, cGt/ lqmof hf/ L / fVg / ;/ sf/ nfO{ bafa lbg g] kfn af/  Pzf] l;P;gsf]  ;+of] hsTjdf dlxnf dfgjclwsf/  / Ifsx? ;lDdlnt Ps sld6L zL3| u7g ug'{kg] {, ;/ f] sf/ jfnfx?sf]  e"ldsf / bfloTjx? jfF8kmfF8 ug'{kg] { / slDtdf Pp6f kmf:6 6«ofs sf] 6{ u7g ug] { / To;nfO{ Pp6f gd'gfsf] ?kdf lnO{ cGo If] qdf klg cfjZostf cg';f/ :yfkgf ug'{kg] { h:tf ;'emfjx? k|fKt ePsf lyP . @=^= dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifsx?sf] ;~hfnsf]  s] Gb|Lo ;fwf/ 0f ;ef ;DkGg dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifs ;~hfnsf] kfFrf} + ;fwf/ 0f ;ef tyf dlxnf lx+;f lj?4sf] / fli6«o ;Dd] ng @)^( kf} if ^ b] lv * ;Dd dsjfgk'/ x] 6f} +8fdf ;DkGg ePsf] lyof]  . dlxnf lx+;f lj?4sf] / fli6«o ;Dd] ngsf] ?kdf ;d] t ;DkGg ePsf]  ;f] ;fwf/ 0f ;efsf] cWoIftf ;~hfnsf s] Gb|Lo cWoIf 8f= / ] 0f' / fhe08f/ Ln]  ug'{ ePsf]  lyof]   . cWoIf 8f=/ ] 0f' / fhe08f/ L /  k|ltlglwx?åf/ f ;+o'Qm ¿kdf jQL jfn] / sfo{qmdsf]  ;d'b3f6g ul/ Psf] lyof]  . ;fwf/ 0f ;efdf ;+:yfsf]  ;f+u7lgs, cfly{s / jflif{s k|ult k|ltj] bgx? k|:t't ul/ Psf]  lyof]  . pQm sfo{qmddf k|:t't ljleGg k|ltj] bgx?df Jofks
    • xhf/ f}  zxLbsf]  alnbfgL tyf nfvf} + g] kfnLx?sf]  nfdf]  ;ª3if{ kZrft :yflkt nf] stGqsf] ;'b[9Ls/ 0f tyf Gofok"0f{ zflGtsf nflu ;a} k|sf/ sf lje] b / b08xLgtfsf] ;+:s[ltsf] cGTo u/ L dfgjclwsf/ sf] ;+/ If0f, k|j4{g tyf ;'lglZrttfsf nflu tyf dlxnf÷dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifsdfly x'g] lx+;f cGTo x'g] jftfj/ 0f lgdf{0f u/ L hjfkmb] xL aGb} xfn;Dd ul/ Psf dlxnf cfGbf] ng÷hgcfGbf] ngsf pknlAwx?nfO{ ;+:yfut ug{, g] kfnsf] cGtl/ d ;+ljwfg @)^# df Joj:yf ul/ Psf dlxnf clwsf/ ;+/ If0f ;DaGwL k|fjwfgsf] :d/ 0f u/ fpFb} g] kfn / fHo kIf ePsf dlxnfdfly x'g] ;a} k|sf/ sf]  e] befj lj?4sf] dxf;lGw nufot cGo ;a} ;GwL, dxf;lGw tyf dfgjLo sfg'g ;DaGwL ;lGw ;Demf} tf cfn] v 3f] if0ff tyf l;4fGtx?åf/ f l;lh{t / fHosf bfloTjtkm{ ulDe/ x'g cg'/ f] w ub} {, ljleGg ;dodf / fhgLlts kf6L{ tyf ;/ sf/ åf/ f dlxnf clwsf/  ;+/ If0f, k|j4{g /  kl/ k"/ 0fsf nflu hf/ L ul/ Psf 3f] if0ffkq, jQmJo tyf k|ltj4tfx?k|lt lhDd] jf/ jGg clkn ub} {, b] zdf nlDaPsf] ;+qmd0fsfn, hglgjf{lrt / fli6«o / :yfgLo lgsfo gePsf] l:yltdf tLa| ?kn] a9b} uPsf] b08xLgtfsf]  ;+:s[lt, e|i6frf/ , dxËL, ck/ fwsf] / fhgLlt tyf / fhgLlts ck/ fwLs/ 0fsf sf/ 0f dflg;sf] afFRg, Gofo k|fKt ug{ tyf ;'/ lIft / xg kfpg]  clwsf/  h:tf cfwf/ e"t clwsf/ x?;d] t hf] lvddf k/ ] sf]  tYotkm{ Wofgfsif{0f u/ fpFb} , dlxnfdfly b] lvPsf÷b] lvg yfn] sf lx+;f / o;sf k|s[ltsf ?kx?tkm{ ;dodf ;r] t eO{ ;Daf] wg ug{ g;Sbf cfpg ;Sg]  kl/ 0ffdk|lt uDeL/  x'b} , ;d:of ;d'bfo:t/ df hglgjf{lrt ;/ sf/  gePsf]  /  ;/ sf/ L ;+oGq k|efjxLg ePsf] cj:yfdf ;d'bfo:t/ b] lv lx+;f kLl8t dlxnfnfO{ ;xof] u tyf pgsf] clwsf/ ;'lglZrttfsf nflu ls|ofzLn dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifsx?sf] hLjg lbgk|ltlbg c;'/ lIft aGb} uPsf] tYo tkm{ Wofgfsif{0f u/ fFpb} , nfdf]  ;do;Dd / fHoaf6 pk] lIft ;d'bfosf]  clwsf/ nfO{ s] Gb|df / fvL ;a} sf]  dfgjclwsf/  ;'lglZrt ug] { dlxnf d} qL ;+ljwfgsf]  lgdf{0f u/ L hglgjf{lrt ;/ sf/ sf]  u7g u/ L ;a} lx+;fd"Qm hLjg afFRg kfpg] tyf dfgjclwsf/ / Iffsf nflu k} / jL ug{ kfpg] clwsf/ ;'lglZrttfsf nflu b] zsf &% lhNnfsf s/ La @ ;o dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifsx?sf]  ;xeflutfdf dlxnf clwsf/ sf] ;'lglZrttfsf nflu PsLs[t pkfo Gofo tyf clwsf/ sf] ;'lglZrttf M kLl8tb] lv kl/ jt{gsf ;Djfxs;Dd eGg] d"n gf/ fsf ;fy @)^( k'; @@ b] lv @# ;Dd dsjfgk'/ x] 6f} 8fdf cfof] lht dlxnf lx+;flj?4sf] / fli6«o ;Dd] ng tyf dlxnf dfgjclwsf/  7 ?kdf 5nkmn eO{ cfjZos kl/ dfh{g / ;+zf] wg ;lxt ;j{;DDfltn]  kfl/ t ul/ Psf] ]  lyof]   . b] ze/ ljleGg clwsf/ cfGbf] ngdf lqmofzLn dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifsx?sf] ;~hfnsfk|ltlglwx?sf] pkl:yltdf sfo{qmd ;DkGg ePsf] lyof]  . dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifs cleofgsf ultljlwx?sf] ;ldIff, cg'ej cfbfg k|bfg tyf / fli6«o kl/ j] zsf]  ljZn] if0fn]  cfpFbf lbgdf dlxnf dfgjclwsf/  / Ifsx?sf]  e"ldsf s:tf]  / xg]  < ;~hfnnfO{ s;/ L ;'b[9 ug] { < eÌ] gofF / 0fgLltsf;fy of] hgf tof/  ug] { p2] Zon]  pQm sfo{qmdsf]  cfof] hgf ul/ Psf]  lyof]   . sfo{qmddf b] zsf %* lhNnfsf *! hgf dlxnf dfgjclwsf/  / Ifsx?sf]  ;lqmo ;xeflutf / x] sf]  lyof]   . uf] i7Ln] dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifs cleofgsf ultljlwx?sf]  ;ldIff, cg'ej cfbfg k|bfg tyf / fli6«o kl/ j] zsf] ljZn] if0f u/ ] sf]  lyof]   . uf] i7Ln]  dlxnf dfgjclwsf/  / Ifsx?sf]  klxrfg, ;'/ Iff / ;Ddfgsf] ljifodf 5nkmn u/ L ;'emfj ;ªsng u/ ] sf] lyof]  . dlxnfsf ljleGg ;jfnx? ;dfj] z u/ L dsjfgk'/  3f] if0fkq hf/ L ul/ Psf]  lyof]   . xfn;Dd dlxnf dfgjclwsf/  / Ifx?sf]  cleofgsf]  bf} / fgdf clwsf/ sdL{x?sf]  * j6f / fli6«o:t/ sf k/ fdz{ uf] i7L ;DkGg eO;s] sf 5g eg] dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifs / fli6«o ;~hfnsf]  kfFrf}  ;fwf/ 0f ;ef cf7f} + k/ fdz{ uf] i7Lsf]  ?kdf ;DkGg ePsf] lyof]  . dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifsx?sf] / fli6«o ;~hfnsf] kfFrf} ;fwf/ 0f;eftyf dlxnf lx+;f lj?4sf] / fli6«o ;Dd] ngn]  dsjfgk'/ , 3f] if0ffkq, @)^( kfl/ t u/ ] sf]  lyof]   . dlxnf dfgjclwsf/  / Ifsx?sf]  / fli6«o ;~hfnsf]  kfFrf}  ;fwf/ 0f;ef tyf dlxnf lx+;f lj?4sf] / fli6«o ;Dd] ngaf6 kfl/t dsjfgk'/ , 3f] if0ffkq, @)^(
    • / Ifsx?sf]  / fli6«o ;~hfnsf]  kfFrf}  ;fwf/ 0f;efdf dlxnf lj?4 x'g] lx+;f cGTo / ;du| dlxnf clwsf/ :yfkgfsf]  ljifodf Aofks 5nkmn u/ L of] 3f] if0ffkq hf/ L ub{5f} + . != dlxnfx?dfly ljleGg k|sf/ sf lx+;f tyf eO/ x] sf]  tyf ;/ sf/ sf]  ;+j] bgzLn e}  ;Daf] wg ug{ g;s] sf]  l:ylttkm{ b'Mv k|s6 ub} { ;/ sf/ sf] lx+;flj?4sf] z"Go ;xglzntfsf] gLltnfO{ Jofjxfl/ s ¿kdf sfof{Gjogsf]  dfu ub{5 . kl5Nnf] ;dodf ;fj{hlgs ePsf dlxnfdfly h3Go lx+;f ug] { ck/ fwLnfO{ oyfzL3| s8f sfg'gL sf/ jfxL ul/ of] ;, ck/ fwLnfO{ / fhgLlts of cGo s'g} klg gfddf ;+/ If0f gul/ of] ; eGg]  of]  ;Dd] ng dfu ub{5 . @= nlDaFbf] ]  ;+qmd0fsf /  a9bf]  b08xLgtfn]  dlxnfdfly lg/ Gt/  lx+;f e} / xg]  jftfj/ 0f l;h{gf ePsf]  7x/  ub} { of] ;Dd] ng tTsfn oL b'a} s'/ fsf] cGTosf] dfu ub{5 . #= dlxnf clwsf/ nfO{ ;+j} wflgs ;+/ If0f k|bfg gul/ P;Dd dlxnfx?n] clwsf/ kfpg g;Sg] s'/ fdf b[9 x'Fb}  oyfzL3| / fli6«o ;xdlt sfod u/ L dlxnf d} qL ;+3Lo nf] stflGqs u0ftflGqs ;+ljwfg hf/ L xf] ; eGg]  hf] 8bf/ dfu ub{5 . ;fy} g] kfnL dlxnf cfGbf] ngsf clxn] ;Ddsf pknlAwnfO{ ;+:yfut ug{ cGtl/ d ;+ljwfg, ;+ljwfg;efdf ;xdlt ePsf ljifo oyfjt x'g]  u/ L / fhgLlts lgsf;sf] ;xh ljsNk vf] Hb} tTsfn / fli6«o / fhgLlts ;+s6 ;dfwfgsf] dfu ub{5 . $= dlxnf lx+;f cGTo ug{ cfjZos sfg'g lgdf{0f, lje] bo'Qm sfg'g kl/ dfh{g / ePsf sfg'gsf] k|efjsf/ L sfof{Gjogsf nflu of] ;Dd] ng hf] 8bf/ dfu ub{5 . %= ;'/ Iff cfjf; u[x ;~rfng k|0ffnLsf] lasf;, ;'/ Iff cfjf;df cfjZostf cg';f/ a:g ;Sg] Joj:yf, k|efljtsf] ;fdflhs ;'/ Iff, kL8s w/ f} 6Ldf l/ xf x'g]  Joj:yfsf]  vf/ ] hL, uf] klgotfsf]  ;+/ If0f, ;fIfL ;'/ Iff, lg/ Gt/ ;'g'jfO{ / ;+lIfKt sfo{ljlw sfg'gsf] cljnDa Joj:yf u/ L Jojxfl/ s sfof{Gjogsf] of] ;Dd] ng dfu ub{5 . ^= dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;f cg';Gwfg ug] {, sf/ jfxLsf] l;kmfl/ ; ug] { / sfg'g sfof{Gjogsf] eP gePsf] cg'udg ug] { ;/ sf/  /  dlxnf clwsf/ sdL{sf]  k|ltlglwTj x'g]  u/ L s] Gb| b] lv :yfgLo:t/ ;Dd clanDa Pp6f ;+oGq lgdf{0f ug{ of] ;Dd] ng dfu ub{5 . &= anfTsf/ sf] ;Gbe{df xbDofbsf] sfg'gL k|fjwfgsf]  vf/ ] hLsf ;fy}  ck/ fwLnfO{ ;{j:j ;lxt hGds} bsf]  ;hfo x'g] sfg'gL Joj:yfsf] of] ;Dd] ng dfu ub{5 . * = / fHo ;+rfngsf x/ ] s ;+oGqdf dlxnfsf] ;dfg'kflts k|ltlglwTj, gful/ stf, k} t[s ;DklQ tyf e"lddf ;dfg clwsf/ , cfjf;sf]  clwsf/ , lzIff /  :jf:Yo / f] huf/ Ldf ljz] if clwsf/ , k|hgg clwsf/ tyf, dlxnf :jf:Yosf]  ljz] if Joj:yf ug{ / ePsf Aoj:yfsf] Jofjxfl/ s sfof{Gjogsf] dfu ub{5 . (= dfgjclwsf/ ;+/ If0f / ;Da4{gsf nflu cxf] / fq vl6g]  dfgjclwsf/  / Ifsx?k|lt a9bf]  c;'/ Iff, r'gf} tL /  hf] lvdnfO{ dWogh/  ub} { dlxnf dfgjclwsf/  / Ifsx?sf ljlzi6 ;d:of ;+af] wg ug] { u/ L dfgjclwsf/ / Ifs ;'/ Iff gLlt Nofpg ;/ sf/ ;dIf dfu ub{5 . !)= / fHo ;+rfngsf] k|d'v / fhgLlts bnx? g} ePsf] n]  @=&= dlxnf lx+;f cGTosf nflu ;+o'Qm kxn cfjZos dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifs ;~hfnsf] kfFrf} + ;fwf/ 0f ;ef tyf dlxnf lx+;f lj?4sf] / fli6«o ;Dd] ng @)^( kf} if ^ b] lv * ;Dd dsjfgk'/ x] 6f} +8fdf ;DkGg ePsf] lyof]  . pQm ;Dd] ngdf ^$ lhNnfsf dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifsx?sf]  ;xeflutf / x] sf] lyof]  . em08} *) hgf dlxnf dfgjclwsf/  / Ifs ;lqmo ?kdf lqmofzLn k|ltlglwx?sf] pkl:ylt / x] sf]  lyof]  . dlxnfsf] of} lgs clwsf/ / jfFRg kfpg] clwsf/ sf]  jf/ ] df Jofks jx; tyf 5nkmn ul/ Psf] pQm sfo{qmddf dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifsx?n] cfkmgf] ufpF 7fpFdf ePsf lx+;fsf 36gfx?sf] ljj/ 0f k|:t't ug'{ePsf] lyof]  . jt{dfg kl/ k|] Ifdf dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ sf]  s'/ f ubf{ g] kfn ;/ sf/  lgs}  pbf;Lg / x] sf]  /  ;/ sf/ n]  cfjZos cj:yfdf ;xof] u gu/ ] sf]  u'gf;f]  dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ sdL{x?n]  JoQm u/ ] sf lyP . ;/ sf/ L kIfx? ljz] iftM ;'/ Iff lgsfojf6 g}  g] kfnL dlxnfx? c;'/ lIft dx;'; ul/ / x] sf]  /  s'g}  klg 5f] / L r] nLx?n] ;fdfhjf6 jrg / n77Lsf] lzsf/ x'g' s'g} gf} nf]  s'/ f gePsf] s'/ f klg dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifsx?n] JoQm ug'{eof]   . k'jf{~rnsf] l;/ fxfdf dfq} Ps xKtfdf # hgf dlxnf anfTs[t / b'O{ dlxnfdfly anfTsf/ sf] k|of; ePsf] s'/ f ;xefuLx?n] JoQm u/ ]  . yf] / } ;doleq 36] sf oL 36gfn]  k'jf{~rndf dlxnf lx+;fsf] 36gfdf j[l4 ePsf] b] lvG5 . 5f] / L r] nL sfd ug] { :yfgdf g}  jnfTsf/ sf]  lzsf/  x'g' k/ ] sf]  36gfn]  dlxnfx? c;'/ lIft aGb}  uPsf]  b] lvG5  . t/ fO{ 8
