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Guidelines for Transforming Traditional Village into Eco-Village
Guidelines for Transforming Traditional Village into Eco-Village
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Guidelines for Transforming Traditional Village into Eco-Village

  1. 1. k/ Dk/ fut ufpFnfO{ Osf] len] hdf ¿kfGt/ 0fM lgb] {lzsf Guidelines for Transforming Traditional Village into Eco-Village cf]/]s g]kfn
  2. 2. k/Dk/fut ufpFnfO{ Osf]len]hdf ¿kfGt/0fM lgb]{lzsf2 k/ Dk/ fut ufpFnfO{ Osf] len] hdf ¿kfGt/ 0fM lgb] {lzsf n] vsM 8f= ljgfos k|;fb / fhe08f/ L Guidelines for Transforming Traditional Village into Eco-Village -Binayak P Rajbhandari n] cfp6 M s[i0f s'df/L rf}w/L k|yd ;+:s/0fM @)&) -;g @)!#_ cf] / ] s g] kfn afns'df/ L, nlntk'/ kf] =aS; g+= !#@## sf7df8f} +, g] kfn j] j : www.worecnepal.org  cfly{s ;xof] u Mk|sfzs M POcfO{, nSh] Dau{ (AEI, Luxembourg)
  3. 3. k/Dk/fut ufpFnfO{ Osf]len]hdf ¿kfGt/0fM lgb]{lzsf 3 laifo;"rL e"ldsf $ != Osf] len] hsf] cjwf/ 0ff % @= Osf] len] hsf dfkb08x¿ !^ #= Osf] len] hsf ;"rsfÍx¿ @) $= k/ Dk/ fut ufpFnfO{ Osf] len] hdf ¿kfGt/ 0f ug] { r/ 0fa4 tl/ sfx¿ aif{ PsM @# r/ 0f ! u|fdL0f ;d'bfo;Fu 5nkmn / cjwf/ 0ffut cled'vLs/ 0f @# r/ 0f @ :ffdflhs tyf ;|f] t gS;fÍg /  3/ w'/ L ;j] {If0f @^ r/ 0f # ;d"xx¿sf] u7g jf k'gu{7g / klxnf] aif{sf] sfo{ of] hgf lgdf{0f @* r/ 0f $ ;3g h} las v] tL k|0ffnLaf/ ] tflnd tyf cled'vLs/ 0fx¿ @( r/ 0f % ;3g h} las v] tL k|0ffnLsf] sfof{Gjog #! aif{ b'O{M #@ r/ 0f ^ klxnf]  aif{sf sfd /  pknlJwx¿sf]  k'g/ fjnf] sg /  bf] ;|f]  aif{sf] sfo{ of] hgf lgdf{0f / sfof{Gjog #@ r/ 0f & ;/ sf/ L lgsfosf k|ltlglwx¿;Fu 5nkmn / ;xsfo{ #@ r/ 0f * ;fd'bflos ;+:yf Pjd ;d"xx¿sf] ;zQmLs/ 0f / kl/ rfng ## r/ 0f ( Osf] len] hsf ;"rsfÍx¿ cg'¿k x/ ] s 3/ w'/ LcGtu{t ef} lts ;+/ rgfx¿sf]  lgdf{0f /  k'glgdf{0f #% aif{ tLgM $) r/ 0f !) bf] ;|f]  aif{sf sfd /  pknlJwx¿sf]  k'g/ fjnf] sg /  t] ;|f]  aif{sf] sfo{ of] hgf lgdf{0f / sfof{Gjog $) r/ 0f !! ;fd'bflos ;+/ rgfx¿sf] lgdf{0f / pkof] u $) r/ 0f !@ ;3g h} las v] tL k|0ffnLaf/ ] cfaZos tflnd, cled'vLs/ 0f / ;xof] u $@ r/ 0f !# Osf] len] hn]  pknJw u/ fpg]  ;] jf /  ;'lawfx¿af/ ]  cfkmg}  j] a;fO6dfkm{t ;fj{hlgs hfgsf/ L $@ @#
  4. 4. k/Dk/fut ufpFnfO{ Osf]len]hdf ¿kfGt/0fM lgb]{lzsf4 e"ldsf cf] / ] sn] jl/i7 s[lifljb 8f= ljgfos k|;fb /fhe08f/LHo"sf] cu|;/ tfdf u|fdL0f ;d'bfosf ;LdfGts[t tyf ;fgf ls;fgx¿sf] hLljsf] kfh{gnfO{ ;xh kfg] { / :yfgLo :t/ df s[lifsf]  lalawLs/ 0f / lbuf] k4ltdfkm{t pTkfbgdf a[l4 ug] { p2] Zo / fvL ldh] l/ o/ hd{gLsf]  cfly{s ;xof] udf g'jfsf] 6df ;3g h} ljs v] tL k|0ffnL k|j4{g sfo{qmd ;g !((& b] lv ;'? u/ ] sf]  lyof]   . ;f]  sfo{qmd g'jfsf] 6sf]  lzv/ j] zL, £ofªkm] bL /  / fn'sfb] jL uflj;x¿df ;'? ul/ Psf] lyof]  . Ps aif{kl5 ;g !((* b] lv ;f] sfo{qmd pbok'/ df klg ;~rfng ul/ Psf] lyof]  . ;f] sfo{qmdsf pT;fxhgs pknlJwx¿ lyP / 5g . To;n] ul/ aL lgjf/ 0f, vfB ;'/ Iff tyf hLljsf] kfh{gsf] ;xhLs/ 0fdf lglZrt ;sf/ fTds c;/ x¿ kf/ ] sf] 5 /  kfl/ / x] sf] 5 . t/ ;f] sfo{qmd 5gf] 6 ul/ Psf] ufpFsf s] xL 5flgPsf 3/ w'/ Ldf dfq nfu" ul/ Psf]  lyof]   . To;n]  ubf{ 5gf] 6df gk/ ] sf cGo 3/ w'/ Lsf]  v] taf/ Ldf / f;folgs dn /  / f;folgs laiffbLx¿sf]  k|of] u ul/ +bf 5] j} sf]  ;3g h} ljs v] tL k|0ffnL nfu" ul/ Psf]  v] taf/ Ldf sL/ fx¿sf]  k|sf] k sfa'aflx/ }  / xg]  u/ ] sf]  kfOof]   . csf] {tkm{ nlIft ufla; tyf ufpFx¿df ;fd'bflos ;+u7g / ;d"xx¿sf] ;zQmLs/ 0fsf sf/ 0fn] ubf{, ;3g h} ljs v] tL k|0ffnLsf ;sf/ fTds pknlJw / c;/ x¿af6 k|efljt e} pQm sfo{qmdsf] df+u a9] / uof]  . nlIft ufla; tyf ufpFx¿df hLljsf] kfh{g ;'/ IffnfO{ / kof{j/ 0fLo ;/ f] sf/ Pad hnjfo' kl/ jt{gsf r'gf} ltx¿nfO{ Ps} ;fy ;Daf] wg ug'{ cfjZos / x] sf] ;Gbe{df Ans ck|f] r cyf{t ;dli6ut ;f] rcg'¿k sfo{qmd lasf; / ;~rfng ug'{ jf~5gLo b] lvg uof]  . To;} s'/ fnfO{ Wofgdf / fvL cf] / ] sn] k'gM 8f= ljgfos k|;fb /fhe08f/LHo"sf] cu|;/ tfdf Osf] len] hsf] cjwf/ 0ff lasf; u/ L To;nfO{ Ps sfo{qmdsf ¿kdf sfof{Gjog ug{ ;'? u/ ] sf]  xf]   . of] cleofg cfly{s, ;fdflhs / ;f+:s[lts clwsf/ x¿sf] ;'lglZrttf, ;3g h} ljs v] tL k|0ffnLsf] lj:tf/ / lbuf] hLljsf] kfh{gsf] ;'lglZrttfsf nflu :yfgLo ;d'bfonfO{ ;Ifd / kl/ rflnt x'g ;xhLs/ 0f ug] { clek|fon] ;~rflnt ePsf] xf]  . of] cleofg k/ Dk/ fut ufpFnfO{ Osf] len] hdf ¿kfGt/ 0f ug] { sfo{df s] lGb|t 5 . cGo d'n's / :yfgdf Osf] len] hsf lgldQ ePsf k|of;x¿eGbf of] k|of; o; cy{df leGg 5 ls o;nfO{ dfgjclwsf/ d'vL ;f] raf6 ;3g h} ljs v] tL k|0ffnLsf] l;4fGt / sfo{z} nL cg'¿k lasf; ul/ Psf] 5 . afa'/ fd uf} td sfo{sf/ L lgb] {zs
  5. 5. k/Dk/fut ufpFnfO{ Osf]len]hdf ¿kfGt/0fM lgb]{lzsf 5 Osf] len] hsf]  cjwf/ 0ff! k|s[lt;Fu nf] eafx] s xfd|f cGo ;a} cfaZostfx¿ k"/ f ug] { ;fdYo{ 5 . –dxfTdf s/ drGb ufGwL jf:tjdf ;d:t dfgj hfltn]  xfdL cfˆgf] hLjgnfO{ Ps csf{ /  k|s[lt;Fusf]  ;DaGwnfO{ ;d] t Wofgdf / fvL s;/ L Aoal:yt ug{ rfxG5f} + / To;sf cfwf/ df Ps csf{sf kl/ k"/ s x'g]  tj/ n]  s:tf k|lalwx¿ / cfly{s k|0ffnLx¿ lasf; ug{ rfxG5f} + To; laifodf uxg larf/ tyf 5nkmn ug] { / lg0f{o ug] { a] nf cfO;s] sf] 5 . cg'ejn] s]  b] vfPsf] 5 eg] :yfgLo ;fgf] u|fdL0f :t/ sf]  cu|;/ tf dflysf]  ;Gbe{df Hofb}  dxŒjk"0f{ x'G5 . ;fdfGotof s] eGg] ul/ G5 eg]  xfdLn] clxn] h] hlt vfG5f} + jf pkef] u ub{5f} + To;nfO{ ToxL ¿kdf sfod / fVg k[YjL hqf tLgj6f u|x rflxG5 . t/ xfdL tLgj6f u|x t agfpg ;Sb} gf} +  . csf] {lt/  xfdLnfO{ cfˆgf cfjZostfx¿ k"/ f gul/ klg ePsf] 5} g . To;f] eP s] ug] { t < To;sf nflu Ps dfq pkfo 5 Tof] xf]  xfdLn]  xfd|f]  pkef] unfO{ lbuf] :t/  df emfg] { jf Jojl:yt ug]  { . csf] { zJbdf eGbf xfdLn] xfd|f k|fs[lts ;|f] tx¿sf]  bf] xg -w] / }  gfkmf sdfpg]  nf] e_ xf] Og lbuf] Joj:yfkg -efjL k':tfsf nflu klg pTkfbgzLn ;|f] tx¿ af“sL / flv lbg] _ u/ L xfd|f]  hLljsf] kfh{gnfO{ ;xh / lbuf] agfpg ;Sb5f} + . o;sf lgldQ xfdLn] xfd|f] hLjg bz{g, ;dfh, ;d'bfo, k|s[lt /  pTkfbgzLn k|fs[lts ;|f] tx¿ /  kof{j/ 0fk|ltsf]  xfd|f]  k'/ fgf]  Wj+;sf/ L gfkmfd'vL dfGotfdf kl/ jt{g ug'{ cfaZos x'G5 . xfdL nf] e /  k|lt:kwf{sf]  ;+:s[ltdf cfwfl/ t ;dfhsf] ;66fdf k|] d, ;befjgf, cfk;L ;xof] u / ;fdflhs Gofodf cfwfl/ t gofF ;dfh agfpg k|lta4 x'g'kb{5 . kof{j/ 0fd} qL ufpF cyf{t