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    • s} b jf y'gfdf / x] sL s'g}  dlxnfnfO{ ;/ sf/ L sd{rf/ Ln]  anfTsf/ u/ ] df jf ug{ c? s;} nfO{ ;+of] u kf/ L ldnfO{ lbPdf ! jif{b] lv # jif{;Dd yk s} b ;hfo x'G5 . o:t} s] Gb|df / flvPsL dlxnfnfO{ ;+:yfsf] kbflwsf/ L jf sd{rf/ Ln]  anfTsf/ u/ ] df klg ! jif{ b] lv # jif{;Dd yk s} b ;hfo x'G5 . Ifltk"lt{ s;} n]  s'g}  dlxnfnfO{ anfTsf/  u/ ] sf]  7x/ ] df cbfntn]  kLl8t dlxnfnfO{ ePsf] zf/ Ll/ s jf dfgl;s Iflt ljrf/  u/ L dgfl;j 7x/ fP adf] lhd Ifltk"lt{ s;"/ bf/ af6 e/ fO{ lbg'kb5{ . To:tf] Ifltk"lt{ lgwf{/ 0f ubf{ s;'/ sf] ufDeLo{tf, s;'/ af6 kLl8t JolQmsf]  d[To' e} ;s] sf]  / x] 5 eg]  cfl>t gfafns 5f] / f5f] / L eP lghx?nfO{ kg{ uPsf] kL8f ;d] t ljrf/ u/ L lgwf{/ 0f ug{'kg] { Joj:yf ul/ Psf] 5 . anfTsf/  ;DaGwL d'2f cbfntdf rln/ xFbf cleo'Qmn] cfkmgf] c+zdf / x] sf]  ;DklQ a] rlavg gu/ f] ; /  gn'sfcf] ; eGg]  p2] Zon]  cbfntn] cleo'Qmsf] c+z nufotsf cGo ;DklQ / f] Ssf ug{'kg] { Joj:yf u/ ] sf]  5  . s'g} gfafnsnfO{ ck|fs[lts d} y'g u/ ] u/ fPdf anfTsf/  ePsf] dfgL yk Ps jif{ s} b ;hfo ug] { / gfafnssf]  pd] / / p;nfO{ kg{ uPsf] dsf{;d] t ljrf/ u/ L cbfntn]  ck|fs[lts d} y'g ug] {af6 dgfl;j Ifltk"lt{ ;d] t e/ fO{ lbg]  Joj:yf 5 . uf] klgotf anfTsf/ sf] ck/ fw cg';Gwfg ubf{ kLl8t dlxnfsf] aofg u/ fpFbf dlxnf sd{rf/ Ln]  u/ fpg' kg] { ;f]  geP ;dfh;] jL dlxnfsf] / f] xj/ df aofg u/ fpg' kg] { Joj:yf 5 . d'2fsf]  sf/ jfxLsf] l;nl;nfdf kLl8t dlxnf;Fu ;DalGwt hfgsf/ Lx? Uff] Ko / fVg'k5{ . o:tf 36gfsf] k|rf/ k|;f/ sf]  qmddf :jLs[lt ljgf kLl8tsf] jf:tljs gfd kmf] 6f] ;fj{hlgs ug{ kfOb} g . d'2fsf] z'? cg';Gwfg k|s[ofb] lv sfg'g sfof{Gjog ug] { lgsfon] jf:tljs gfdsf] ;66f sfNklgs gfd jf ;+s] t k|of] u u/ L uf] klgotf sfod / fVg'k5{ . ;fy}  cbfntdf d'2f ;'g'jfO{ ubf{ aGb Ohnf;df x'g] sfg'gL Joj:yf 5 . k|df0fsf]  ;'/ Iff anfTsf/ ePdf anfTs[t x'g] kLl8t dlxnfn] k|df0fsf]  ;'/ Iffsf] nflu lgDg sfo{df Wofg lbg'k5{ . • g'xfpg' x'Fb} g • n'uf w'g' x'Fb} g • 36gf:ynsf] k|s[lt abNg' x'Fb} g • :jf:Yo k/ LIf0f gu/ L of} g ;DaGw / fVg' x'Fb} g . ph'/  ug] { ;do d'n'sL P] g hah{:tL s/ 0fLsf] dxnsf] bkmf !! df anfTsf/  ePsf] #% lbgleq glhssf] k|x/ Ldf ph'/ L ug'{kg] { Joj:yf u/ ] sf] 5 . anfTsf/ sf] ph'/ L hf] sf] xLn] klg ug{ kfpF5 . hah{:tL s/ 0fLsf] dxnsf] bkmf !! sf] xbDofbsf] jt{dfg Joj:yf Hofb} sd eO{ kLl8tnfO{ Gofo lbnfpg] sfo{df afwf kfg{ ePsf]  b] lvPsf] n]  kLl8tsf]  ;fdflhs dgf] j} 1flgs, cg';Gwfgdf nfUg] ;do / Gofodf kx'Frsf] cj:yfnfO{ Wofgdf / fvL ck/ fwsf]  ufDeLo{tfnfO{ x] / L k|efjsf/ L cg';Gwfg / cleof] hg ug{;Sg] u/ L kof{Kt xbDofbsf] Joj:yf ug] { lx;fan] pQm hah{:tL s/ 0fLsf] bkmf !! df Joj:yf ePsf]  xbDofb a9fpg] u/ L sfg'gdf ;'wf/ ug{' egL ;kgf k|wfg dNnlj?4 g] kfn ;/ sf/ ePsf] d'2fdf ;jf] {Rr cbfntaf6 lgb] {zgfTds cfb] znfO{ sfo{Gjog ug] { sfo{ ePsf] 5} g . o;} sf/ 0fn] dfq sltko anfTsf/ af6 kLl8t dlxnfx?n]  cbfntaf6 Gofo gkfPsf] cj:yf 5 . lkmtnf] cg';Gwfg k|lqmof, kLl8tk|lt ;Da] bgzLntfsf] cefj, cfly{s tyf / fhgLlts sf/ 0f OToflbaf6 kLl8t sDhf] / x'g] t/ kL8s alnof] ePsf] n] k|x/ L klg alnof] kIfsf] ;fy nfUg] , kLl8t dlxnfk|lt ;dfhsf]  g/ fd|f]  ;f] rfO{, ef} uf] lns ljs6tf, ;dodf :jf:Yo kl/ If0f gx'g', ;fIfL k|df0fsf] cefj cflbaf6 anfTsf/ sf d'2fx?af6 kL8s pDsg] ;Defjgf al9 ePsf]  kfOG5 . ;jf] {Rr cbfntn] eg] em+} jf:tjdf xbDofbsf sf/ 0fn] dfq w] / } d'2fx? cbfntdf k'Ug ;s] sf 5} gg . k|x/ Ln] klg xbDofbsf] sf/ 0f b] vfO{ d'2f grnfO{ lbg] , olb rnfO{ xfn] klg 36gf ldlt kl/ jt{g u/ L d'2fsf] cg';Gwfg yfNg] t/ kl5 ;f] s'/ f cbfntdf v'Ng uO{ d'2f sdhf] / x'g]  a9L vt/ f / xG5 . 36gf cWoog ! sf7df08f} +sf] afnaflnsf cfjf;u[xdf ToxfF a:g] $ hgf !! jif{b] lv !^ jif{sf aflnsf P, jL, ;L, / 8L -gfd kl/ jt{g_ nfO{ ;f] xL cfjf;u[xsf] ;~rfnsn] nfdf]  ;dob] lv of} g b'Jojxf/  ub} { cfPsf] , aflnsfx?;Fu lhl:sg] , pgLx?sf]  ;Da] bgzLn c+ux? 5'g] , rnfpg] , ;Fu} a;fpg] , cFufnf] xfNg] uYof] { . kl5 tL rf/ hgf aflnsfx?nfO{ k6s k6s s/ 0fL ub} { cfPsf] cj:yfdf ;f] cfjf; u[x ;~rfns / cfly{s ;xof] u ug] { ljb] zL ;+:yfx?;Dd ;f] s'/ f k'uL 36gf aflx/ cfof]  . Ps hgf dlxnf clwsf/ sdL{n] ;f] 36gfsf lj?4 sf7df08f} + k|x/ Ldf ph'/ L u/ L cg';Gwfgsf]  qmddf ljleGg x} / fgL 12
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    • kLl8tsf]  z/ L/  ;'Sb}  uPsf]  6f] s] sf]  7fFpdf ;'lgPsf]  3fpx? km} lnb} uPsf]  . :jf:Yo l:ylt lau|b} uPsf] 5 .Æ To;sf] ef] lnkN6 dlxnf clwsf/ sdL{x? hgsk'/ c~rn c:ktfnsf] 8fS6/ uf} / f ld>fsf] lghL lSnlgsdf uO{ lsg o;/ L anfTsf/ af6 kLl8tsf] pkrf/ gePsf] egL ;f] Wbf cfkm"nfO{ yfxf gePsf] egL cfn6fn ug] { sfo{ eof]   . /  pgsf]  cf} ifwf] krf/  ug] { cfZjf;g lbg'eof]   . tyflk lghsf] s'/ fn] Tolt ;Dj] bgzLntf b] vfPg . anfTsf/ af6 kLl8t dlxnfsf] pkrf/ ug] {, jf:tjdf kLl8tnfO{ kl5;Dd c;/ gkg] { d'2fdf c;/ gkg] { u/ L ;xL k|ltj] bg agfOlbg] sfo{sf :jf:YosdL{af6 x] NrqmofO{ nfk/ jfxL e} / x] sf]  o; 36gfn]  b] vfpF5   . l;kmfl/ ;x¿  ;jf] {Rr cbfntaf6 k|i6?kdf g] kfn ;/ sf/ nfO{ hah{:tL s/ 0fL !! g+ df n] lvPsf] #% lbg] xbDofb lgs} sd xfn;Dd b] lvPsf ;d:of kLl8tsf] cj:yf, ef} uf] lnstf, kLl8tn]  ph'/  lbg;Sg]  kl/ l:ylt nufotsf cfwf/ df ljrf/ k'¥ofO{ xbDofbsf] ;do a9fpg] sfg'g lgdf{0f ug'{ eGg] pTk|] 0ffsf] cfb] z lbO{ ;s] sf] eP klg xfn;Dd ;f]  af/ ] df P] g ;+zf] wg ePsf]  5} g  .  ha{h:tL s/ 0fLsf] ph'/ ug] { xbDofb slt x'g'k5{ eGg]  ;DaGwdf xfn;Ddsf] cg'ejsf cfwf/ df kLl8tsf]  cj:yf ;fdfGo ePsf ldltn] # dlxgf x'g'k5{ .  uDeL/  k|s[ltsf]  kmf} hbf/ L d'2f ePsf]  sf/ 0f ha{h:tL s/ 0fLjf6 kLl8t dlxnfsf] :jf:Yo pkrf/ , lghsf] ;'/ Iff, cfjf;u[x tyf ;+/ If0fsf]  ;Dk"0f{ lhDd] jf/ L ;/ sf/ n]  lng'k5{ . o;sf nflu 5'§} sfg'g lgb] {lzsf jgfO{ b] ze/  nfu" x'g] u/ L tTsfn k|s[of cufl8 j9fpg'k5{ .  anfTsf/ 36gfsf] ;fIfL, kLl8t, kLl8tsf] kl/ jf/  ;d] tnfO{ k6s k6s wDsL cfpg] , afWo eP/ cbfntdf 36gfsf] ljk/ Lt aofg lbg afWo kfg] {, ;dflhs abgfd, cfly{s nf] e, / fhgLlts bjfa cflb lbP/ 36gfnfO{ sdhf] /  kfg] { sfo{ e} / x] sf] n]  o;nfO{ lgif] w ug{ ;j{k|yd kLl8t, ;fIfL, kl/ jf/  ;d] tsf]  ;'/ Iffsf]  Uof/ ] G6L ug'{k5{  . kLl8t Gofozf:qsf] k6s k6s s'/ f p7] klg xfn;Dd g] kfndf ljz] if sfg'g gePsf] n]  kLl8tsf]  ;+/ If0fsf nflu sfg'g agfOg'k5{ . ;fy} o;sf] af/ ] df cfjfh p7fpg]  clwsf/ sdL{, kqsf/ , ;fdflhs sfo{stf{dfly ;d] t 7"nf]  wDsL cfpg]  u/ ] sf] n]  pgLx?sf]  ;'/ Iffsf af/ ] df klg af] Ng'k5{  .  ha{h:tL s/ 0fLsf]  ck/ fwdf cg';Gwfg ug] { lhDd] jf/ L ;Dk"0f{ k|x/ Lsf]  ePsf]  /  d'2f rnfpg]  clwsf/  ;/ sf/ L jsLnsf]  ePsf] n]  xfn;Ddsf]  cg'ej x] bf{ k|x/ L, sd{rf/ L tyf jlsnx? Tolt ;Da] bgzLn gePsf] , pgLx? s}  nfk/ jfxLn]  d'2f sdhf] /  ePsf] , kLl8tn]  Gofo gkfPsf]  eGg]  u'gf;f] x? cfO/ x] sf] n]  k|x/ L sd{rf/ L tyf ;/ sf/ L jlsnx?nfO{ cem lhDd] jf/ agfpg' kg] { . o;sf nflu dxfGofolwjQmfsf] sfof{no / k|x/ L k|wfg sfof{non]  ;Dj] bgzLntf ckgfpg gLltut lgb] {zg, k'/ :sf/ tyf b08sf] Jo:yf eO{ ;xL lgodg ;d] t x'g'kg] { .  s] Gb|b] lv lhNnf tx;Dd hah{:tL s/ 0fLsf] 36gfdf kLl8tsf] ;+/ If0f, d'2fdf ;xof] u ug{, ;fIfL tyf kl/ jf/ sf] ;'/ Iff nufPtsf sfo{df ;xof] u ug{sf nflu ljz] if k|s[ltsf] ;+/ rgfdf agfO{ To;nfO{ ;lqmo kfg] { .  cbntsf GofowLz tyf sd{rf/ Lx? ;/ sf/ L jlsn, sfg'g Joj;foLx?, k|x/ L sd{rf/ Lx?nfO{ of} g lx+;f tyf anfTsf/ af6 kLl8tk|lt ug] { Jojxf/ df kl/ jt{g Nofpg ljleGg lsl;dsf tflndsf Joj:yf x'g'kg] { .  xfnsf] sfg'gL Joj:yf cg';f/ anfTsf/ jf ha/ h:tL s/ 0fL ug] { JolQmnfO{ ;hfo w] / }  sd ePsf]  sf/ 0fn]  ubf{ o:tf sfo{nfO{ lg?T;flxt ug{ ;j{:j ;lxt hGds} bsf]  Joj:yf x'g'kg] { . kLl8tnfO{ Ifltk"lt{ :j?k / fHojf6 g} oyf] lrt Ifltk"lt{sf]  Jo:yf sfg'gL ?kdf x'g'kg] { . kL8saf6 Ifltk"lt{ k|fKt x'g g;Sg] cj:yfx? h:t} kLl8s;Fu ;Dklt g/ x] sf] cj:yfdf / fHon]  g}  Ifltk"lt{sf]  Joj:yf ug'{kg] {  . 14