  6. 6. k/Dk/fut ufpFnfO{ Osf]len]hdf ¿kfGt/0fM lgb]{lzsf6 Osf] len] hsf]  ;f] r o;}  dfGotf /  hLjg bz{gdf cfwfl/ t 5 . Osf] len] hsf]  Pp6f dfq kl/ efiff 5} g  . tyflk xfdLn]  Osf] len] hnfO{ To:tf] ufpF jf dfgj a:tL dfg] sf 5f} + hxfFsf afl;Gbfx¿ k|s[lt tyf kof{j/ 0fd} qL Jojxf/  /  k|lalwsf]  k|of] u ;fd"lxs lg0f{osf cfwf/ df u/ L pknJw ;|f] t / ;Dkbfsf] lbuf]  Joj:yfkg ub{5g / hxfF pgLx¿sf ;fdflhs, efjgfTds, cfTdut, ef} lts / cfly{s cfaZostfx¿ k"/ f ePsf x'G5g / cgGt sfn;Dd lbuf]  ¿kdf k"/ f x'g] 5g . af:tjdf Osf] len] hsf]  ;f] r xfd|f]  b} lgs hLjgsf] Ps lx:;f aGg' kb{5 . o;nfO{ xfd|f] lbgrof{sf] efiff, nf] s ;flxTo / nf] s ;+:s[ltn] an lbg' kb{5, ;xof] u ug'{ kb{5 . csf] { zJbdf eGbf kof{j/ 0fd} qL ufpFsf]  hLjg bz{g, d'No / dfGotfnfO{ xfd|f] b} lgs efiff, nf] s ;flxTo /  nf] s ;+:s[ltsf] s] Gb| laGb' agfOg' kb{5 . o;nfO{ k|f/ lDes afn lasf; s] Gb|b] lv ljBfno;Dd ;n{Ss}  lkmhfOg' kb{5 . ToxfFsf u'?cfdf / u'?afx¿n] clg o'jf / kfsf cfdfafafx¿n] To:tf] lhDdf clgjfo{ ¿kdf lng' kb{5 . u} / ;/ sf/ L /  ;/ sf/ L ;ª3;+:yfx¿n]  cfaZos ;xof] usf]  of] hgf agfP/  ufpF, a:tL / :s'nx¿df sfo{qmd nfg' kb{5 . o'jf /  lszf] / Lx¿, afnaflnsf / dlxnfx¿, pgLx¿sf Sna /  ;ldltx¿ tL sfo{qmddf cf-cfˆgf :ki6 e"ldsfsf ;fy sDd/ s;] /  cufl8 ;g'{ kb{5 . clg dfq cfzf ul/ Psf]  kl/ jt{g Nofpg ;Dej x'g] 5  . xfdLn]  rfx] sf]  ¿kfGt/ 0f JolQmut :t/ b] lv ;dfh;Dd cfaZos x'G5 / To;sf] ;'?jft JolQmut kl/ jt{gb] lv x'g' kb{5 . cf] / ] s g] kfn /  cGo u} / ;/ sf/ L ;ª3 ;+:yfdfkm{t k/ Dk/ fut ufpFnfO{ Osf] len] hdf ¿kfGt/ 0f ug] { of]  cjwf/ 0ff PsLs[t dfgjclwsf/ jfbL ;f] r /  lbuf]  ;3g h} ljs v] tL k|0ffnLsf]  cjwf/ 0ff /  sfo{z} nLdf cfwfl/ t 5  . of]  o'/ f] k, cd] l/ sf tyf cGo d'n'sdf agfOg]  Osf] len] hsf]  cjwf/ 0ff / dfkb08x¿eGbf leGg 5 . o'/ f] k /  ci6«] lnofsf sltko Osf] len] hx¿sf]  cjnf] sgkZrft Osf] len] hsf lalaw kIfsf ;DaGwdf lxN8/ HofS;gn] !) j6f dxŒjk"0f{ j'+bfx¿nfO{ o;/ L / fv] sf 5gM != dfgj ;Eotf / xfd|f] w/ tL dftf -k[YjL_ sf] eljiosf lgldQ JolQmut ¿kfGt/ 0f ;aeGbf dxŒjk"0f{ s'/ f] xf]  . cfqmfds,
  7. 7. k/Dk/fut ufpFnfO{ Osf]len]hdf ¿kfGt/0fM lgb]{lzsf 7 l/ ;fxf, k|lt:kwL{, PsnsfF6]  dflg;x¿n]  zfGt, ;xof] uL, lbuf] / Gofok"0f{ ;dfh sbflk agfpg ;Sb} gg . @= TolQs}  dxŒjk"0f{ 5 k|] dk"0f{ ;DaGwx¿sf] l;h{gf . To:tf]  k|] dk"0f{ ;DaGw xfd|f cfˆgf aLrdf, xfd|f]  kl/ jf/ leq, ;d'bfox¿aLr, xfd|f] k|fs[lts ;Dkbf / jftfj/ 0f, dfgjtf /  k[YjLk|lt klg cfaZos x'G5 . To;nfO{ ;d'bfo, ;dfh /  kl/ jf/ sf s'g} klg ;b:o, ju{, /  lnËdfly k/ Dk/ fut¿kdf e} / x] sf]  jf x'g]  cTofrf/ , lje] b, lx+;f, / zf] if0f, tyf k[YjL -:yn, hn, / afo'd08n_ sf tTjx¿ -hldg, h+un, h} ljs lalawtf, hn;|f] t, hnjfo'_ dfly k/ Dk/ fut¿kdf e} / x] sf]  bf] xgsf]  cGTo /  lbuf]  Joj:yfkgsf ¿kdf klg a'emg ;lsG5 . #= JolQmut ¿kfGt/ 0f /  k|] dk"0f{ ;DaGw :yfkgfsf lgldQ of] u cEof; / Wofg ug'{ Hofb}  pkof] uL x'G5 . xfdLn] cfˆgf] cfGtl/ s zlQm jf Ifdtf klxrfg ug{, gofF b[li6sf] 0f lasf; ug{, ;+r] tgf /  laa] ssf]  clea[l4sf lgldQ ;d] t of] u cEof; /  Wofg Psbd} pkof] uL lalw xf]  . o;n] xfd|f] l/ ; / fudf klg sdL NofpF5 . $= sfd xfd|f] b} lgs hLjgsf]  clgjfo{ lx:;f xf] , t/ To;nfO{ xfdLn]  s;/ L k"/ f ub{5f} + eGg]  s'/ fn] 7"nf] leGgtf NofpF5 . nufj /  k|] dn]  jf:tjd}  s'g}  klg vfnsf]  sfdsf]  ¿kfGt/ 0fdf ;3fp k'/ ofpF5 . vf;u/ L sfdsf]  u'0f:t/ df w] / }  / fd|f]  glthf cfpF5 . hLjgsf] u'0f:t/  / dfgj ;DaGwdf t emg} / fd|f]  c;/ kfOG5 . %= dflg;x¿ hlt;'s} k|lt:kwL{ ePklg cyjf dfgj ;DaGwsf laifodf hlt;'s} bIf ePklg JolQmut åGå jf dgd'6fj cfpg' t :jfeflas} x'G5 . To;} n]  a] nfd}  k|efjsf/ L tl/ sfn]  åGå Joj:yfkg ug{ l;Sg' JolQmut ;DaGw tyf ;d'bfosf] lxtdf dxŒjk"0f{ x'G5 . ^= ;d'bfodf s'g} klg laifodf lg0f{o ug] { sfd ;aeGbf ufxf/ f]  kIfx¿dWo] Ps xf]  . t/ ;Fu}  of] ufEof; / Wofg ug] { ;d"xx¿n]  eg]  of]  sfd ;xh}  ug] { u/ ] sf]  kfOof]   . &= Osf] len] hsf]  bz{gsf kIfw/  ;d'bfosf]  tof/ Lsf lgldQ
  8. 8. k/Dk/fut ufpFnfO{ Osf]len]hdf ¿kfGt/0fM lgb]{lzsf8 ;docefj /  w} o{sf]  efjgf Psbd}  dxŒjk"0f{ x'G5 . oxfFg] /  k|of] u ul/ Psf]  ;docefjsf]  efjgf k[YjLsf]  eljiosf af/ ] df ul/ g' kg] { sfdsf] cfaZostf /  dxŒjnfO{ cg'ej ug] { laifo;Fu ;DalGwt 5 . *= Osf] len] hsf nflu cfly{s :jtGqtf Hofb}  dxŒjk"0f{ ;jfn xf]  . k|fs[lts / JolQmut z} nLcg'¿ksf]  Wofgof] uL tyf Hofb} sd dfgl;s bafa ePsf]  hLjg k4lt To:tf] ;d'bfodf dfq ;Dej x'G5, hxfF ;d'bfosf ;b:ox¿sf]  hLljsf] kfh{g ufpFaflx/ uP/ sfd gubf{ klg ;'lglZrt x'G5 . (= lbuf] hLjg k4lt / :jtGq cy{tGq lgdf{0fdf ;aeGbf 7"nf]  afwfsf]  ¿kdf df] 6/  ufl8 / x] sf]  kfOof]  . s] xL ;d'bfon] o;df / fd|f]  ;kmntf xfl;n u/ ] sf 5g t/  Osf] len] hx¿n]  of]  ;d:ofsf] ;fdgf ;kmntfk"j{s ug{ g;s] df pgLx¿sf p2] Zox¿ k"/ f x'g]  5} gg  . !)= sltko Osf] len] hx¿ dfgj dnd"qsf] c;/ sd ug{ sfo{/ t 5g t/  w] / }  Osf] len] hx¿ o;nfO{ 9nd} aufOlbg' kb{5 eGg]  larf/ d}  5g  . sDkf] i6 agfOg] vfnsf] rlk{ agfPdf -uf] a/  Uof; 6of+sdf hf] l8Psf] _ dnd"qnfO{ 9ndf aufpg /  To;kl5 l6«6d] 06 KnfG6 lgdf{0f ug{ cfaZos kg] { kfgL / cGo ;|f] tx¿ laNs'n} rflx+b} gg . o;df tn pNn] v ul/ Psf s] xL a'Fbfx¿ xfdLn] yKg' kg] { x'G5 . tL o;k|sf/  5gM • j} slNks phf{ jf OGwgsf ;DaGwdf • / } yfg]  1fg /  k|ljlwsf af/ ] df • ;f+:s[lts klxrfg, hu] gf{ /  k|j4{gsf ;DaGwdf • h} ljs lalawtfsf]  ;+/ If0f /  pkof] usf af/ ] df • pTkfbgzLn k|fs[lts ;|f] tx¿sf]  lbuf]  Joj:yfkgaf/ ]  • ;|f] t ;fwg / lg0f{o k|lqmofdf dlxnf / k'?ifx¿sf] ;dfg kx'“r /  ;xeflutfaf/ ]   . xfdLn] dfly pNn] lvt ;a} a'+bfx¿nfO{ b[li6utu/ LOsf] len] hsfdfkb08x¿ lgwf{/ 0f u/ ] sf 5f} + . tL dfkb08x¿ lgdf{0f ubf{ ;'?sf Osf] len] hsf ;b:ox¿sf]  ;lqmo ;xeflutf / x] sf]  lyof]   . Osf] len] hsf dfkb08x¿af/ ]  xfdL tn a] Un} 5nkmn ug] {5f} + .