    • nfdf]  ;dob] lv dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ sdL{sf]  ¿kdf / x] /  dlxnfx?sf]  xs, clwsf/  / Iffsf]  lglDt nflu/ xg' ePsL >L df] xgf cG;f/ L xfn / fli6«o dlxnf cfof] usf] ;b:o x'g'x'G5 . dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifs / fli6«o ;~hfn /  ;~hfn;+u cfj4 / x] /  dlxnf dfgjclwsf/  / Ifssf]  e"ldsf lgjf{x ul/ / x] sf clwsf/ sdL{x?sf]  sfd, st{Jo, clwsf/ , ;'/ Iff, r'g} tL / klxrfgsf] ;DaGwdf hfg'sf sfsL{n] ug'{ePsf] s'/ fsfgL . sfdn] cfof] unfO{ dfq} xf] Og ;Dk"0f{ / fHonfO{ g}  ;xof] u k'u] sf]  5  . cem}  eGg]  xf]  eg]  o;n]  cfof] u / / fHon] ug'{kg] { sfdsf] cfwf ef/ g} 36fPsf] 5 . ;d'bfo:t/ df dlxnfdfly 36] sf 36gfx?sf] lj?4 n8g] , cg'udg ug] {, kLl8t / k|efljtx?nfO{ Gofo lbnfpg] / sfo{jfxL nflu l;kmf/ L; ug] { h:tf dxTjk"0f{ sfdx? dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifsx?jf6 ePsf] 5 h'g s'/ fsf] d"Nofªsg cfof] u / / fHo b'j} n] ug'{' h?/ L 5 . %= dlxnf dfgjclwsf/  / Ifsx?n]  ;~rfng u/ ] sf]  cleofg jf sfo{qmdnfO{ tkfO{+ / tkfO{+sf] ;+:yfn] s;/ L ;xof] u ul/ / x] sf]  5 <  sltko ;dodf ;xsfo{ ePsf] 5 . sltko 7fpFdf jxfFx?n]  p7fPsf]  cfjfhnfO{ cfof] un]  cfkmg}  cfjfhsf]  ?kdf p7fPsf] 5 . dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifsx?sf] klxrfg /  ;'/ Iff x'g'k5{ eGg] ;Gbe{df d cfkm} klg nfluk/ ] sf] 5' eg] xfdLn] cfof] usf] tkm{jf6 klg / fHonfO{ bafa lbPsf 5f} + . h:tf] d tkfFOnfO{ Pp6f pbfx/ 0f lbG5', cgf} krfl/ s If] qdf sfd ug] {x?nfO{ / fHon] :k] z lbPsf] lyPg t/  dlxnf cfof] usf] kxndf jxfFx?sf] >dsf] ;Ddfg ug'{k5{ eGb}  To; If] qdf p7] sf]  cfjfhnfO{ ;Daf] wg u/ ] sf]  5  . ;Ddfg /  ;'/ Iffsf]  nflu lg/ Gt/  kxn ul/ / x] sf]  5  . ^= dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / IfsnfO{ sfd ubf{ hf] lvd 5 sL 5} g < 5 eg] pgLx?dfly s] s:tf] hf] lvd cfOk5{g <  5 . pgLx?dfly pRr hf] lvd 5 . d cfkm" klg dlxnf dfgjclwsf/  / Ifssf]  ?kdf sfd u/ ] sf]  x'gfn] pgLx?dflysf] hf] lvdnfO{ d glhsjf6 dxz'; ug{;S5' . vf;u/ L dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifs dlxnfsf]  d'2fdf kmf] s; eP/ sfd ug] { x'gfn] pgLx? kLl8tsf]  ;+/ If0fdf nflu k/ ] sf x'G5g . o:tf] cj:yfdf pgLx? b'j} kIfjf6 hf] lvddf k/ ] sf x'G5g . kLl8tsf] d'2fnfO{ cfkm} n] p7fP/ lxF8g' kg] { x'G5 eg] slxn] sFfxL cfkmg}  3/ df ;] N6/ lbg'kg] { cj:yf klg / xG5 . o;/ L kL8ssf]  tf/ f] x'g] x'gfn] yk hf] lvddf kg] { u/ ] sf 5g . sltko cj:yfdf pgLx?sf] Hofg} uPsf] ;d] t cj:yf 5 . dlxnf dfgjclwsf/  / Ifsx?n]  / fHosf] cfwf sfd 36fPsf 5g != g] kfndf ;~rflnt dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifx?sf]  cleofgnfO{ s;/ L x] g'{ ePsf] 5 <  of] cleofg Pp6f lj:t[t ?kdf hgr] tgf km} nfpg]  dfWofd xf] eg] csf] { rfFlx dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifssf]  cleofgn]  lhNnf :t/ sf]  cfjfhnfO{ s] Gb|Lo :t/ ;Dd hf] 8g]  sfd u/ ] sf]  5  . d} n]  o;nfO{ log}  b'O{ t/ Lsfjf6 x] / ] sL 5'  . @= tkfFOsf] j'emfOdf dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifsx? sf] sf]  x'g <  xfdL ;j} xf} + . kqsf/ , gful/ s ;dfh, :j+;] jL, s'g}  sfo{nosf] sd{rf/ L h:fn] dlxnfsf] ljifodf cf–cfkmgf]  tx / tKsfjf6 cfjfh p7fpg] , n] Vg] , ;+/ If0fsf] jsfnt ug] { u5{g / dlxnfx?sf] clwsf/ sf] lglDt sfd ug] { hf] ;'s} AolQm klg dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifsx? x'g . o;sf nflu s'g} ;+3 ;+:yfdf afFlwg' k5{ eGg] 5} g . t/  slxn] sfFxL ljlzi6s[t klg x'g;Sb5 . oL g} dlxnf dfgjclwsf/  / Ifsx? x'g eg] /  ls6fg u/ ] sf]  s'/ f rfFlx dnfO{ Tolt 7Ls nfUb} g . #= dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifsx?n] ug] { ultljlwnfO{ s;/ L x] g'{ ePsf] 5 <  dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifsx?n] ug] { s[ofsnfkx? sxLF ;Gtf] ifhgs 5g eg] sxLF 5} g . ;Gtf] if hgs kfOPsf]  eg] sf] cfkmgf] sfdx?nfO{ 7f] ; ?kfdf cufl8 j9fpg' jxfFx?sf]  dxTjk"0f{ lhDd] jf/ L xf]  hf]  pxfFx?n]  ul/ / fVg' ePsf] 5 . t/ To;} leq jxfFx?sf] hLjg r'gf} tLk"0f{ klg / x] sf] 5 . hf] sltko ;jfndf lx+;f kLl8t dlxnfsf]  lglDt jsfnt ubf{ ub} { cfkmgf] ;'/ Iff / klxrfgsf] s'/ f uf} 0f x'g hfG5g / tLleq cfkm" :jo+ lx+;fsf] lzsf/ aGg' kl/ / x] sf]  cj:yf 5   . $= dlxnf dfgjclwsf/  / Ifsx?n]  u/ ] sf]  ultljlwn]  cfof] usf]  sfdnfO{ s;/ L ;xof] u k'u] sf]  5 <  Jff:tjdf dlxnf dfgjclwsf/  / Ifsx?n]  u/ ] sf]  df] xgf cg;f/ L ;b:o g] kfn dlxnf cfof] u 15 $= cGtjf{tf{
    • &= dlxnf dfgjclwsf/  / Ifsx? sf] jf6 hf] lvddf kg] { u/ ] sf 5g < kL8snfO{ hf] ufpg vf] Hg] x?jf6 g}  hf] lvddf k/ ] sf 5g . klxnf] s'/ f t pgLx? kL8sjf6 g} hf] lvddf kg] { u/ ] sf 5g eg] slxn] sfFxL / fHo, ;dfh / ;d'bfojf6 klg pgLx?dfly hf] lvd kg{;S5 . *= dlxnf dfgjclwsf/  / Ifsn]  cfkm"dfly x'g]  hf] lvd jf/ ]  ph'/ L u5{g ls ub} {gg <  dlxnf dfgjclwsf/  / Ifsn]  cfkm"dfly x'g]  hf] lvd jf/ ]  c;fWo} sd ph'/ L ug] { u/ ] sf 5g . lhNnf k|d'v /  k|x/ Lx?jf6 klg pgLx?sf] vf; ;'g'jfO{ ePsf] kfO{Fb} g . pgLx?sf] ljrf/ df lx+;f kLl8t dlxnfx?sf] nflu n8g]  dfgjclwsf/ / Ifsx? cfkmgf] ;+/ If0f :jo+ ug{ ;S5g eGg] dfGotf klg xf] nf . t/ Tof] unt xf] h:tf] nfU5 dnfO{ . csf] { rflxF dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifsx?df ;x] /  j:g]  afgLsf]  sf/ 0fn]  o;f]  ePsf]  xf]   . o;/ L ;xg' eg] sf]  pgLx?dflysf] hf] lvd cem} a9b} hfg' xf]  . JolQmut ?kdf t emg ph'/ L u/ ] sf]  xfdLn]  la/ n}  e] 6] sf 5f} +  . clwsf/ sf]  If] qdf sfd ug] {n]  cfkm"dfly ePsf]  lx+;f lj?4 lzsfot ug] { ug'{k5{ . (= dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifsn] sfd ubf{ cfOkg] { hf] lvd sd ug{ cfof] usf] e"ldsf s] x'g;S5 < dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifsx?sf] ;d:of / pgLx?dfly kg] { hf] lvdnfO{ sd ug{ cfof] usf] e"ldsf / fli6«o tyf cGt/ f{li6«o:t/ df k} / jL ug] { vfnsf]  x'G5  . !)= dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifsn] sfd ubf{ cfkmgf] hf] lvd sd ug{ / fHosf] e"ldsf s] x'g;S5 <  dlxnf dfgjclwsf/  / Ifsx?sf]  klxrfg eO;s] sf]  cj:yf 5 . dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifsx?n] ;dfhdf k|x/ Lsf]  e"ldsf u/ ] sf x'gfn]  pgLx?sf]  sfdnfO{ / fHon] d"Nof+sg ug{' cfjZos 5 . / fHos} Pp6f cËsf]  ?kdf cfkmgf]  lhDd] jf/ L axg ul/ / x] sf dfgjclwsf/  / Ifsx?sf]  ;'/ Iffsf]  bfloTj ca / fHosf]  xf]   . To;} n]  dlxnf dfgjclwsf/  / Ifsx?sf]  ljz] if ;'/ Iffsf]  Joj:yf ug] { / pgLx?dfly ePsf] lx+;fsf] 36gfsf] Ifltk"lt{sf]  Joj:yf klg / fHon] ug'kg] { x'G5  . !!= pgLx?n]  ul/ / x] sf]  sfdnfO{ ;d'bfob] lv s] Gb|Lo:t/ ;Dd :yflkt ug{ tkfOsf] e"ldsf s] x'g;S5 < ;xsfo{ ug{;S5f}  . dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifsx?sf]  klxrfg / ;'/ Iffsf] nflu jxfx?n] p7fpg'ePsf] d'2f /  ;jfnx?df /  jxfx?n]  v] Ng'ePsf]  e"ldsfnfO{ / fli6«o :t/ ;Dd hf] 8gsf] nflu sfd ug{;S5f} + . hf] ug'{ cfjZos klg 5 / k|oTg/ t klg 5f} + . !@= dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifsx?nfO{ ;'/ lIft ?kdf sfd ug] { jftfj/ 0fsf]  l;h{gf ug{ ;j} eGbf 7"nf]  lhDd] jf/ L s;sf] x'g;S5 <  ;'/ lIft ?kdf sfd ug] { jftfj/ 0f jgfpg] k|d'v lhDd] jf/ L eg] sf]  / fHosf]  g}  xf]   . To:t}  :yfgLo :t/ , k|x/ L k|zf;g, ;'/ IffsdL{ / fli6«o dfgjclwsf/  cfof] u, / fl6«o dlxnf cfof] usf ;fy ;fy} ;dfh / kl/ jf/ sf] e"ldsf klg dxTjk"0f{ x'G5 . !#= tkfO{+sf] ljrf/ df dfgjclwsf/ / Ifs -k'?if_ ;/ x dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifsn] ;Ddfg kfPsf 5g ls 5} gg <  5} gg eGbf x'G5  . jf:tjdf / fHon]  g}  lje] b ul/ / x] sf]  cj:yfdf k'?if ;/ x dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifsx?n]  ;Ddfg kfpg ufx|f] 5 . h:tf] ls lhNnf:t/ df x'g]  dfgjclwsf/ ;DaGwL a} 7sx?df dlxnf dfgjclwsf/  / Ifsx?sf] pkl:ylt x'g'k5{ eGg] dxz'; klg gul/ Psf]  kfOG5 w] / } 7fFpdf . / fHosf] s'g} klg gLlt, sfo{qmd jf of] hgf ;DaGwL 5nkmn ubf{ g] kfnsf] &% j6} lhNnfdf g] 6js{ ePsf] oqf] 7"nf] ;+:yfnfO{ jf] nfpg cfjZos 7fg] sf]  d} n]  kfPsf]  5} g  . sltko 7fFpdf d} n]  s'/ f p7fPsf] klg 5' . !$= dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifsx?sf] klxrfg / ;'/ Iffsf]  nflu s;n] s] ug'{knf{ <  dlxnf dfgjclwsf/  / Ifx?sf]  klxrfg /  ;'/ Iffsf]  nflu ;j} If] qn] cf–cfkmgf] :t/ jf6 kxn ug{'kb{5 . / fHo, gful/ s ;dfh, ;d'bfo, k|] ;, h:tf If] qjf6 pgLx?n]  u/ ] sf]  dxTjk"0f{ ;dflhs sfdnfO{ / fHosf]  ;j}  ;+oq;Dd k'¥ofpg, jx;df Nofpg, To;sf] rrf{ ug] { ug'{kb{5 . !%= kl5Nnf] ;dodf dlxnf lx+;fsf] d'2fx? ;+rf/ dfWoddf v'j} ;'Gg / k9g kfOG5 o;f] lsg ePsf] xf] <  jf:tjdf lx+;f t a9] s} xf] t/ Tof] eGbf klg l/ kf] {l6Ë a9] sf] xf] h:tf] dnfO{ nfU5 . dflg;x? cfkmgf]  clwsf/ sf] lglDt ;r] t ePsf 5g . lx+;f ;x] / j:g' x'Gg eGg] dfgl;stfsf] ljsf; ePsf] xf] ls eGg] h:tf]  klg nfU5 . d g} dlxnf cfof] udf cfpFbf oxFf jif{sf] b; afx| j6f 36gfsf] dfq} ph'/ L kb{Yof] t/ clxn] cfP/  jif{sf] Ps ;ob] lv Ps ;o krf;;Dd ph'/ L kg] { u/ ] sf]  5 . o;nfO{ x] bf{ ph'/ L ug] { qmd kSs} klg j9] sf] 5 / l/ kf] {l6Ë klg . :yfgLo :t/ df / x] / sfd ug] { dlxnf 16
    • dfgjclwsf/  / Ifsx?sf]  ;lqmotfn]  klg o;f]  ePsf]  x'g;S5 . !^= o; cleofgnfO{ cem ;s[o / ;+ul7t ?kdf nfgsf]  nflu tkfOsf] ;'dmfj <  dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifsx? ljz'4 ¿kdf dlxnfsf]  d'2fdf kmf] s; eP/ nfUg d ;Nnfx lbG5' . pgLx?n]  dWo:tstf{sf] e"ldsf t ug{ ;S5g t/ sfg'g / flwsf ;fksf] 6f ;+:yfks lhNnf cWoIf dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifs ;~hfn wflbª xftdf lnP/ km} ;nf ug] { sfd ul/ g' x'b} g . Tof] sfd Gofofnosf] xf]  . lx+;fsf] 36gfx?sf] ljifodf naL ug] { sfd dfgjclwsf/ / Ifsx?sf] eP klg d'2f ldnfpg]  sfd pgLx?sf] xf] Og . ;+u7gnfO{ jlnof] jgfpg] xf] eg]  oL s'/ fx?df Wofg lbg'kb{5 . / fhgLlts ?kdf 6f9f a:g' / fd|f] x'G5 . o; ;+u7gnfO{ ;dfj] zL 9+un] n} hfg'k5{ . cGo ;d'bfodf klg dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifsx? 5g pgLx?nfO{ klg ;d] 6] / n} hfg ;s] ;+u7gsf] lxt x'G5 . dlxnf dfgjclwsf/  / Ifsx?sf]  ;'/ Iffsf]  nflu plrt gLlt / fHon] agfpg'k5{ != dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifs lhNnf ;~hfn wflbËsf]  slxn] / s;/ L z'?jft eof] < lhNnfdf s] xL ;dob] lv dlxnfx? ljleGg If] qdf / x] / dlxnf lx+;f lj?4 sfd ul/ / x] sf lyof} + . xfdL ;fyLx? sf] xL u} /  ;/ sf/ L If] qdf sfo{/ t lyof} +, sf] xL ;xsf/ Ldf t sf] xL lzIfs . ljleGg If] qdf / x] /  cfcfkmg}  tl/ sfn]  xfdLn]  sfd ul/ / x] sf]  cj:Yffdf wflbªdf Ps} k6s # j6f dlxnf lj?4sf 7"nf ck/ flws 36gfx? eP . ! ;o b'O{ jif{sf] a[4fdfly anfTsf/  eof] , clwsf/ sdL{ lgd{nf yfkfsf] lqz'nLdf xTof eof] /  Pshgf !# jifL{of aflnsfnfO{ cfkmg} sfsf kg] { lzIfsn]  of} g zf] if0f u/ L ue{jtL jgfP/ ue{ktg u/ fP . oL # j6f 36gfn] xfdLnfO{ ;+ul7t x'gsf] nflu afWo u/ fof]  . xfdL s;/ L s] df ;+ul7t x'g] eGg] s'/ fdf cGof} ndf lyof} + . s] xL ;fyLx?n]  dlxnf dfgjclwsf/  / Ifsx?sf]  / fli6«o ;+hfnsf]  jf/ ] df yfxf kfP/ To;sf] lhNnf ;ldlt u7g ug{ kxn klg ug'{ePsf] lyof]  . t/ oL 36gfn] xfdLnfO{ / fli6«o ;~hfn;Fu glhs u/ fof]  . ljz] if u/ L dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifs lgd{nf yfkfsf] 36gfdf xfdL;Fu} / x] / sfd u¥of} + . clg xfdLn]  lhNnfdf dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifsx?sf] lhNnf ;~hfn u7g ug{ ;xof] u ul/ lbg / fli6«o ;+hfnnfO{ cg'/ f] w u¥of} + . @)^^ h] 7 @ ut] ljlwjt ¿kdf sl/ a ! ;o hgf dlxnf dfgjclwsf/  / Ifsx?sf]  e] nf u/ L dlxnf dfgjclwsf/  / Ifsx?sf] lhNnf ;+hfn wflbªsf] u7g eof]  . @= wflbË lhNnf ;~hfnn] s;/ L sfd ul/ / x] sf] 5 < hltv] /  lhNnfdf dlxnf dfgjclwsf/  / Ifsx?sf]  lhNnf ;~hfn wflbª u7g eof] Toltj] nfb] lv xfn;Dd lqmofzLn ?kdf sfd ul/ / x] sf] 5 . ;+hfnsf] :yfkgf kZrft xfdLn] w] / }  d] xgt P] Soj4tf / k|ltj4tfsf ;fy dlxnf lx+;f lj?4sf]  Pp6f cleofg g} lhNnfdf 5] 8g ;kmn eof} + . xfd|f] sfdn]  5f] 6f]  ;dodf ;a} sf]  d'vdf dlxnf dfgjclwsf/  / Ifs ;~hfnsf] gfd cfpg] eof]  . kLl8tx?n] cfkmgf] ;fyL kfPsf]  jf cfkm"nfO{ ;fy lbg] l6d kfPsf] dx;'; u/ ] / cfkm"dflysf]  lx+;flj?4 af] Ng cfF6 u/ ] eg] kL8sx? klg xfdL;+Fu 8/ fpg]  / xfdLnfO{ zq'sf] ?kdf x] g{ yfn]  . ;/ sf/ L lgsfon] klg slxn] xfd|f] sfdn] ;xof] u dx;'; u¥of] eg] slxn] bafasf]  dx;'; u¥of]  . dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifsx?sf] lhNnf ;+hfnn] dlxnf clwsf/ sf] If] qdf / dlxnf lx+;f lj?4 ljleGg If] qdf sfd ug] { dlxnfx?nfO{ Ps} 7fpFdf ;+ul7t u/ L pgLx?n] u/ ] sf]  sfdnfO{ Jojl:yt ug] { pgLx?sf] klxrfg :yflkt ug{sf nflu sfd ul/ / x] sf] 5 . xfdLn] lhNnfdf lhNnf ;~hfn u7g u/ ] kl5 If] qLo :t/ sf, Onfsf :t/ sf / uflj; :t/ sf ;d] t ;~hfnx? u7g u¥of} + . clxn] !! j6f uflj;df uflj; ;~hfnx? u7g e} ;s] sf] 5 . csf] { lx+;f kLl8t dlxnfx?sf] sfg'gL tyf ;fdflhs Gofosf nflu ;~hfnn]  sfd ul/ / x] sf] 5 . lx+;f kLl8t dlxnfx?sf] ph'/ L btf{ ug{] b] lv d'2f g6'Ë] ;Dd ;~hfnn]  ;xof] u ug] { u/ ] s] f 5  . o;}  u/ L sltko kLl8tx?sf] ;fdflhs Gofosf nflu pgLx?sf]  ;d'bfo 3/ df j;] / 5nkmn u/ L kLl8tnfO{ :yflkt ug] { u/ ] sf]  5 . ljleGg 36gfsf lx+;f kLl8tx?nfO{ cfkmgf] kl/ jf/ df a:g] cj:yf gx'Fbf ljleGg ;+:yf;Fu ;dGjo u/ L k'g:yf{kgf s] Gb|x?df ;d] t k7fpg] u/ ] sf] 5 . dlxnf lx+;f lj?4 ljleGg cleofgx? ;+rfng ug] {, dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifsx?sf]  Ifdtf ljsf;sf] nflu sfd ug] {, dlxnfx?sf] Gofodf kx'Frsf nflu k} / jL ug] { sfd lhNnf ;~hfnn]  ul/ / x] sf]  5  . 17
    • #= tkfO{+sf] lhNnfdf dlxnf lx+;fsf] cj:yf s:tf] 5 < wflbª lhNnf dlxnf lx+;fsf] cj:yfnfO{ x] g] { xf] eg] Psbd}  ;+j] bgzLn lhNnfsf] ?kdf lng ;lsG5 . oxfF dlxnfdfly c;fWo} cdfgjLo / sNkgf g} ug{ g;lsg] k|s[ltsf 36gfx? x'g] u/ ] sf 5g . ! ;o @ jif{sf] j[4f b] lv # jif{sf] aflnsf;Dd anfTsf/ sf] lzsf/ x'g' k/ ] sf] 5 eg] b'O{ hgf dlxnfx?nfO{ xTof kl5 anfTsf/ ul/ Psf] 5 . cfdfnfO{ anfTsf/ ug{sf nflu ;Fu} ;'t] sf 5f] / Lx?nfO{ ;d] t sfl6Psf] 5 . lhNnfdf ax'ljjfxsf 36gfx? c;fWo} w] / } 5g . To;} u/ L afnljjfx klg cem} ;Dd rln/ x] sf] 5 . wflbª lhNnfdf )^( >fj0fb] lv )^( df3;Ddsf] dlxnf lx+;fsf 36gf hf] lhNnf k|x/ L sfof{nodf btf{ ePsf 5g ltgnfO{ dfq} x] g] { xf] eg] klg cj:yf lrGtfhgs g} 5 . wflbª lhNnfdf )^( >fj0f b] lv )^( df3;Ddsf] dlxnf lx+;fsf 36gfdfq ! ;o $ k'u] sf] 5 . h;df xTof $, jnfTsf/ ^ j6f , anfTsf/ sf] k|of; $, 3/ ] n' lx+;f M%), cfTdxTof $, jx'ljjfx @ jfnljjfx @, ckx/ 0f @ / x] sf 5g . oL lhNnf k|x/ L sfof{nodf btf{ ePsf 36gf dfq} x'g . slt 36gf ufpFdf g} ldnfkq ul/ Psf 5g, slt t cem} cfpg ;s] sf 5} gg . of] cj:yfn] klg lhNnfdf dlxnf lx+;fsf]  cj:yf a'emg d2t u5{ . $= dlxnfdfgjclwsf/ / Ifs eP/ sfdubf{ tkfFOx?nfO{ slQsf] r'gf} tL 5 < Psbd} r'gf} tLk"0f{ 5 . dlxnf lj?4 x'g] lx+;fsf] lj?4 af] Ng]  eg] sf]  of]  lkt[;QfTds ;fdflhs ;+/ rgfsf]  lj?4 af] Ng]  xf]   . dlxnf la?4 x'g] lx+;fnfO{ ;dfhn] :jefljs ¿kdf lnPsf]  x'G5 . h'g s'/ fnfO{ dlxnfn] ;xg'k5{ lj/ f] w ug'{x'b} g eGg]  dfGotf / x] sf] 5 . ha cfkm"dfly ePsf] lx+;fsf] lj?4 cfjfh jflx/ Nofpg xfdL dlxnfx?nfO{ ;xof] u ub{5f} + clg xfdL ;fdflhs ;+/ rgf eTsfpg] c/ fhs, g} ltsxLg dlxnfx?sf]  ¿kdf u0fgf ul/ G5f} + . cem b08xLgtfsf] cj:yfdf xfdL dlxnf dfgjclwsf/  / Ifsx? yk hf] lvddf k/ ] sf x'G5f} + /  xfdLn]  oltj] nf w] / }  r'gf} tLx?sf]  ;fdgf ug'{kg] { x'G5  . dlxnfx?nfO{ Gofosf nflu cfkm"dfly ePsf] lx+;flj?4 jf] Ng tof/ ug{ Psbd} ufx|f] 5 . pgLx?sf] ;zQmLs/ 0f / pgLx?nfO{ alnof] gagfP;Dd cfkm"dfly ePsf lx+;fsf 36gfx? aflx/ NofpFb} gg . To;} n] dlxnfx?nfO{ j'emfP/  pgLx?nfO{ cfkm"dfly ePsf] lx+;fsf] lj?4 af] Ng] cj:yf ;[hgf ug'{ xfd|f] nflu r'gf} tL 5 eg] hlt dlxnfx? Gofosf] nflu aflx/ cfpF5g b] zdf a9] sf] b08xLgtfsf sf/ 0f pgLx?n]  Gofo kfpg g;Sbf cfpg] ;d:of / c? dlxnfx?sf] aflx/  cfpg]  qmd / f] lsg]  s'/ f klg clxn]  xfd|f]  r'gf} tLsf]  ?kdf b] vf k/ ] sf]  5  . clxn]  dlxnf dfgjclwsf/  / Ifsx?sf]  nflu ;a} eGbf r'gf} tLsf]  ljifo eg] sf]  cfkmgf]  ljleGg k] zf If] q /  sfddf / x] /  :jo+;] jL ?kdf dlxnfx?sf]  If] qdf sfd ug] { s'/ f ag] sf]  5  . lsgeg]  k|foM dlxnf dfgjclwsf/  / Ifsx? / f] hL/ f] 6Lsf]  nflu ljleGg k] zfdf sfo{/ t 5g eg] cfkmgf] ;donfO{ dlxnf lx+;f lj?4sf] cleofgdf klg vr{ ul/ / x] sf 5g . dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifsx?nfO{ cfkm"n] sfd ug] { 7fpFaf6 g}  lgsfNg] ;Ddsf ;d:ofx? clxn]  b] vfk/ ] sf 5g  . clwsf/ sf s'/ f ug] { / dlxnf lx+;f lj?4 ;do lbPsf] eGg] cf/ f] kdf sfd u/ ] sf]  7fpFdf ;d] t xfdL hf] lvddf kl/ / x] sf 5f} +  . of]  xfd|f] nflu Psbd} ;d:of ag] s] f 5 . cfkmg} sfo{If] qaf6 xfdL sfd ;d] t ug{ g;Sg] cj:yfdf k'Ug nfu] sf 5f} + . o;nfO{ sd u/ fpg' klg xfd|f] r'gf} tL ag] sf] 5 . cfkmgf] 3/ kl/ jf/ , sfd / dlxnf lx+;f lj?4sf] cleofg ;a} nfO{ Joj:yfkg u/ ] /  cufl8 a9g clxn] dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifsx?sf] r'gf} tLsf]  ljifo ag] sf] 5 . Pp6f dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / IfsnfO{ nfdf]  ;do oxL If] qdf sfo{nfO{ lg/ Gt/ tf lbg] agfpg ;a} eGbf ufx|f] 5 . %= dlxnf lx+;fsf] d'2fx?df k} / jL ubf{ ;d'bfo Pjd gful/ s ;dfhaf6 s:tf] ;xof] u ldn] sf] 5 < dlxnf lx+;fsf] lj?4 k} / jL ubf{ ;d'bfoaf6 slta] nf ;xof] u / slta] nf c;xof] usf] cj:yf x'G5 . k|foM dlxnfdfly x'g]  lx+;fdf ;d'bfosf dflg;x? lx+;f kLl8t dlxnfsf] ljkIfdf x'g] u/ ] sf] kfOG5 . ha Pp6f dlxnf kl/ jf/ af6 ljleGg sf/ 0fn]  lgsflnG5]  To;kl5 Tof]  ;d'bfo zlQm x'g]  kl/ jf/ sf]  ;b:olt/ g} nfU5 . zlQm ljxLg dlxnfsf] kIfdf sd dflg;x? dfq} x'G5g . hf] lx+;f kLl8t dlxnfsf] kIfdf x'G5g pgLx? klg v'n] / p;sf] kIfdf af] Ng ;Sg] cj:yf x'Fb} g . clg ha xfdL sfg'gsf s'/ f u5f} +, pgsf] clwsf/ sf] s'/ f u5f} + TolQj] nf ;d'bfo xfd|f] lj?4df x'G5 . xfdLNffO{ ljleGg cf/ f] kx? nfUg] ;d] t u5{ . k|foM 36gfx?df xfdLn] ;d'bfosf]  ;xof] u kfpFb} gf} + t/ kl5Nnf] ;do ha dlxnfx? ;d"x, ;+u7gx?df cfj4 x'g yfn] of] xfdL dlxnfx?sf] d'2f xf] /  of] n8fO{ xfdL ldn] / n8g' k5{ eGg] a'emg yfn] To;kl5 sDtLdf klg s] xL dlxnfx?n] xfdLnfO{ ;xof] u u/ ] sf] cj:yf 5 . xfdL dlxnfx?sf] d'2fx? p7fO/ xFbf dlxnfx?n] ;fy lbg]  cj:yf ag] sf] 5 . gful/ s ;dfhsf]  s'/ f ubf{ s'g} j] nf gful/ s ;dfhsf cu'jfx?n] g} xfd|f] g] t[Tj / dlxnfx?sf] cu'jfO{nfO{ :jLsf/  ug{ g;s] sf] cg'e'"lt x'G5 . xfd|f] g] t[Tj / cu'jfO{sf] Oiof{ ug] { / xfdLnfO{ k5fl8 kfg{sf nflu ljleGg cf/ f] kx? nufpg]  sfd ePsf] kfOG5 . dlxnfx?sf d'2fdf cfFvf lrDn] / nfUg] , ;fdflhs d"No / dfGotfnfO{ Vofn gug] { vfnsf] cf/ f] k gful/ s ;dfhaf6} xfdLnfO{ nfUg] u/ ] sf] 5 . dlxnfx?sf] d'2f dlxnfx?sf]  dfq}  lhDd] jf/ L xf] , pgLx?n]  dfq}  x] g'{k5{ eGg]  18