  9. 9. k/Dk/fut ufpFnfO{ Osf]len]hdf ¿kfGt/0fM lgb]{lzsf 9 clt xflgsf/ s / f;folgs ljiffbLx¿sf]  k|of] u u/ L w] / }  vfB pTkfbg u/ ] /  cyjf lbgx'“ ul/ i6 vfgfsf cg] s kl/ sf/ x¿ w] / }  vfP/  jf vfg g;sL kmfn] / s'g} klg ls;fg jf dflg; 7"nf] x'‘b} g . To;} u/ L cfˆgf nflu k|fªufl/ s vfB pTkfbg -cGg, bnxg, t/ sf/ L, kmnkm"n OToflb_ ug] { / c?sf nflu jf a] Rgsf nflu / f;folgs k4ltaf6 laiff0f'o'Qm vfB pTkfbg / a] rlavg u/ L wgfh{g ug] { ls;fg klg ;Ddfgof] Uo x'g ;Sb} g . To:tf dflg; jf ls;fgnfO{ ;Ddfg ug'{ kg] { sf/ 0f x'‘b} g . To;f] eP s:tf dflg; jf ls;fgnfO{ ;Ddfg ug] { t < xfdLn] To:tf ls;fg jf dflg;nfO{ ;Ddfg ug'{[ kb{5 h;n]  :yfgLo ;|f] t ;fwg /  / } yfg]  1fg tyf k|ljlwsf]  ;d] t ;b'kof] u u/ L jftfj/ 0f / :jf:Yodf s'g} xflg jf gsf/ fTds c;/  gkf/ L ;f/ f hutsf nflu cyjf ;dfhsf x/ ] s ;b:osf nflu kf} li6s / :j:ys/ vfB pTkfbg, k|;f] wg / a] rlavg ub{5 . xfdLn] To:tf dflg;nfO{ ;Ddfg ug'{ kb{5 h;n]  cfk"mn]  vf‘bf c?sf]  / f] u, zf] s / ef] ssf laifodf klg ;f] Rb5 / c?nfO{ ;xof] u ug{ ;b} a tTk/  x'G5, x/ ] s 5fsdf vfgf ksfpg'cl3 g} s] xL cGg sd ub{5 / vfgf v] /  kmfNb} g . o;} k|;+udf xfd|f dxfslj nIdLk|;fb b] jsf] 6fn]  ;d] t cfˆgf] ljZjljVoft v08 sfJo d'gfdbgdf ;7Ls cfzo JoQm u/ ] sf lyPM æIf] qLsf]  5f] / f]  of]  kfp 5'G5 l3gn] 5'“b} g dflg; 7"nf] lbnn] x'G5 hftn] x'“b} g .Æ x/ ] s 3/ sf ;a}  ;b:on]  o;/ L ;f] lr lbP s]  x'GYof]  xf] nf < x/ ] s 3/ sf ;b:ox¿n]  o;/ L ;f] rL If] qLsf]  5f] / f]  of]  kfp 5'G5 l3gn]  5'“b} g, dflg; 7"nf] lbnn] x'G5 hftn] x'“b} g . –dxfslj nIdLk|;fb b] jsf] 6f dflg; 7"nf] s;/ L x'G5 <
  10. 10. k/Dk/fut ufpFnfO{ Osf]len]hdf ¿kfGt/0fM lgb]{lzsf10 Jojxf/ df nfu" ul/ lbP xfn xfdLn]  ef] lu/ fv] sf]  vfB c;'/ Iffsf]  l:yltdf s] xL ;'wf/ cfp‘bf] xf]  . xfn xfd|f]  d'n'ssf] hg;+Vof @,^^,)),))) /  s"n 3/ w'/ L;+Vof %$,@&,#)@ 5 . aif] {gL vfBfGg ;d:of a] xf] g'{ gkg] { 3/ w'/ L ;ªVof sl/ a $),&),))) 5 . xfdLnfO{ ;g @))*/ ( /  @))(/ !) df qmdzM !,#@,(!) d] l6«s 6g / #,@(,(&@ d] l6«s 6g vfBfGg ck'u ePsf] lyof] eg] ;g @)!)/ !! df $,$#,)%& d] l6«s 6g vfBfGg art ePsf] lyof]  . aif] {gL a] xf] g'{ kg] { vfBfGg c;'/ Iffsf]  ;d:ofnfO{ ;Daf] wg ug'{ xfd|f nflu kmnfdsf]  Ro'/ f rkfP;/ x sl7g ePsf]  5  . aif] {gL x/ ] s 3/ w'/ Ln]  Ps lbgdf %) u|fd -laxfg / a] n'sf Ps Ps d'7L_ vfBfGg art ug] { xf]  eg]  To;sf]  b} lgs s"n kl/ df0f @)# d] l6«s 6g x'g hfg] 5 . Ps aif{df To;/ L ;l~rt vfBfGgsf]  s"n kl/ df0f &$,)(% d] l6«s 6g x'g] 5 . aif{lbgdf o;/ L hf] ufOPsf]  vfBfGgnfO{ “ul/ aL lgaf/ 0fsf nflu ;fd'bflos kxn" cyjf "d'7Lbfg" h:tf sfo{qmddfkm{t ufp‘a:tLdf nfg ;s]  3/ kl/ jf/ sf]  vfBfGg c;'/ Iffsf] ;d:of s] xL dfqfdf eP klg ;dfwfg x'g] lyof]  . Osf] len] hdf :yfgLo ;d"x / ;ldltx¿n] o:tf ;f] rx¿nfO{ d't{ ¿k lbg ;Sb5g / ;Sg' klg kb{5 . kl5 uP/  To;sf]  cg's/ 0f / fli6«o :t/ df x'g ;Sb5 . Osf] len] hdf o:tf]  ;f] rsf]  ;lx sfof{Gjogaf6 ef] vd/ L lgld6ofGg ePkl5 / fHon]  b] ze/ L cyjf w] / }  ufp‘df o:tf]  sfo{qmd lsg nfu" gug] { <