    • dfgl;stf cem} hfg ;s] sf] 5} g  . o;sf] ;fy} kl5Nnf]  ;dodf gful/ s ;dfhsf JolQmx?n] klg dlxnfx?sf d'2fx?df ;fy lbg'k5{ eGg] ;f] +rsf] ljsf; ePsf] kfOG5  . To;} n]  s] xLn]  xfd|f d'2fdf ;xof] u ug] { /  ;fy lbg]  u/ ] sf klg 5g . ^= dlxnf lx+;fsf] d'2fx?df k} / jLubf{ / fHosf] kIfjf6 slQsf]  ;xof] u kfpg'ePsf] 5 < dlxnf lx+;fsf] d'2fx?df k} / jL ubf{ / fHosf] kIfaf6 klg ;xof] u / c;xof] u b'a} x'g] u/ ] sf] 5 . s'g} klg 36gfdf ha / fhgLlts bafa x'G5 jf / fHosf lgsfon] ha sfg'gsf]  sfof{Gjog u/ fpg cfgfsfgL u5{g TolQj] nf xfd|f] n8fO+{ / fHosf] :yfgLo lgsfo;Fu g} x'G5 . TolQj] nf xfdL pgLx?sf]  lj?4df x'G5f} + / pgLx? klg xfd|f] lj?4 g} plePsf] b] lvG5 . xfdL ha dlxnf lx+;f lj?4 / fHon] ug{ g;s] sf sfdx?nfO{ d'2f agfpF5f} + p7fpF5f} + TolQj] nf c;xof] u a9L x'g]  u/ ] sf]  5 . dlxnf lx+;fsf 36gfdf / fhgLlts bnsf] bafanfO{ / fHosf]  lgsfon]  dfg] /  kLl8tnfO{ cGofo ubf{sf]  ;dodf xfdL / fHosf]  ljkIfdf x'g]  u/ ] sf 5f} +  . sltko cj:yfdf / fHosf lgsfox?n]  xfdLnfO{ w] / }  ;xof] u u/ ] sf] cj:yf klg 5 . xfdLn] eGg] lalQs} sfd ul/ lbg] , dlxnfx?sf] lx+;f la?4 t'?Gt} sfd ug] { h:tf sfdx?sf]  klg yfngL ePsf] 5 . slxn] sfFxL cfkmgf] clwsf/ eGbf dfly p7] / klg dlxnfx?sf] Gofosf nflu sfd u/ ] sf] cj:yf klg 5 . dlxnf lx+;fla?4sf] cfGbf] ng eg] sf] / fHosf] la?4sf]  cfGbf] ng klg xf]   . lsgeg]  xfd|f]  dfgjclwsf/ sf]  Uof/ ] G6L ug] { / xfd|f] ;'/ Iff ug] { bfloTj / st{Jo t / fHosf] xf]  . ha / fHon] Tof] ug{;Sb} g clg xfdL c;'/ lIft x'G5f} + / xfdLdfly lx+;f x'G5 . To;} n] hlxn] klg dlxnf lx+;fla?4sf] cfGbf] ng eg] sf]  ;/ sf/ sf]  /  / fHosf]  la?4sf]  cfGbf] ng g}  xf]   . &= tkfO{+sf] cg'ejdf dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifsx? sf] af6 a9L hf] lvddf kg] { u/ ] sf 5g< dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifsx? ljleGg If] q / txaf6 hf] lvddf kg] { u/ ] sf 5g . vf;u/ L kL8saf6 hf] lvddf kg] { cj:yf pRr / xG5 . dlxnf la?4 x'g] lx+;fsf 36gfx?df kLl8t dlxnfsf] Gofosf nflu xfdLn] ;xof] u u/ ] sf x'G5f} { . h'g kLl8tnfO{ ;xof] u u/ ] / Goflos k|s[ofdf cufl8 a9fOG5 ;fy} kL8snfO{ sf/ jfxLsf] nflu klg xfd|f] bafa x'G5 . Toltj] nf kL8sn]  d} n]  ulNt u/ ]  To;} n]  d} n]  ;hfo ef] Ug' k¥of] eGg' eGbf klg dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifsx?sf sf/ 0f ;hfPsf] efuLbf/ x'g'k¥of] eGg] 7fGb5g . oxL a'emfO kL8ssf]  kl/ jf/ sf]  klg / xg]  x'gfn]  xfdL pgLx?jf6 hf] lvddf kg] { u5f} {  . / fhgLlts bnx?af6 klg xfdLdflysf] hf] lvd plQs} 5 . eg] ePsf] 5 . h'g ;sf/ fTds 5 . csf] { eg] sf] cfkm"dfly x'g] ;fdfGo vfnsf] lx+;fsf]  ph'/ L ubf{ To;} df clNemG5f} / c? sfd ug{ EofOb} gsL eGg]  8/ klg xf]  . Tof] eGbf klg d'Vo s'/ f t cfkm" ;d:ofdf k/ ] sf]  s'/ f b] vfpFbf jf aflx/  NofpFbf xfdLnfO{ e/ f] ;f u/ ] /  cfpg] jf xfd|f] cfF6 / ;fx;df cfpg] dlxnfx? kl5 x65g eGg] 8/ klg xfdLnfO{ ;+u} 5 . h;sf] sf/ 0fn] ubf{ xfdL xfd|f hf] lvdx?nfO{ ;fj{hlgs ug{ rfxFb} gf} + . (= dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifsx?nfO{ sfd ubf{ cfOkg] { hf] lvd sdug{ / fHosf] e"ldsf s:tf] x'g;S5< ;a} eGbf klxnf dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifsx?sf] sfdnfO{ dfGotf lbg] / xfd|f] sfdsf sf/ 0f / fHonfO{ k'u] sf]  ;xof] unfO{ dfGotf lbg' h?/ L 5 . dlxnf dfgjclwsf/  / Ifsx?sf] ;'/ Iffsf] nflu plrt gLlt / fHon] jgfpg'k5{ . ha;Dd dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifsx?sf] sfdnfO{ / fHon]  dfGotf lbg] / pgLx?sf] ;'/ Iffsf] nflu gLlt jgfpFb} g tj;Dd dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifsx? hf] lvddf / lx/ xG5g . dfgjclwsf/  / Ifsx? ;a}  hf] lvddf e} / x] sf]  cj:yfdf dlxnf dfgjclwsf/  / Ifsx? cem}  a9L hf] lvddf / lx/ x] sf]  cj:yf 5 . gLlt agfpFbf dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifsx?sf]  ;'/ Iffsf] nflu ;f+] r] / agfpg' cfjZos 5 . To;} u/ L dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifsx? dlxnf lx+;f lj?4sf] sfd ul/ / xFbf pgLx?dfly hf] lvdsf] cj:yf ePdf / fHon] t'?Gt ;xof] u ug'{k5{ eGg]  s'/ fsf]  cfb] z ;jf] {Rr cbfntn]  u/ ] sf]  5  . t/ klg xfn;Dd / fHosf] e"ldsf To:tf] b] lvPsf] 5} g . dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifsx?sf] sfdsf] sf/ 0f dlxnf lx+;f Go"gLs/ 0fdf 7"nf] of] ubfg k'u] sf] 5 . o;nfO{ dgg ub} { / fHon] pgLx?sf] ;'/ Iffsf] nflu plrt gLlt agfpg' h?/ L 5 . o;} u/ L dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifsx?sf] sfdnfO{ lgvfg{ Ifdtf ljsf;sf nflu klg / fHon] ;f+] Rg h?/ L 5 . !)= lhNnfdf j;] / sfdubf{ s] Gb|jf6 s:tf] lsl;dsf] ;xof] u kfO/ xg' ePsf]  5 < /  s:tf]  lsl;dsf]  ;xof] usf]  ck] Iff ug'{ePsf] 5 < dlxnf dfgjclwsf/  / Ifsx?sf]  / fli6«o ;~hfnn]  xfd|f]  sfdsf]  nflu w] / }  ;xof] u u/ ] sf]  5  . lhNnfdf j;] /  sfd ug] { ;fyLx?sf]  Ifdtf ljsf;sf]  nflu klg s] Gb|n]  sfd ul/ / x] sf]  5 . hltv] / lhNnfsf] Pp6f s'gfdf j;] / sfd ug] { Pp6f dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifs hf] lvddf k5{ jf pdfly s'g}  lx+;f x'G5 Toltj] nf s] Gb|n] b] z el/ sf dlxnf dfgjclwsf/  / Ifsx?dfkm{t Ps} k6s cfjfh p7fpg]  s'/ fdf ;xof] u ul/ / x] sf]  5  . o;}  u/ L xfdLnfO{ x/ ] s lsl;dsf ;'rgfx? k|bfg ug] { sfddf s] Gb|sf] 7'nf] ;xof] u k'u] sf] 5 . ;a} eGbf 7'nf] s'/ f lxDdt ;fx; / k|] / 0ff lbg] s'/ f xf]  . dnfO{ s] xL 19
    • kl5Nnf] ;dodf dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifsx? / fhgLlts bnx?af6 klg c;'/ lIft e} / x] sf] cj:yf 5 . / fhgLlts bnx?n]  c? s] xL gx] / L ef] 6sf]  / fhgLltnfO{ dfq}  x] g] { u/ ] sf]  kfOG5 . w] / } h;f] cfkmgf] bnsf] sfo{stf{ tyf ef] 6 a} +ssf]  ?kdf x] g] { ghl/ ofsf sf/ 0f ck/ fwLx?nfO{ / fhgLlts ;+/ If0f ug] { k|j[lt j9bf] 5 . ha To;sf lj?4df dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifsx? pleG5g TolQj] nf / fhgLlts bnx?n]  xfdLnfO{ tf/ f] jgfpg] u/ ] sf 5g . sltko j] nf t ck/ fw ug] { dflg; ck/ fw u/ ] kl5 cfkm" hf] lugsf]  nflu / fhgLlts bnsf]  ;+/ If0fdf hfg]  u/ ] sf]  ;d] t 5  . o;/ L / fhgLlts ;+/ If0fsf sf/ 0f jf:tljs ck/ fwL hf] luG5 . xfdL hf] lvddf k5f} { . olt dfq xf] Og / fHosf] :yfgLo lgsfojf6 klg xfdL dlxnf dfgjclwsf/  / Ifsx? c;'/ lIft e} / x] sf]  cj:yf d} n]  dx;'; u/ ] sf] 5' . dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;fsf ck/ fwLx?nfO{ ha zlQmsf] cf8df jf / fhgLlts ;+/ If0fsf] cf8df k|x/ L k|zf;gn] ;hfo lbnfpg cfgfsfgL u5{ jf sfd ub} {g TolQj] nf xfdL pgLx?sf] lj?4 plqG5f} + . pgLx?n] xfdLnfO{ cgfjZos bafa lbPsf] jf cfkmgf] sfddf cj/ f] w u/ ] sf]  ;+emg] ub{5 . TolQj] nf ;+:yfut ?kdf xfdLnfO{ xfgL gul/ P klg ToxLleqsf JolQmx?n] xfgL ug{;Sg] cj:yf l;h{gf ePsf] 5 . To;} n] of] klg Pp6f hf] lvdsf] If] q jg] sf] 5 . Pp6f kLl8tn] PSn} uP/ Gofo kfpg] cj:yf 5} g . To;sf]  nflu xfdLn] ;xof] u ubf{ cgfjZos bafasf] dx;'; ug] { s'/ fn] klg xfdLnfO{ ;d:ofdf kf/ ] sf] 5  . csf] {lt/ k|x/ L / k|zf;g cfkm" hf] lugsf] nflu slxn] sfFxL cf+} nf xfdLlt/  t] :of{Olbg]  klg ul/ / x] sf]  5 h;n]  xfd|f]  hf] lvnfO{ emg a9fPsf] 5 . *= cfkm"dfly x'g]  hf] lvdsf]  af/ ] df dlxnf dfgjclwsf/  / Ifsx? ph'/ L u5{g ls ub} {gg < ub} {gg eg] gu{'gsf sf/ 0fx? s] s] x'g < u5{g eg] s] s:tf ph'/ Lx? kg] { u/ ] sf 5g < cfkm"dfly ePsf]  hf] lvdsf]  af/ ] df clwsf+z dlxnf dfgjclwsf/  / Ifsx?n]  ph'/ L ug] { u/ ] sf]  kfOFb} g  . lsgeg]  sfd ubf{ ;fgfltgf ;d:ofnfO{ :jefljs dflgG5  . xfdLn]  u/ ] sf]  sfd g}  hf] lvdk"0f{ 5, To;} n]  of]  hf] lvd s] xL x} g eGg]  efjgfn] ubf{ ;a} hf] lvdx?nfO{ xfdLn] ;fdfGo ?kdf lng]  u/ ] sf 5f} + . xfdLdfly 7"n} 36gf h:tf] , s'6kL6 jf cGo To:t}  36gf eof] eg] dfq xfdL ph'/ L u5f} { . gq ufnL a] OHhlt ug] {, wDSofpg] , dfgl;s oftgf lbg] s'/ fnfO{ xfdLn] ;fdfGo dfg] sf 5f} +  . /  To;sf]  clen] vLs/ 0f ;d] t ub} {gf} + h;n]  ubf{ xfdL slt hf] lvddf 5f} + eGg] ;d] t cfFsng ug{ ufx|f] ePsf]  5 . kl5Nnf] ;dodf s] xL ;fyLx?n] ph'/ L ug] { s'/ fsf] klg z'?jft ug'{ePsf] 5 . df] jfOnaf6 Dof;] h k7fpg] , kmf] g u/ ] /  wDSofpg]  la?4 klg k|x/ L ph'/ L ug] { sfdsf]  z'?jft eof]  eg]  b] ze/ sf dlxnf dfgjclwsf/  / Ifs ;fyLx? x'g'xG5 . xfd|f] / fli6«o ;+hfn 5 eGg] s'/ fdf xfdL 9'Ss x'G5f} + / xfdLnfO{ sfd ug] { pT;fx x'G5 . ;d'bfo :t/ af6 p7fPsf ;d:ofx?nfO{ s] Gb|Lo :t/ df k} / jL ug] { sfddf klg s] Gb|n]  ;xof] u ul/ / x] sf]  5  . olt x'Fbfx'Fb} klg / fli6«o ;+hfnn] w] / } sfddf lhNnfnfO{ ;xof] u ug'{kg] { b] lvG5 . y'k|} dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifsx?n]  lhNnfdf j;] /  hf] lvd df] n] /  sfd ul/ / x] sf]  cj:yf 5 tfklg cfkm"n] u/ ] sf] sfdnfO{ clen] vLs/ 0f ug{ g;Sbf Tof]  b] lvPsf] 5} g . slt dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifsx? cfkmg}  ;'/ n] sfd ul/ / x] sf] cj:yf 5 . pgLx?sf] Ifdtf ljsf; u/ fpg afFsL 5 . To;} u/ L dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifsx? hf] lvddf / x] sf 36gfx?sf]  xfdLn]  clen] vLs/ 0f ug{ ;s] sf 5} gf} + . o:tf s'/ fx?df s] Gb|n] ;f+] Rg'k5{ / ;xof] u ug'{k5{ . dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifsx? sfd ubf{ ub} { dfgl;s ;d:ofdf kl/ / x] sf] cj:yf 5 . sDtLdf xfdLnfO{ ;do ;dodf e] 6 u/ fpg]  /  dgf] ljdz{sf]  Joj:yf ldnfpg]  sfd klg s] Gb|n] ug'{k5{ . ;a} ;Fu ;Dks{df / xg] / hltj] nf hxfF hf] ;fyL ;+s6df k5{ p;nfO{ t'?Gt} ;xof] u ug] { jftfj/ 0f lgdf0f{ s] Gb|n] ug'{k5{ eGg] dnfO{ nfU5 . !!= dlxnfdfgjclwfsf/  / Ifsx?sf]  klxrfg /  ;'/ Iffsf nflu s;n] s] ug'{knf{ < dlxnf dfgjclwsf/  / Ifsx?sf]  klxrfgsf]  nflu ;a} eGbf klxnf / fHon]  pgLx?sf]  sfdnfO{ dfGotf lbg]  /  pgLx?nfO{ :jLsf/ ug'{ cfjZos 5 . To;kl5 / fHon] dlxnf dfgjclwsf/  / Ifsx? /  ;Dk"0f{ dfgjclwsf/  / Ifsx?sf]  ;'/ Iffsf]  nflu gLlt agfpg' h?/ L 5 . !@= tkfFOx?n] dlxnfsf] d'2fnfO{ dfq p7fpg] ug'{ePsf] 5 ls cGo d'2fnfO{ klg< d dlxnf dfgjclwsf/  / Ifs ePsf]  sf/ 0fn]  d] / f]  klxnf]  k|fyldst eg] sf] dlxnfx?sf] d'2f g} xf]  . lsgeg] clxn]  ;a} eGbf al9 hf] lvddf / ;a} eGbf lx+;fdf dlxnfx? 5g . dlxnf lx+;f lj?4 sfd ug'{ h?/ L 5 . c?sf] k|fyfldstfsf]  If] qdf dlxnf lx+;f kl/ / x] sf] cj:yf klg 5} g . xfdLn]  dlxnf ePs} sf/ 0f klg dlxnf lj?4 x'g] lx+;fsf nflu sfd ug'{k5{ . o;sf ;fy} d dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifs ePsf]  sf/ 0fn]  ;du| dfgjclwsf/  sf d'2fx? klg d] / f ;/ f] sf/ sf d'2fx? x'g . To;} n] dlxnf ;du| dfgjclwsf/ sf d'2fx?df klg sfd ug] { u/ ] sf] 5' . !#= dlxnf dfgjclwsf/  / Ifsx?n]  lx+;fsf]  d'2fnfO{ k} / jL ug] { dfq geO{ km} ;nf klg u5{g eGg] cf/ f] k nfu] sf] 5, To;df tkfFO s] eGg'x'G5< 20
    • dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifsx?sf] sfd eg] sf] dlxnf lj?4 x'g] lx+;fsf d'2fx?df k} / jL ug] { / pgLx?nfO{ Gofosf nflu ;xof] u ug] { g} xf]  . t/ slxn] sfFxL ;d:of s:tf] e} lbG5 eg]  dlxnfx? sfg'gL Gofodf cfpg ;Sb} gg . pgLx?n] ;fdflhs Gofo vf] lh/ x] sf] cj:yf x'G5 . o:tf] cj:yfdf xfdLn]  pgLx?nfO{ ;fdflhs Gofosf] nflu ;xof] u ug'{kg] { cj:yf cfpF5 . o;/ L ;fdflhs Gofosf] nflu ;xof] u ul/ / xFbf ;dfh Psflt/ / kLl8t dlxnf Psflt/ e} / x] sf] x'G5 . xfdLn]  sfg'gsf s'/ f / dlxnfsf clwsf/ sf s'/ fnfO{ :yflkt u/ fpg nfU5f} + t/ ;d:of s] e} lbG5 eg] ;d'bfon] To;nfO{ :jLsf/  ub} {gg / xfdLnfO{ nf~5gf nufpg] sfd u5{g . xfdLn] s'g}  klg d'2fdf km} ;nf ug] { sfd ub} {gf} + t/ kLl8t dlxnfsf]  kIfdf sfd ul/ / xFbf xfdL lgikIf eP/ x} g kLl8tsf] kIfw/  eP/ sfd u5f} + Tof] rFfxL lglZrt xf]  . slxn] slxn] xfdLnfO{ lgikIf eP/ sfd ug'{k5{ eGg] s'/ f klg cfpF5 . t/ d To;df ;xdt 5} g . xfdL hlxn] klg kLl8t dlxnfsf] kIfdf 5f} + /  x'G5f} +  . !$= o; cleofgnfO{ cem ;lqmo / ;+ul7t ¿kdf n} hfgsf]  nflu tkfFOsf] s] xL ;'emfj Pj+ ;Nnfx 5 ls< of] xfd|f] cleofg xf]  . of] s;} sf] ;xof] u / s'g} ;+:yfsf]  kl/ of] hgf x} g . of] xfdL dlxnfx?sf] n8fOsf nflu tof/  ul/ Psf] Pp6f ;+oGq dfq} xf]  . of] cleofgdf nfUg] eg] sf]  dgleqaf6 d dlxnf lx+;f lj?4 nfU5' eGg] k|ltj4 ePsf]  JolQm dfq} nfUg ;ls/ xG5 . s] xL kfpF5' jf s] xL kfpg]  cfzfn]  nfUg]  xf]  eg]  cleofgnfO{ lg/ Gt/ tf lbg;Sb} g  . To;} n] of] xfd|f] n8fO{ xf]  . cfkm"n] n8g'k5{ eGg] dlxnfx?sf]  hdft o;df cfpg' h?/ L 5 . oltj] nf xfd|f] ;lqmotf vfFrf]  5 . xfd|f] ;lqmotfn] dfq} of] cj:yfdf dlxnf lj?4 x'g]  lx+;fnfO{ sd ug{ / dlxnfx?nfO{ Gofo lbg ;+ej 5 . To;} n]  xfdLn] of] ;~hfnnfO{ hlt alnof] agfpF5f} + TolQ g} xfd|f]  cleofg / fd|f] / ;lqmo x'g] xf]  . To;} n] ;a} eGbf klxnf ;~hfnnfO{ k|efjsf/ L agfpg' k5{ . ;+VofTds ;Fu} u'0ffTds ?kdf klg o;sf] ljsf; ug'{k5{ . To;f] eP dfq} xfdL] n]  ck] lIft pknlAw xfl;n ug{ ;S5f} + eGg] nfU5 . b] ze/ af6 dlxnf cfGbf] ngdf xf] ldPsf lqmofzLn ;fyLx?nfO{ of]  cleofgdf ;fd] n u/ fpg] / pgLx?nfO{ ljleGg cj;/ x? k|bfg ug{ ;Sg] jftfj/ 0f ;[hgf ug{ ;Sg' k5{ . dlxnf dfgjclwsf/  / Ifsx?sf]  klxrfg :yflkt u/ fpg /  ;'/ Iffsf]  nflu / fHonfO{ gLlt agfpgsf nflu bafa lbg' h?/ L 5 . of] cleofg ;a} sf] ;femf / :jtM:k'mt{ ?kdf nfu] sf dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifsx?sf] cleofg xf]  . / o;nfO{ o;/ L g}  a'emg] / a'emfpg] ul/ g' k5{ eGg] nfU5 . dlxnf lx+;fsf] cGTo s;/ L < b] ze/  a9b}  uPsf]  dlxnf lx+;fn]  ;j} nfO{ :tAe agfPsf] 5 . ;r] t gful/ sn]  ljleGg k|sf/ n]  o;sf]  k|ltjfb ul/ / x] sf 5g  . b] zsf]  k|wfgdGqL cfkmgf] js{tn] EofP;Dd o;nfO{ cGTo ug{ k|ltj4 5' eG5g . t/ clxn] ;Dd cufl8 cfPsf Pp6f klg lx+;fsf] 36gfdf kLl8tn] Gofo kfPsf 5} gg . o:tf] lsg eO/ x] sf]  5 < eGg] ljZn] if0fn] gu/ L ;d:ofsf] pkrf/ ub} {5' eGg' jfn'jfdf kfgL xfNg' h:t} xf]  . ;+;f/ e/  j9b}  uO/ x] sf]  ;} lgsLs/ 0f, h8;"qjfb /  ljZjJofkLs/ 0fn]  dlxnf lx+;f x'g]  jftfj/ 0f agfO/ x] sf 5g . To;} n] o;sf] pkrf/ vf] Hbf ;d:ofnfO{ of] 9fFrfdf / fvL ljZn] if0f ug'{kb{5 egL ;+;f/ sf dlxnfjfbLsf] laZn] if0f 5 . ljZjJofkLs/ 0fn] lgDTofPsf] cfly{s ;+/ rgfut kl/ jt{g, ltgåf/ f xfd|f]  h:tf]  b] zdf pTkGg hLljsf] kfh{g;Fu 8f= / ] 0f' / fhe08f/ L hf] l8Psf] ljifdtfsf sf/ 0f ul/ a, blnt, kfvf nufOPsf JolQmdflysf]  u/ LaLsf]  af] em /  ;a}  ;d"xleq / x] sf] n]  lkQ[;Qfsf sf/ 0f tL ;d"xleqsf dlxnfdf yf] kl/ Psf af] em xfdL ;j} n] cg'e"t ug} {k5{ . o;sf sf/ 0fn] clxn]  w] / } dlxnfsf] hLjg si6s/ jGb} uPsf] 5 . pgLx? Hff] lvdo'Qm sfd ug{ jfWo agfOPsf 5g . pgLx?sf]  oxL hf] lvdtfnfO{ k|of] u u/ L ;+;f/ df j9b}  uO/ x] sf]  ljZjJofkLs/ 0f, h8;"qjfb /  ;} lgsLs/ 0fn]  pgLx?dfly lx+;f ug] { jftfj/ 0f tof/ u/ ] sf] 5 . oL tTjx?n]  lkt[;QfnfO{ jlnof] jgfPsf] 5 . ;du|df eGg' kbf{ dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;f b] zsf] / fhgLlt, cy{gLlt / ;fdflhs gLlt, lgod / Jojxf/ x?;Fu hf] l8Psf] ljifo xf]  . To;} n]  o;nfO{ Psf+sL tj/ n] / fhgLltsdL{, dlxnfclwsf/ sdL{ /  lkt[;QfnfO{ bf] if lbP/ , logLx?s}  sf/ 0fn]  ePsf]  xf]  eg] /  dfq k'Ub} g . o;sf] ;Djf] wgsf] nflu cfjZos 5, sf/ s tQjx?sf] ljZn] if0f / ;Daf] wgsf nflu ;a} leq OdfGbf/  k|ltj4tf . To;sf nflu lgDg sfo{ ug'{ cfjZos b] lvG5 . / fhgLlts kf6L{x?sf] 7"nf] ;fgf] eGg] cx+ 5f8L b] zsf]  nf] stfGqLs/ 0fsf]  k|lqmofnfO{ lgisif{df k'¥ofpg]  sfo{sf 21 n] vtyf/ rgfx?
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    • #_ s;} n] laxfjf/ Lsf] dxnsf] ( / ( s gDj/ df n] lvPsf]  s'/ fsf]  ljk/ Lt csf] { ljjfx u/ ] df jf :jf:gL / fv] df lghnfO{ Ps jif{b] lv tLg jif{;Dd s} b / kfFr xhf/  ?k} ofFb] lv kRrL; xhf/  ?k} ofF;Dd hl/ jfgf;d] t x'g] 5  . :jf:gLdflg;n] hfgL hfgL To:tf] ljjfx u/ ] df jf :jf:gL eO{ a;] df lghnfO{ klg ;f] xLjdf] lhd ;hfo x'g] 5 eGg]  ljxfj/ Lsf] !) g+ df pNn] v 5 . $_ xbDofbsf] ;DaGwdf ljxfjf/ Lsf] !! g+ df jx'ljjfx u/ ] sf] yfxf kfPsf] tLg dlxgfleq gfn] z glbP nfUg ;Sb} g eGg] pNn] v 5 . ax'ljjfx;Fu ;DjlGwt sfg'gL Joj:yfdf ePsf sdL sdhf] / L tyf To;sf c;/ x? !_ k'?ifn] ;ztf{Tds jx'ljjfx ug{ kfpg] sfg'gL j} wtf k|bfg u/ ] sf]  /  Jojxf/ df o;}  gDj/ nfO{ ;dfO{ ;dfhdf k|;:t dfqfdf jx'ljjfx ePsf] t/ pNn] lvt cj:yfdf :jf:gLn] bf] ;|f] ljjfx ug{ kfpg] sfg'gL Joj:yf gx'Fbf pQm sfg'gL Joj:yf lje] bk"0f{ 5 . @_ d'n'sL P] g hf/ Lsf] dxnsf] @ g+ jdf] lhd dlxnfn]  csf] { ljjfx u/ ] df Ps dlxgfb] lv tLg dlxgf;Dd s} b /  Ps xhf/ b] lv b'O{ xhf/  ?k} of;Dd hl/ afgf x'g] sfg'gL Joj:yfn] n} lËs Pj+ zf/ Ll/ s / dfgl;s ckfËtfsf] cfwf/ df :jf:gLdflg;nfO{ dfq e] befj ul/ Psf]  kfOG5  . #_ :jf:gL lgsf]  gx'g]  u/ L jf} nfPdf, of} g / f] u nfu] df, cGwL ePdf, s'FhL ePdf ,pgLx?nfO{ emg ;+/ If0fsf]  cfjZostf kg] { x'Fbf ;f]  gu/ L pN6}  nf] Ug] n]  csf] { ljjfx ug{ kfpFg] sfg'gL Joj:yf x'g' ckfË ;+/ If0f tyf sNof0f P] g @)#(df n] lvPsf] ] sfg'gL Joj:yf ;d] tsf] lj?4df 5  . $_ nf] Ug] n]  :jf:gLsf]  ckfËkg /  ;fdflhs pTklQs}  cfwf/ df / ;ztf{Tds jx'ljjfx ug{ kfpg] / :jf:gLn]  csf] { nf] Ug] ;+u ljjfx u/ ] df s} b /  hl/ jfgfsf]  ;hfo ef] Ug' kg] { sfg'gL Joj:yf ckfËkg / lnËs} cfwf/ df j} jflxs e] befj dflgG5 . %_ ljxfjf/ Lsf] ( g+ g] kfnsf] cGtl/ d ;+ljwfg @)^# sf]  wf/ f !# sf] ;dfgtfsf] xsdf ;j} gful/ s sfg'gsf]  b[li6df ;dfg x'g] 5g . s;} nfO{klg sfg'gsf] ;dfg ;+/ If0fjf6 j+lrt ul/ g] 5} g . wf/ f !# -@_ cg';f/  ;fdfGo sfg'gsf]  k|of] udfs'g} klg gful/ sdfly wd{, j0f{, lnË, hft ,hflt, pTklQ, efiff jf j} rfl/ s cf:yf jf tLdWo]  s'g}  s'/ fsf]  cfwf/ df e] befj ul/ g]  5} g  . wf/ f !#-#_ / fHon] gful/ sx?sfjLr wd{, j0f,{ hft, hflt, lnË, pTkQL / efiff jf j} rfl/ s cf:yf jf tL dWo]  s'g}  s'/ fsf]  cfwf/ df klg e] befj ul/ g]  5} g eGg]  ;+j} wflgs Joj:yfsf] ljk/ Lt 5 . ^_ g] kfnn]  cg'df] bg u/ ] sf dfgjclwsf/ ;DjGwL ;j}  cGt/ f{li6«o b:tfj] hx?n]  ;dfgtfsf]  clwsf/ x?nfO{ k|fylds cfwf/ sf ¿kdf dfGotf lbPsf] 5 . dfgjclwsf/ ;DjGwL ljZjJofkL 3f] if0ff kq !($* sf]  wf/ f !^ df pd] / k'u] sf s] 6f s] 6LjLr ljjfx ug{ kfpg]  ;dfg clwsf/ sf]  Joj:yf ul/ Psf]  5  . To;} u/ L gful/ s tyf / fhgLlts clwsf/ ;DjGwL cGt/ f{li6«o k|lt1fkq !(^^ sf] wf/ f @, wf/ f @^ n] ;j} JolQmx? sfg'gsf]  b[li6df ;dfg x'g] pNn] v 5 . To:t} dlxnf lj?4 x'g]  ;j} k|sf/ sf e] befj pGd'ng;DjGwL dxf;lGw, !(&( sf] wf/ f ! df e] befjsf] kl/ efiff ul/ Psf] 5 . wf/ f !! -ª_ df ;fdflhs ;'/ Iffsf] clwsf/ df vf; u/ ] /  lj/ fdL k/ ] sf] , czQm ePsf]  cj:yfdf ;d] t ;fdflhs ;'/ Iff kfpg] wf/ f !^ df k'?if dlxnfdf lju|x ug] { ;dfg clwsf/ sf] Joj:yf u/ ] sf] 5 . pQm laxfjf/ Lsf]  ( g+ pNn] lvt cGt/ f{li6«o k|fjwfgx?sf] ljk/ Lt 5 . &_ ljxfjf/ Lsf] dxnsf] ( s jdf] lhd k'?ifn] ljjfx ubf{ lgsf] gx'g] u/ L jf} nfPsf] / c+z lnO{ 5'§L leGg j;] sf]  jfx] s cGo cj:yfdf :jf:gLsf] dGh'/ L lng'kg] { sfg'gL Joj:yf eP klg To:tf nf] Ug] dflg;n] dGh'/ L lng'kg] { :jf:gL dflg;nfO{ x] nTjk"0f{ Jojxf/ u/ L, k|nf] eg lbO{ jf nnfO{ kmsfO{ jf wfs wDsL;d] t lbO{ dGh'/ L lbg jfWo kfg] { x'Fbf pQm sfg'gn] yk tgfj lbPsf] cj:yf 5 . *_ ax'ljjfxsf sf/ 0f h] 7L >LdtL / lghjf6 hlGdPsf ;Gtfgn] k|fKt ug] { ;DklQdf c+zj08f ubf{ ;DklQ 36g uO{ kLl8t >LdtL / ;Gtfgx?n] dfgl;s , zf/ Ll/ s oftgf kfpg'sf] ;fy} cfly{s ¿kdf ;d] t Iflt k'Ug] ub{5 . (_ w] / } h;f]  dlxnfx? jx'ljjfx ug] { nf] Ug] nfO{ hfx] / L lbg tyf sf/ jfxL cufl8 j9fpg ;d] t cu|;/ xF'b} gg lsgls ef] nL p;n] cfkm"dfly ug] { zf/ Ll/ s / dfgl;s oftgfsf sf/ 0f 8/ fO{ hfx] / L glbg]  u/ ] sf]  Jojxf/ df b] lvG5  . !)_ ;DjGw ljR5] b gu/ L a:g rfxg] kLl8t dlxnfn]  26