  11. 11. k/Dk/fut ufpFnfO{ Osf]len]hdf ¿kfGt/0fM lgb]{lzsf 11 xfnsf] tyfslyt d"n k|jfxsf] s[lif k|0ffnLcGtu{t / f;folgs dn /  laiffbLx¿sf]  k|of] un]  ubf{ jftfj/ 0f k|b"lift x'g] , dflg; / a:t'efpsf]  :jf:Yodf k|lts"n c;/  kg] { u/ ] sf] , /  h} ljs lalawtf gi6 x'Fb} uPsf] 5 . To;} u/ L pQm s[lif k|0ffnLcGtu{t t/ fO{sf v] tx¿nfO{ tf/ Gtf/  6ofS6/ n]  hf] Tgfn]  df6f] sf]  ;+/ rgf lalu|+b} / pj{/ f zlQm emg emg sd x'“b}  u} / x] sf]  5 .  Ps jfnL k4ltn]  ubf{ gofF gofF / f] u ls/ fx¿sf]  k|sf] k a9b}  u} / x] sf]  5  . tyfslyt d"n k|jfxsf] s[lif k|0ffnL nf] esf]  ;+:s[ltdf cfwfl/ t 5 . Tof] nf] e eg] sf] k|lt PsfO hldgaf6 a9LeGbf a9L pTkfbg lngsf nflu w] / } eGbf w] / }  / f;folgs dn, / f;folgs laiffbL tyf xla{;fO8x¿sf] k|of] u ug{‘ xf]  . To:tf] k|lalw / cEof;af6 df6f] sf]  ;+/ rgf lau|g] , pj{/ tf gi6 x'g] , df6f] sf hLjf0f'x¿sf]  ;+Vof cToflws Go"g x'g] , h} ljs lalawtf gi6 x'g] s'/ fdf To:tf] s[lif k|0ffnLsf kIfw/ x¿nfO{ ;/ f] sf/  5}  g  . pgLx¿nfO{ s] jn gfkmf;Fu dfq dtna 5 . w] / } wg sdfP/ dfgl;s zflGt k|fKt ug{ ;ls+b} g a? Tof]  u'dfOG5 eGg] 1fg klg pgLx¿nfO{ 5} g . zfob To:tf] k|j[lttkm{ ;+s] t u/ L n] v] sf lyP xfd|f sljlz/ f] d0fL n] vgfy kf} 8ofnn]  “d} vfpF d} nfpF ;'v;on jf df] h d u?F, d} gfr'F d}  xfF;' c? ;a d?g b'a{nx¿ . " laiffbLo'Qm vfB kbfy{x¿af6 tof/  kfl/ Psf cg] sf}  kl/ sf/ x¿ h:t}  eft, kmnk"mn, t/ sf/ L, bfn, df;', cyjf b'w vfP/ / f] uL hLjg afFRg' s'g} klg cy{df / fd|f] x'g ;Sb} g . a? :j:ys/ vfgfsf] Pp6f jf b'O{6f kl/ sf/ vfO{ :j:y / xg' /  dfgl;s zflGt k|fKt ug'{ a'l4dfgL xf]  . dxfslj nIdLk|;fb b] jsf] 6fn]  Psbd 7Ls eg] sf 5g "xftsf]  d} nf ;'gsf] y} nf s] ug'{ wgn] , ;fu /  xftsf]  d} nf ;'gsf]  y} nf s]  ug'{ wgn] , ;fu / l;:g" vfPsf] a] z cfgGbL dgn]  . –dxfslj nIdLk|;fb b] jsf] 6f s[lif, jftfj/ 0f /  hLljsf] kfh{g
  12. 12. k/Dk/fut ufpFnfO{ Osf]len]hdf ¿kfGt/0fM lgb]{lzsf12 l;:g" vfPsf] a] z cfgGbL dgn] ". To;f] eP s] ug] { t < cfkmgf nflu cfaZos vfB kbfy{ :yfgLo :t/ df g} pTkfbg ug] {, k|fªufl/ s pTkfbg ug] { :yfgLo ls;fgx¿nfO{ ;Ddfg /  ;xfotf ug] {, xfd|f cfˆgf / } yfg] 1fg vfB e08f/ 0f k|ljlw /  k/ Dk/ fnfO{ k'ghL{ljt / ;Dj4{g ug] { . ls;fgnfO{ s[lifsf] cfw'lgsLs/ 0f /  Jofj;flosLs/ 0fsf]  gfddf laiffbL k|of] u u/ L v] tL ug{ / hgtfnfO{ laiffbLo'Qm vfgf vfg afWo kfg] { gLlt / sfo{qmdx¿nfO{ oyflz3| vf/ ] h ug]{  . cg'jf+lzs¿kdf ¿kfGtl/ t -h] g] l6sNnL df] l8kmfO8_ vfB pTkfbg k|ljlwsf]  k|of] uaf6 afnLgfnLsf] k|lt PsfO pTkfbg cToflws dfqfdf a9fpg ;lsG5 . pQm k|lalwsf] k|of] uaf6 afnLgfnLdf / f] u /  sL/ fx¿sf]  lgoGq0f klg / fd|f] ;Fu ug{ ;lsG5 . a} 1flgs lx;fa lstfadf Tof] s'/ f ;xL xf]  . Tof]  ;'Gbf / fd|}  s'/ f xf]  h:tf]  klg nfUb5 . t/ To:tf] k|ljlwn] xfd|f / } yfg]  jfnLgfnLsf lglZrt hftx¿ x/ fpg] , To;;Fu ;DalGwt / } yfg]  1fg, k|ljlw /  k/ Dk/ f x/ fpg]  k|jn ;Defjgf / xG5 . To:tf] k|ljlw ckgfpg]  ax'/ fli6«o 7"nf lab] zL sDklgx¿n]  gk'+;s -a0f{z+s/ _ aLpx¿sf] pTkfbg ub{5g . To:tf]  aLp u/ fpg bzsf} +;Dd lg/ Gt/  cg';Gwfg ug'{ kb{5 . To;sf nflu ax'/ fli6«o sDklgx¿n]  c/ af} + ?lkofF nufgL ub{5g . ;+;f/ e/ sf ls;fgx¿nfO{ To:tf aLp cfˆgf ahf/ ;~hfndfkm{t pknJw u/ fpFb5g . To:tf 7"nf lab] zL ax'/fli6«o sDklgx¿df dG;fG6f] , 8'kf] 06 / ;] Gh] 06f gfd'b 5g . 