    • #_ :jf:gL lgsf]  gx'g]  u/ L jf} nfPdf, of} g / f] u nfu] df, cGwL ePdf, s'FhL ePdf pgLx¿nfO{ emg ;+/ If0fsf]  cfjZostf kg] { x'Fbf To:tf dlxnfsf] nf] Ug] nfO{ bf] ;|f]  ljjfx ug{ kfpg] u/ L ePsf] sfg'gL k|fjwfg ckfË ;+/ If0f tyf sNof0f P] g )#( ljk/ Lt;d] t x'Fbf x6fOg' kg] {  . $_ ljxfjf/ Lsf] dxnsf] ( s g= df lgsf] gx'g] u/ L jf} nfPsf] / c+z lnPsL dlxnf jfx] ssf cGo cj:yfdf dlxnf;+u ax'ljjfx ubf{ dGh'/ L lng'kg] { Joj:yf em§ x] bf{ :jf:gLdflg;sf] lxtdf b] lvP tfklg of] Joj:yfsf sf/ 0f To:tf]  nf] Ug] dflg;;+u ljjfx ug{ vf] Hg]  dlxnfn]  3/ sL :jf:gL;+u ;DjGw ljR5] b u/ clg dfq ljjfx u5'{ egL bjfj lbg] x'Fbf nf] Ug] dflg;n] To:tf] dGh'/ L lng'kg] { >LdtLnfO{ nnfO{ kmsfO{, k|nf] egdf kf/ L zf/ Ll/ s jf dfgl;s oftgf ;d] t lbO{ jf wfs wDsL ;s] t lbO{ dGh'/ L lbg jfWo kfg] { sf/ 0fn] ubf{ ;xdlt dGh'/ L lbg jfWo x'G5g t;y{ To:tf dlxnf 3/ df ePsf nf] Ug] dflg;n] ax'ljjfx ug{ gkfpg] sfg'gL Joj:yf x'g'kg] { . %_ ax'ljjfxsf sf/ 0f c+zj08f ubf{ klxnL >LdtLsf] c+z efu 36g hfg] x'Fbf ax'ljjfx ug{' cl3 tL klxnL >LdtLn] hlt c+z kfpg] xf] kl5 klg TolQg} kfpg]  sfg'gL Joj:yf x'gkg] { . ^_ nf] Ug] n]  ax'ljjfx u/ ] sf sf/ 0f kLl8t ePsL :jf:gLn]  kL8f tyf Ifltcg';f/ Ifltk"lt{ ;d] t kfpg] sfg'gL Joj:yf ul/ g'kg] {  . &_ ax'ljjfx ug] { k'?if tyf To:tf] k'?if;Fu hfgL hfgL lajfx ug] { dlxnfnfO{ k'k{Ifdf ;d] t y'gfdf / fVg ;lsg] u/ L xfnsf] s} b ;hfodf yk x'g'kg] { . *_ sfg'g ljk/ Lt ax'ljjfx ug] { k'?if tyf dlxnfjLr ePsf] lajfx ;d] t jb/ x'g] u/ L sfg'gsf] lgdf{0f ul/ g'kg] {  . (_ ljwflosfn] xfn;Dd ;Gtfg zAbsf] kl/ efiff gu/ ] sfn]  pQm ;Gtfg zAbsf]  kl/ efiff ul/ g'kg] { pQm kl/ efiffleq ;Gtfg eGgfn]  5f] / f 5f] / L /  t] ;|f]  lnËL ;GtfgnfO{ ;d] t ;dfj] z ug'{kg] { . !)_ xfn ljBdfg xbDofb;DjGwL Joj:yfdf xbDofb sd ePsf] n]  j9fpg' kg] { n] vs xfn cf] / ] s g] kfndf cfj4 x'g'x'G5 . nf] Ug] s}  cf>odf j:g'kg] { ;DemL ph'/ L gug] { nf] Ug] jf6 kfpg] oftgf;d] t ;xg ug] { cj:yf dlxnfn] Joxf] g'{ k/ ] sf]  5  . !!_ nf] Ug] n] csf] { >LdtL NofpFbf h] 7L >LdtL / p;jf6 hlGdPsf ;Gtfgn] klt / lktfsf] dfof ddtf /  x] / ljrf/ df sdL cfpg]  /  pgLx?k|lt x] nTjk"0f{ Jojxf/ x'g] ;d:of cfOk5{ . !@_ nf] Ug] n]  csf] { >LdtL NofPkl5 ls t nf] Ug] sf]  x] nTjk"0f{ Jojxf/ ;x] / j:g'k¥of] ls t dg gx'bf gx'b} OR5f ljk/ Lt ;DjGw ljR5] b ug'{k¥of] h;n]  ubf{ ;DjGw ljR5] b ubf{ ;d] t c+z kfpg nfdf] ;do d'2f dfldnfug'{ kg] { ;d:of cfOk5{ . c+zefudf kg] { ;DklQ lng nfdf] ;do kv{g' kg] { x'Fbf yf] / } ;DklQ lnP/ jf zf/ Ll/ s / dfgl;s oftgf ;xg'eGbf c+z glnO{ klg ;DjGw ljR5] b ug{ jfWo ePsf] kfOG5 . !#_ nf] Ug] ;+u c+z nufot ;DjGw ljR5] bsf d'2f n8g d'2f ug] { vr{, ufF; jf;sf] ;d:of / jfnjRrfsf] x] / ljrf/  kfng kf] if0f / lzIff lbIffdf ;d] t ;d:of cfOk5{ . nf] Ug]  / x] s}  3/ df j;L d'2f n8g;Sg]  ;Defjgf klg / xb} g  . !$_ ax'ljjfx ug] { k'?if / To:tf] k'?if;Fu hfgLhfgL ljjfx ug] { dlxnfnfO{ cem} klg ;hfo sd 5 lsgsL ! jif{ b] lv # jif{;Dd s} bsf] Joj:yf sfg'gdf / flvg'n]  k'k{Ifsf]  qmddf pgLx? w/ f} 6Ldf 5'6g]  u/ ] sf]  kfOG5  . !%_ sfg'g ljk/ Lt ax'ljjfx ug] { k'?if / dlxnfjLrsf]  ljjfxnfO{ sfg'gn] ck/ fw dfg] klg pQm ljjfx ab/  gx'g] x'Fbf sfg'gsf] cfFvf 5nL ljjfx ug{ k'?if /  dlxnf p2t ePsf] kfOG5 . lgZsif{ / ;'emfjM !_ nf] Ug] n] dfq ;ztf{Tds ax'ljjfx ug{ kfpFg] u/ L ePsf] e] befjk"0f{ sfg'gL Joj:yf x6fO{ s'g} k'?if jf dlxnf b'j} n]  sfg'g jdf] lhd nf] Ug]  :jf:gLsf]  ;DjGw ljR5] b ePkl5 dfq csf] { k'?if jf dlxnf;Fu ljjfx ug{ kfpg] u/ L ljwflosfn] sfg'g lgdf0f{ ug'kg] { . @_ hf/ Lsf] dxnsf] @ g+ df pNn] lvt dlxnfn] csf] { ljjfx u/ ] df x'g]  s} b /  hl/ jfgfsf]  Joj:yf g] kfnsf]  cGtl/ d ;+ljwfg / cGt{/ fli6«o ;lGw ;Demf} tfdf pNn] lvt ;dfgtfsf] l;4fGt ljk/ Lt x'Fbf pQm g+ x6fOg' kg] { . 27
    • dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifsx?sf] lhNnf ;+hfn wflbªsf]  :yfkgf @)^^ h] 7 @ ut] sf] dlxnf clwsf/ sf If] qdf lqmofzLn dlxnfx?sf] lhNnf :t/ Lo e] nfaf6 ePsf] xf]  . @)^^ a} zfv & ut]  cf] / ] s g] kfnsf]  cfof] hgfdf sf7df08f} +sf]  jN8{ 6«] 8 ;] G6/  lqk'/ ] Zj/ df u} /  ;/ sf/ L ;+:yfdf sfd ug] { dlxnfx?;Fusf] Ps cGt/ lqmof sfo{qmddf ;fdflhs ;fF:s[lts ?kfGt/ 0fsf nflu s[ltsf cleofgsf] ljljw ;fF:s[lts sfo{qmd ljleGg lhNnfdf ug] { tof/ L ug{] ;DaGwdf 5nkmn ubf{ h] 7 !) ut] wflbª lhNnfdf klg ug] { klxnf]  lg0f{o ul/ Psf]  lyof]   . dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifsx?sf] lhNnf ;~hfn wflbª h] 7 @ ut] g} :yfkgf ug] { sfo{n] ;fy{stf kfpg'df pQm s[ltsf cleofgsf] sfo{qmdnfO{ k|efjsf/ L ¿kdf Jofks k|rf/ –k|;f/  u/ L ;Eo / eJo agfpg klg pQm h] 7 !) ut] ] cl3 g} lhNnf ;+hfnsf] :yfkgf ug'{ clgjfo{ lyof]  . csf] {tkm{ clwsf/ sdL{ lgd{nf yfkfsf] wflbªsf] lqz'nL gbLdf ePsf] xTofdf lg/ Gt/  bjfj tyf k} / jL ug{ wflbª lhNnfdf lqmofzLn dlxnf clwsf/ sdL{x?nfO{ ;+u7g cfjZos lyof]  . o;} jLrdf ! ;o @ jif{sL j[4 cfdfnfO{ ePsf] ;fd"lxs jnfTsf/ sf] ;g;gLk"0f{ 36gfn] l;+uf] b] zsf clwsf/ sdL{x?nfO{ :tAw agfPsf]  lyof]  . oL / o:tf 36gfn] wflbªdf dlxnf dfgjclwsf/  / Ifsx?sf] lhNnf ;~hfnsf] u7g eof]  . s= ;f+u7lgs ljsf; dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifs lhNnf ;~hfn wflb+udf :yfkgfsfnb] lv xfn;Dd () hgf ;b:o / x] sf 5g . n} l+Ës lx+;f cGTosf nflu lhNnf ;~hfn ;Fu;Fu} If] qLo ;~hfn !, Onfsf ;~hfn ! / uflj; ;~hfnx? !! j6f / x] sf 5g eg]  lhNnf ;dfrf/  ;+:yfut ;b:otf ;+Vof tLg / x] sf 5g . lhNnfsf ljleGg txdf u7g ePsf ;~hfnx? :jtGq ?kdf ;+ul7t / :jrflnt eO{ 5l/ P/ / x] sf dlxnf clwsf/ sdL{x?nfO{ ;+ul7t ub{} n} l+us lx+;f lj?4sf cleofgx? z;Qm ?kdf ;~rfng ul/ / x] sf 5g . h;cGtu{t gf} la;] , s] jnk'/ , e'd] :yfg, a} / ] gL, ;Nofgsf] 6 cflb uflj;df ul7t ;~hfnx? cfTdlge{/ eO{ ;+:yfut ?kdf cufl8 a9] sf 5g . ;~hfnx?sf] lgoldt a} 7s, ;fwf/ 0f ;ef / clwj] zg x'g] nf] stflGqs cEof;sf] ;'?jft ePsf] 5 . ljleGg ;/ sf/ L tyf u} / ;/ sf/ L ;+:yfx?sf]  ;dGjo tyf ;fem] bf/ Ldf cfly{s Joj:yfkg, ;+u7gfTds k4lt /  n} lËs lx+;f lj?4sf sfo{qmdx?sf ;fy} ljleGg lbj;Lo sfo{qmdx? ;+:yfut ?kdf ;+rfng x'g yfn] sf 5g . To:t}  u/ L ;b:ox?sf] Ifdtf ljsf;sf nflu ljleGg sfo{qmd ;~rfngdfkm{t :yfgLo :t/ d} bIf hgzlQm ljsf; x'g]  qmd a9bf] 5 . ;~hfnsf] bL3{sfnLg ljsf;sf nflu ;f+] r, / 0fgLlt nIo p2] ] Zo :ki6 eO{ ;f] xL cg';f/ sf ultljlwx? lhNnf, If] qLo, Onfsf / uflj; ;~hfnx?n] ;~rfng ub{}  cfPsf 5g . xfnsf] cj:yf;Dd cfOk'Ubf n} lËs lx+;f lj?4 sfd ug{ ;/ sf/ L, u} / ;/ sf/ L Pj+ cGt/ f{li6«o u} / ;/ sf/ L ;+:yfx?;Fu ;fem] bf/ L u/ L sfo{qmd ;+rfng ug{ z'?jft ePsf] 5 . of] cj;/ k|fKt ug] { ;~hfn g] kfns} ;Gbe{df wflbª klxnf] xf]  . v= n} lu+s lx+;f lj?4sf If] qdf ePsf pknlAwx?  !=;fem] bf/ lgsfox? ;+usf] ;dGjo / ;xsfo{  ;~hfnn] dlxnf lx+;f lj?4 sfd ug{] lgsfosf]  wgs'6f dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ sdL{x?sf] lhNnf k|zf;g wgf{ sfo{qmd dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifs lhNnf ;+hfn wgs'6fsf] ;+of] hg tyf lhNnfsf dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ sdL{x?sf] cfof] hgfdf ldlt @)^(÷!)÷!@ ut] ck/ fwLs/ 0f / b08xLgtf cGTo u/  Û dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ ;'lglZrt u/ Û eGg] gf/ f ;lxt a9bf]  dlxnf lx+;f la?4 lhNnf k|zf;g sfof{nodf wgf{ sfo{qmd ;DkGg ul/ Psf] lyof]  . pQm wgf{ sfo{qmddf laleGg gf/ f n] lvPsf]  Kn] sf8{ /  Aofg/  ;lxt lhNnf k|zf;gsf]  d"nu] 6df !)=#) ah] b] lv !!=#) ah] ;Dd ! 306f k|zf;gsf] sfdsfh 7Kk kfl/ Psf] lyof] eg] dlxnf ;'/ Iff bafa ;d"xsftkm{af6 lxdf e§/ fO{, zflGt / ;+lawfgsf nflu dlxnf zflGt ;ldlt wgs'6f bafa ;d"xsf cWoIf l6sf e08f/ L, cGt/ kf6L{ dlxnf ;+hfn wgs'6fsf cWoIf ;Ldf / fO{ / dlxnf dfgjclwsf/  / Ifs ;+hfn tyf dfgjclwsf/ sf] nflu dlxnf Psn dlxnf ;d"x wgs'6fsf cWoIf hof / fO{n] sfo{qmdnfO{ ;Daf] wg u/ L ;dfkg ug'{ ePsf] lyof]  . pQm sfo{qmddf nueu %% hgf AolQmx?n]  lj/ f] wk|lt P] Soa4tf hgfpFb}  x:tfIf/  ug'{ePsf]  lyof]   . g'jfsf] 6 cf7dfr{df ljljw sfo{qmd g'jfsf] 6 dlxnf dfgjclwsf/  / Ifs ;~hfnn]  cGt/ fli6«o >lds dlxnf lbj; * dfr{sf] cj;/ df x] km/ O{G6/ g] zgn g] kfn / cGt{kf6L{ dlxnf ;~hfnsf] ;dGjodf ;+o'Qm ?kdf ædlxnf lx+;f cGTo u/ f} + s'/ f xf] O{g sfd u/ f} +Æ eGg] d"n 28 k|f] kmfOn dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifs lhNnf ;~hfn wflbª Ps kl/ ro
    • ?kdf klxrfg :yflkt ug{ ;kmn ePsf] 5 .  ;~hfnsf] :yfkgf kZrft ;~rf/ dfWodx? - / ] l8of] , kqklqsf /  6] lnlehgx?_ n]  dlxnf lx+;fsf 36gfx?nfO{ k|fyldstfsf ;fy phfu/ ug{ yfn] sf 5g .  lhNnf k|zf;g sfof{no, lhNnf k|x/ L sfof{no nufotsf lgsfox?n] lx+;f kLl8t dlxnfx?sf]  s'/ f ;'Gg] / Gofosf nflu ;xof] u ug{] jftfj/ 0f tof/ ePsf] 5 .  lhNnf ljsf; ;ldlt wflbªn] n} l+us lx+;flj?4sf]  ph'/ L k] l6sf / ph'/ L 8] :ssf] lgdf{0f u/ L Ps nfv ljlgof] hg u/ ] sf]  5  .  dlxnfsf nflu Gofodf kx"+Fr sfo{qmddfkm{t lx+;fdf k/ ] sf dlxnfx?sf]  Goflos If] qdf / x] sf hl6ntfsf ;DaGwdf Gofno;Fu lg/ Gt/ ;+jfbsf] k|lqmof cl3 al9/ x] sf]  5  . @= k} / jL tyf dWo:ytf  ;~hfnsf] :yfkgfkl5 dlxnf lx+;fsf 36gfx?aflx/  cfpg yfn] sf 5g .  dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifsx?sf] ;~hfnnfO{ lx+;f kLl8t dlxnfx?n] cfkmgf] Gofo k|flKtsf nflu e/ kbf{] lgsfosf ¿kdf lng yfn] sf 5g .  cfPsf lx+;fsf 36gfx?nfO{ ;~hfnn] Gofok"0f{ sfg'gL k|lqmofdf n} hfg]  u/ ] sf]  5  .  ;~hfnn] xfn;Dd @ ;o %) eGbf j9L dlxnf lx+;fsf 36gfx?df ;fdflhs tyf sfg'gL Gofosf nflu k} / jL tyf dWo:ytf ul/ ;s] sf] 5 . #= cfjf; u[xsf] lgdf{0f dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifsx?sf] lhNnf ;+hfn wflbªsf] kxndf cd/ fjtL ;fd'bflos agsf] lgMz'Ns hUuf ;xof] u tyf lhNnf ljsf; ;ldlt wflbªsf] ?= !$ nfv cfly{s ;xof] udf lx+;f kLl8t dlxnfx?sf]  nflu ;'/ lIft cfjf; u[x lgdf{0fsf] yfngL ePsf] 5 . o; cfjf; u[x lgdf{0f tyf Joj:yfkgsf nflu ejg lgdf{0f ;ldlt / cfjf; u[x lgdf{0f ;ldlt u/ L @ j6f ;ldlt lqmofzLn eO/ x] sf] 5 . $= ;~hfnsf] lhNnfl:yt cGo gful/ s ;~hfn;Fusf]  cfa4tf  vfB clwsf/ lhNnf ;~hfn wflbª  n} +lËs lx+;flj?4sf]  ph'/ L 8] S;  dfgj a] rljvg lj?4sf] lhNnf sfo{bn  lqz'nL arfp ;femf ;~hfn  zflGt / dfgjclwsf/ sf] nflu lhNnf :t/ Lo zflGt bjfj ;d"x  lhNnf gful/ s ;r] tgf ;d"x  nfu" cf} ifwlj?4sf] lhNnf :t/ Lo sfo{;ldlt  lhNnf jfn sNof0f ;ldlt b] zsf] &% j6f lhNnfdf km} lnPsf] dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifs ;~hfnx?df dlxnf lx+;fsf] If] qdf wflbË lhNnf ;~hfnn]  cu|0fL e"ldsf lgjf{x ul/ / x] sf] s'/ f lgs} g} ;x|fxgLo /  k|z+;gLo 5 . o; lhNnf ;~hfnnfO{ g] t[Tj ul/ / xg' ePsf åo / flwsf ;fksf] 6f / clDasf ?kfv] tL nufot cGo l6d awfOsf kfq x'g'x'G5 . gf/ fsf ;fy lalaw ;FF:s[lts sfo{qmd, cGt/ {lqmof sfo{qmd, ;Ddfg sfo{qmd nufot laleGg sfo{qmdx? u/ L ;+o'Qm ?kdf g'jfsf] 6 lhNnfsf]  a] nsf] 6 uf=la=;=sf]  lg/ ~hgf pRr df=la=df cGt/ fli6«o >lds dlxnf lbj; eAotfsf ;fy dgfPsf] 5 . / fKtL dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifsx?sf] / fli6«o ;~hfn lhNnf zfvf bfª, Ko"7fg, / f] Nkf, ;Nofg / ?s'dn] dlxnf lx+;f lj?4sf]  !