7"nf lab] zL sDklgx¿n]  pTkfbg u/ ] sf]  aLp k|of] u ug{ yfn] kl5 ls;fgx¿n]  sd pTkfbg lbg] cfˆgf] aLp / fVg 5f] 8b5g . gk'+;s aLpx¿ k|of] u ug] { ls;fgx¿n]  sfnfGt/ df x/ ] s ;fn ax'/ fli6«o sDklgx¿n]  tf] s] hlt w] / }  d'No -/ sd_ ltg'{ kg] { ca:yf cfpg] 5 . To;nfO{ lasf;f] Gd'v jf cNk lasl;t d'n'ssf ls;fgx¿sf nflu aflx/ L k|fljlws-cfly{s em8sf elgG5 . :yfgLo :t/ df cfˆgf] aLp / fVg 5f] 8] kl5 xfd|f cfˆgf afnLgfnLsf hftsf aLpx¿ t nf] k e} ;s] sf x'g] 5g  . To;} n]  xfd|f ls;fgx¿n] klg To:tf] em8sfsf]  ;fdgf ug} { kg] { x'G5 . pgLx¿sf] 
  13. 13. k/Dk/fut ufpFnfO{ Osf]len]hdf ¿kfGt/0fM lgb]{lzsf 13 hLljsf] kfh{gsf lgldQ Tof] cToGt r'gf} ltk"0f{ x'g] 5 . clxn] g} xfdLn]  sf7df8f} +df yfkflrlgof jf tf} nL wfg nufpg rfx] df aLp kfOFb} g . bfª /  t/ fO{ e"efudf l;D7f/ f]  -/ ftf]  rfdnsf] Ps hft_ / clGb -cglb_ wfg nufpg rfx] df aLp kfpg d'l:sn e} ;s] sf] 5 . ;fgf ls;fgsf]  afx'Notf ePsf] xfd|f] h:tf] cNk ljsl;t d'n'ssf]  ;/ sf/  /  ;DalGwt ;ª3 ;+:yf / lj1x¿n] of] s'/ fnfO{ uDeL/ ¿kdf lng' kb{5 . Tolt dfq xf] Og ;/ sf/ n]  o; ;DaGwdf :ki6 gLlt / sfo{qmd th'{df ug'{ h?/ L 5 / ls;fg ju{nfO{ ;To tYo hfgsf/ L lbg' af~5gLo 5 . sltko ca:yfdf h] g] l6sNnL df] l8kmfO8 afnLgfnLsf hftx¿ xla{;fO8 -emf/ kft dfg] { / ;fog_ lg/ f] ws x'G5g . To;sf] cy{ s] xf]  eg] To:tf afnLgfnLdf emf/ kft lgoGq0f ug{ ls;fgx¿n] xla{;fO8 -emf/ kft dfg] { / ;fog_ k|of] u ug'{ kg] { x'G5 . xla{;fO8n] df6f] / kfgLdf k|j] z u/ L jftfj/ 0f k|b"lift ug] { dfq xf] Og xfd|f] vfB rqmdf ;d] t k|j] z kfpF5g . To;af6 dflg;sf]  /  ufO{a:t'sf]  :jf:Yodf gsf/ fTds c;/ kb{5 . kl5Nnf s] xL bzsx¿df hnjfo' kl/ jt{g / fli6«o /  cGt/ fli6«o :t/ df Ps uDeL/  ;/ f] sf/ sf]  laifo ag] sf]  5 . dflg;n] cfˆgf] ;'v ;'lawfsf nflu k|of] u ug] { lalaw k|lalwx¿sf sf/ 0f hnjfo' kl/ jt{gn]  7"nf]  ¿k lng k'u] sf]  5  . o'/ f] k /  cd] l/ sfsf lasl;t d'n'sx¿df dfq xf] Og lasf;f] Gd'v elgg]  rLg, ef/ t, a|flhn, blIf0f clk|msf, ;fpbL c/ a /  s'a] t h:tf b] zx¿df ;d] t xl/ t u[xaf6 pT;h{g x'g] sfj{g 8fOcS;fO8, ;Nkm/ 8fOcS;fO8, ldy] g, gfO6«; cS;fO8, k/ km nf] / f] sfa{g, xfO8«f]  kmnf] / f] sfa{g, tyf ;Nkm/  x] Shfˆnf] / fO8 h:tf xl/ t u[x Uof;x¿sf] dfqf jftfj/ 0fdf a9b}  u} / x] sf]  5  . cf} Bf] lus lasf;sf]  qmd ;'? x'g'cl3 xfd|f] jfo'd08ndf sfa{g8fOcS;fO8sf] dfqf a9]/ @*) kLkLPd -!) nfvdf c+z_ ePsf] df æd} vfpF d} nfpF ;'v;on jf df] h d u?F, d} gfr'F d} xfF;' c? ;a d?g b'a{nx¿ .Æ –sljlz/ f] d0fL n] vgfy kf} 8ofn