^ lbj;Lo cleofg, cGt/ f{li6«o >lds dlxnf lbj;, dlxnf lx+;f lj?4sf] b] zJofkL ?kdf z'? ul/ Psf] dlxnf lx+;f lj?4sf] cleofgnfO{ lhNnfdf ljleGg sfo{qmdsf] cfof] hgf u/ L ;DkGg u/ ] sf 5g . dlxnf lx+;f lj?4 sf7df08f} df ;~rfng ePsf] cfGbf] ngk|lt P] Soj4tf hgfpFb} @)^( k'; !# ut] !) a"Fb] dfu k|:t't ub} { lhNnf zfvf bfªn] k|] ; lj1KtL hf/ L u/ ] sf] lyof]  . To:t} @)^( df3 !@ ut] lhNnfsf c? g] 6js{x?;d] tsf]  ;xeflutfdf Jofks k|bz{g, lhNnf k|zf;g sfof{no wgf{ /  k|d'v lhNnf clwsf/ Ldfkm{t k|wfgdGqLnfO{ Wofgfsif{0f kq a'emfOPsf] lyof]  . To:t} @)^( k'; @* ut] bfªdf zflGt / ;+ljwfg lgdf{0fdf ;/ f] sf/ jfnfsf] e"ldsf ljifos lhNnf :t/ Lo sfo{qmdsf]  cfof] hgf ul/ Psf]  lyof]   . To:t} @)^( kmfu'g @# bfªsf] t'n;Lk'/ df cf7 dfr{sf]  cj;/ df n} +lus lx+;f cGTosf nflu ePsf sfg'gL Joj:yfaf/ ]  ;/ f] sf/ jfnfaLr cGtlqm{of, @)^( kmfu'g @% ndxL / 3f] / fxLdf cf7 dfr{sf] cj;/ df cGo clwsf/ sdL{ ;ª3;F:yf ;+u7g;Fusf] ;+o'Qm cfof] hgfdf cf7dfr{df ljleGg sfo{qmdsf]  cfof] hgf ul/ Psf]  lyof]  29
    • dlxnf lx+;f lj?4 sf7df08f} +df rln/ x] sf]  cfGbf] ngk|lt P] Soj4tf hgfpFb} lhNnf ;~hfn ?s'dn] @)^( df3 !@ ut]  dlxnf lx+;f lj?4 a[xt k|bz{g / k|d'v lhNnf clwsf/ Ldfkm{t k|wfgdGqLnfO{ Wofgfsif{0f kq ;lxt P] gf k7fPsf] lyof]  . cf7 dfr{df ljleGg ;/ f] sf/ jfnfx?;Fu ;+o'Qm ?kdf dgfOPsf]  lyof]   . To:t} lhNnf ;~hfn / f] Nkfn] @)^( df3 !@ ut] dlxnf lx+;f lj?4 k|bz{g tyf k|d'v lhNnf clwsf/ Ldfkm{t Wofgfsif{0f kq k7fPsf] lyof]  . / f] Nkfdf zflGt / ;+ljwfg lgdf{0fdf ;/ f] sf/ jfnfsf]  e"ldsf ljifos lhNnf :t/ Lo cGtlqm{of sfo{qmd / dlxnf clwsf/ ;Da4 ;ª3;+:yf;Fusf] ;+o'Qm cfof] hgfdf cf7 dfr{df ljleGg ;/ f] sf/ jfnfx?;Fu ;+o'Qm  dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifs cleofgsf] ;b:otf lng] JolQm ;zQm dlxnfclwsf/  / Ifssf]  ¿kdf ;dfj] zLs/ 0fsf l;4fGtx¿nfO{ cg'z/ 0f ub} { cfkm" h'g;'s} k] zf jf Joj;fodf ;+nUg / x] sf] ePklg ;b:otf lng ;Sg] 5g . h:t} M jlsn, lzlIfs, kqsf/ , :jf:YosdL{x¿, u} =;=; df lqmofzLn dlxnf, :jod;] ljsf, u|fld0f txdf ;+ul7t dlxnf ;d"x tyf ;~hfn, ;d'bfodf cfwfl/ t ;+:yfsf]  ;b:o / xL jf ljleGg k] zfdf ;DnUg / xL clwsf/ / Iffsf]  lglDt k} / jL ug] { ;a} ;b:o aGg ;Sg] 5g .  ;b:o aGg rfxg] AolQm jf ;+3 ;+:yfn] dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifs cleofgsf] ;b:otf kmf/ d clgjfo{ eg{'kg{] x'G5 . -kmf/ d df Psk|lt kf;kf{] 6 ;fOhsf] kmf] 6f]  cfjZos kg] {5 .  lhNnf ;~hfn ag] sf lhNnfx? dlxnf dfgjclwsf/  / Ifsx?sf] lhNnf ;Fhfndfkm{t ;b:otf lng' kg] { 5 .  lhNnf ;~hfn gjg] sf lhNnfsf dlxnf jf ;+:yfn] dlxnf dfgjclwsf/  / Ifsx?sf]  ;~hfnsf]  ;lrjfnojf6 k|fKt ug{ ;lsG5 .  o; cleofgdf ;b:o aGg rfxg] AolQmx?nfO{ ?= !)) -cIf?kL ? Ps;o ?k+} of _ ;b:otf z'Ns nfUg] 5 .  ;fw/ 0f ;b:otf kmf/ d e/ ] sf]  Psjif{kl5 - gjLs/ 0f ul/ ;s] kl5 _ lgh AolQm cyjf ;+:yfn] o; cleofgsf]  kl/ rokq k|fKt ug{ ;Sg] 5g .  ;b:otf glas/ 0f z'Ns ?=%).– -cIf?kL ?=krf;_ dfq}  nfUg] 5  . ;b:otf k|fKt ug{ cfjZos dfk808x? b] xfosf] cj:yfdf s'g} JolQm jf ;+:yfn] ;~hfnsf] ;b:otf k|fKt ug{;Sg] 5g . dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifs sf] x'g <  dfgjclwsf/ tyf dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ ;+/ If0f, ;Da4{gsf] lglDt k} / jL ug{] sfddf lqmofzLn dlxnfx? tyf, t] ;|f] lnËL÷of} g cNk;+Vosx¿ dlxnf dfgjclwsf/  / Ifs x'g .  dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifsx¿n] clx+;fTds tj/ af6 cfkm" /  cfkmgf]  ;d'bfosf]  clwsf/ sf]  ;+/ If0f /  ;dj4{gsf]  lglDt k} / jL ug] { sfo{ u5{g .  dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifsx¿n] ;du| dfgjclwsf/  , ljlwsf] zf;g / nf] stGqsf nflu jsfnt ub{5g . dlxnfx? / dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifsx?dfly x'g]  lx+;fsf 36gfx¿nfO{ ;+sng, clen] v / k} / jL ug'{sf ;fy} dlxnfsf] dfgjclwsf/ xggsf kIfx?nfO{ phfu/  ub{5g . pgLx?n] ljz] ift To; qmddf n} lËstfdf cfwfl/ t lx+;f /  hf] lvdsf]  ;d] t ;fdgf ul/ / x] sf x'G5g  . ;b:otf s:tf dlxnfx? dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifs ;+hfnsf] ;b:o aGg ;Sg] 5g .  dfgjclwsf/  ;+/ If0f, ;dj4{gsf]  lglDt lg/ Gt/  k} / jL ug] { dlxnf, t] ;|f] lnËL / of} g cNk;+Vos ;a} dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifs ;~hfnsf] ;b:o aGg ;Sg] 5g .  h'g ;fdflhs ;+:yf jf ;d"xsf] sfo{ ;ldltdf ;Dk"0f{ dlxnf ;b:ox¿ dfq / x] sf 5g jf / xg] k|jwfg / flvPsf]  5 . Tof] ;+:yf ;+:yfut ;b:o aGg ;Sg] 5 . h'g ;+:yfdf dlxnf / k'¿if b'j} sfo{;ldltdf / x] sf 5g jf / xg;Sg]  k|fjwfg 5 tL ;+:yfdf lqmofzLn dlxnfx? JolQmut ¿kdf ;b:o aGg ;Sg] 5g . ¿kdf dgfOPsf] lyof]  . o;} u/ L lhNnf ;~hfn ;Nofgn] @)^( df3 !@ ut] dlxnf lx+;f lj?4 k|bz{g tyf k|d'v lhNnf clwsf/ L dfkm{t Wofgfsif{0f kq k7fPsf] , zflGt / ;+ljwfg lgdf{0fdf ;/ f] sf/ jfnfsf]  e"ldsf ljifos lhNnf :t/ Lo sfo{qmd tyf dlxnf clwsf/  ;Da4 ;ª3;+:yf;Fusf] ;+o'Qm cfof] hgfdf cf7 dfr{df ljleGg ;/ f] sf/ jfnfx?;Fu ;+o'Qm ?kdf dgfOPsf] lyof]  . To:t} lhNnf ;~hfn Ko"7fgn] klg dlxnf lx+;f lj?4sf]  cfGbf] ngk|lt P] Soj4tf k|s6 ub} { k|] ; lj1lKt hf/ L u/ ] sf]  lyof] eg] cGt/ f{li6«o >lds dlxnf lbj; cGo ;ª3;+:yfx? ;dGjodf dgfPsf] lyof]  . 30
    • s_ !* jif{ pd] / k'u] sf dfgjclwsf/ sf] ljZjJofkL dfGotf / l;4fGtnfO{ cfTd;ft u/ L dfgjclwsf/ ;+/ If0fsf]  lgdf{0f / sfof{Gjogdf nflu lqmofzLn s'g} dlxnf . ;b:ox?sf]  juL{s/ 0f o; ;+hfnsf b] xfo jdf] lhd % k|sf/ sf ;b:ox?sf] juL{s/ 0f ul/ Psf]  5  . s_ ;fwf/ 0f ;b:oM dfly pNn] lvt k|fjwfg k"/ f ug] { dlxnfx? ;b:o aGg ;Sg] 5g= . v_ dfgfy{ ;b:oM -;fwf/ 0f ;b:on] pko'Qm, 7x/ u/ ] sf]  tyf dlxnfsf]  dfgjclwsf/ sf]  If] qdf w] / }  nfdf]  ;do;Dd ljlzi6 ?kdf sfo{/ t g] kfnL dlxnf jf lab] zL gful/ snfO{ dfgfy{ ;b:otf lbg ;lsg] 5 t/ dfgfy{ ;b:osf] dtflwsf/ / xg] 5} g . of] ;b:otf lbg'k"j{ / fli6«o ;~hfnsf] sfo{ ;ldltn] ;d] t lg0f{o ug'{kg] {5 . u_ cflhjg ;b:o M o; ;~hfnnfO{ Psd'i7 ?=%))).– ?k} of k|bfg ug{] :jb] zL jf ljb] zL ;+:yf jf JolQmnfO{ sfo{ ;ldltn] lg0f{o u/ L cfhLjg ;b:otf k|bfg ug{]  . #_ ;+:yfks ;b:oM of] ljwfg :jLs[t x'bfsf] jvtsf] o; ljwfgdf x:tfIf/ ug{] kbflwsf/ Lx? ;:+yfks ;b:o dflgg] 5g . ;+:yfks ;b:ox?sf] ;fwf/ 0f jf cfhLjg ;b:otf lnP/ ljwfg jdf] lhdsf] z'Ns j'emfpg' kg] {5 . ª_ ;xof] uL ;b:oM ;~hfnnfO{ ljleGg lsl;dn] ;xof] u ug{]  :jb] zL jf ljb] zL JolQmx?nfO{ sfo{ ;ldltn]  lg0fo{ u/ L ;xof] uL ;b:otf k|bfg ul/ g] 5 . sfd st{Jo / sfo{ ;ldlt rog k|lqmof  ;fwf/ 0f ;b:ox¿n] lhNnf ;~hfn;Fu ;dGjo / ;xsfo{ ub} { dfgjclwsf/ ÷dlxnf clwsf/  ;+/ If0f /  k|j4{gsf]  lglDt lqmofzLn / xg' kg] { 5 .  sfo{;ldltsf] g] t[Tj ;b:otf k|fKt u/ ] sf JoflQmx?sf]  lgjf{rgaf6 rog ul/ g] 5 .  lhNnf ;~hfnsf] sfo{cjlw b'O{ jif{sf] / xg] 5 .  / fli6«o ;~hfnsf] sfo{ cjlw # jif{sf] / xg] 5 .  x/ ] s # aif{df / fli6«o ;~hfnsf] gofF sfo{;ldlt agfpg / fli6«o:t/ sf]  r'gfj x'g] 5  .  lhNnfaf6 JolQmut tyf ;+:yfut ;b:otf k|fKt u/ ] sf JolQmx¿ / fli6«o ;~hfnsf] ;b:odf r'lgg kfpg] 5g . t/  / fli6«o ;Dd] ngdf cfpbf lhNnfn]  r'g] /  k7fPsf]  lhNnf k|ltlglwsf] ¿kdf pkl:yt x'g'kg] { 5 . lhNnf dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifs ;+hfn  x/ ] s lhNnfdf lhNnf:t/ Lo dlxnf dfgjclwsf/  / Ifssf]  ;~hfn / xg] 5 .  lhNnfsf] dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifs ;b:o lhNnf ;~hfndfkm{t / fli6«o txdf k|ltlglwTj ug'{kg] { .  lhNnf:t/ Lo ;ldltsf] sfo{sfn @$ dlxgfsf] x'g] 5, To;kl5 gofF ;ldlt aGg] 5 .  lhDd] jf/ L x:tfGt/ 0f cjlw ! dlxgfsf] x'g] 5 .  ;a} dlxnf dfq sfo{;ldltdf ePsf] ;+:yf ;+:yfut ;b:o x'g ;Sg] 5g . tL ;+:yfut ;b:osf] klg dtflwsf/  Ps JoflQm a/ fj/ g} x'g] 5 .  ;ldltdf ( b] lv !# hgf ;Dd ;b:o x'g] 5g .  a9Ldf % hgf dlxnf JolQmTjx¿ ;Nnfxsf/ x'g ;Sg] 5g h:t} ;/ sf/ L lgsfo dlxnf ljsf; sfof{no, k|x/ L dlxnf ;] n, / fhgLlts kf6L{ / cGo ;zQm dlxnf JolQmTjx¿ o; cleofgsf p2] Zox? g] kfnleq ;d'bfo:t/ b] lv / fli6«o:t/ ;Dd dfgjclwsf/ , dlxnfclwsf/ sf] If] qdf ls|fofzLn ;ª3 ;+:yfx¿sf]  ;dGjodf dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifsx¿sf] klxrfg, ;'/ Iff / clwsf/ sf lglDt ls|ofzLn x'g]  . lglb{i6 p2] Zox¿  dlxnf dfgjclwsf/ / Ifsx¿sf] klxrfg / dfGotf :yflkt ug] {,  dlxnf dfgjclwsf/  / Ifsx¿sf]  ;'/ Iffsf nflu k|efjsf/ L sfg'gL ;+oGq lgdf{0f ug{ bjfj / k} / jL ug] {,  dlxnf dfgjclwsf/  / Ifsx¿n]  dlxnf ePs}  sf/ 0f v] Kg' k/ ] sf lx+;f, wDsL, hf] lvd / cGo dlxnf dfgjclwsf/  xggx¿sf]  clen] v / fVg]  /  To;af6 pgLx¿dfly k/ ] sf]  /  kg{;Sg]  k|efjsf]  af/ ] df cWoog ljZn] if0f /  ;"rgf k|jfx ug] {,  dfgjclwsf/ sf ljleGg If] qdf lqmofzLn dlxnf dfgjclwsf/  / Ifsx¿;“u ;DaGw lj:tf/ , ;~hfn lgdf{0f tyf ;'b[9Ls/ 0f ug] {,  ;d'bfo:t/ df sfo{/ t dfgjclwsf/  / Ifsx¿sf]  Ifdtf clej[l4sf] nflu tyf pgLx¿n] sfd ug] { ;+oGqsf]  lgdf{0fsf nflu ;xof] u ug] { . 31
    • 32 dlxnf dfgj clwsf/ /Ifsx?sf] /fli6«o ;~hfn ;lrjfnoM afns'df/L, nlntk'/ kmf]g g+= (&&–!–%%@(*$! O{d]n M secretariat@nawhrd.org j]j;fO{6M www.nawhrd.org klxrfg, ;Ddfg / ;'/Iff dlxnf clwsf/sf] cfwf/