  14. 14. k/Dk/fut ufpFnfO{ Osf]len]hdf ¿kfGt/0fM lgb]{lzsf14 ;g @)!! df Tof] dfqf #(!=&^ kLkLPd k'u] sf]  tYof° k|sflzt ePsf]  5  . To;} u/ L cf} Bf] lus lasf;sf] qmd ;'? x'g'cl3 xfd|f] jfo'd08ndf ldy] gsf] dfqf a9]/ &!% kLkLPd lyof] eg] ;g @)!! df Tof] dfqf !&&$ kLkLPd k'u] sf] 5 . xl/ t u[x Uof; pT;h{gdf t] n phf{ -@%=%)%_, pBf] uwGbf -!(=$)%_, aglagfz -!&=$)%_, s[lifsf]  cfw'lgsLs/ 0f -!#=%)%_, oftfoft -!#=!)%_, Jofj;flos ejg -&=@_ /  k|b"if0fsf]  -@=*_ e"ldsf / x] sf]  tYo k|sflzt ePsf] 5 . xl/ t Uof; pT;h{gn] hnjfo' kl/ jt{gnfO{ emg emg ;d:ofu|:t u/ fpFb}  nu] sf]  5 . kmn:j¿k cgfj[li6, cNkj[li6, cyjf v08a[li6 x'g] , af9L cfpg]  /  k} / f]  hfg] , tfkqmddf a[l4 x'Fb}  hfg]  e} / x] sf]  5  . To;} sf sf/ 0f Psflt/  jfnLgfnLsf]  pTkfbg sd x'“b}  u} / x] sf]  5 eg]  csf] {lt/  dflg;sf] hLljsf] kfh{g emg si6s/  /  r'gf} ltk"0f{ x'Fb}  u} / x] sf]  5  . ;fdfGotof Ps lbgdf cyjf laxfgb] lv / ftL;Dd tfkqmddf s] xL l8u|Lsf] kl/ jt{g x'G5 . To;} n] $ l8u|Lsf]  kl/ jt{g eGg]  s'/ faf6 w] / }  dflg;nfO{ 8/ nfUb} g . t/ ;+;f/ e/  ;fnfvfnf ! l8u|Lsf] kl/ jt{g x'g dxf;fu/ sf]  kfgLsf] , afo'd08nsf]  /  hldgsf] 7"nf] efu crfSnL tflQg' kb{5 . cfheGbf @),))) aif{cl3sf]  t'ngfdf laZjsf] afo'd08nsf]  tfkqmd # l8u|Ln] dfq a9] sf]  5 . t/ clxn] b] lvPsf] hnjfo' kl/ jt{gnfO{ Wofg lbg]  xf]  eg]  s] xL bzsd} Tof] tfkqmd c? $ l8u|Ln]  a9g] 5 . xfd|f] afo'd08nsf]  tfkqmd $ l8u|Ln] a9g' eg] sf] 7"nf]  s'/ f xf]  . h} ljs k|hfltsf dflg;, hgfj/ , k+IfL, ;'IdhLjf0'f, hnr/ , af] 6la?jf, OToflbsf]  cl:tTjsf nflu hfnjfojLo cfwf/ g} ;dfKt ePkl5 s] x'g ;Sb5, Tof] sNkgf u/ f} +  . To;} n]  hnjfo' kl/ jt{g xfd|f] u|xsf] Ps ;femf / cToGt dxŒjk"0f{ r'gf} tL ag] sf] 5 . o;sf]  ;fdgf xfdL ;a} k[YjLjf;Lx¿ ldn] /  ug'{ jf~5gLo ePsf] 5 . o;af6 plDsg s[lifsf]  Jofj;foLs/ 0f, cf} Bf] lusLs/ 0f, gfkmf, tyf lasl;t d'n'sn] ckgfPsf] af6f] g} 7Ls xf]  / ToxL af6f] lx+8g' kb{5 eGg] h:tf dfGotf / ts{nfO{ :yfg lbg ;lsg]  ca:yf ca afFsL / x] g . ;a} n] cf- cfˆgf] t] ;|f] cfFvf tyf r] tgfsf] b[li6 vf] Ng]  a] nf cfO;s] sf]  5  .
  15. 15. k/Dk/fut ufpFnfO{ Osf]len]hdf ¿kfGt/0fM lgb]{lzsf 15 • dfly pNn] lvt ;d:ofx¿ /  r'gf} ltx¿af6 hf] lug tyf kof{j/ 0f /  k|s[lt ;+/ If0fnfO{ k|j4{g ug{ ;3g h} ljs v] tL k|0ffnL h:tf lbuf] s[lif k4ltx¿nfO{ hLjg bz{gsf ¿kdf ckgfpg]  . • ;fdflhs Gofosf] :yfkgf /  hLjgf] kof] uL ;f+:s[lts d'No dfGotfx¿sf] hu] gf{ tyf k|j4{g ;a} txdf ug{ k|oTg/ t / xg]  . • cfk"m afrf} + tyf c?nfO{ klg afFRg ;3fcf} +, cfk"m vfpF /  c?nfO{ klg v'jfcf} + eGg] hLjg bz{gnfO{ Jojxf/ df ckgfpg]  . • To;sf nflu cfaZos kg] { ;fdflhs /  ef} lts ;+/ rgfx¿ ;a} hgf ldn] /  agfcf} +, kl/ rflnt u/ f} + / To;nfO{ emg dha't agfpg]  sfd u/ f} +  . Osf] len] hsf]  cjwf/ 0ffn]  ;d] 6] sf df] 6fdf] 6L laifox¿ log} x'g . To;f] eP s] ug] { t < • hdLg s:sf] xf] < • hdLg, h+un / kfgLsf]  ;+/ If0f lsg ug] {< • hdLg, h+un, hn, h} las lalawtf / hghLljsfaLr s:tf] cGt/ ;DaGw 5 < dl:t:s dGyg /  ;d"xut 5nkmnsf nflu s] xL k|Zgx¿ • of]  cGt/ ;DaGwnfO{ s;/ L sfod / fVg] jf s;/ L emg dha't / pTkfbgzLn agfpg] < • Tof]  sfddf Osf] len] hsf ;b:ox¿sf] e"ldsf / bfloTj s]  s] x'G5 <
  16. 16. k/Dk/fut ufpFnfO{ Osf]len]hdf ¿kfGt/0fM lgb]{lzsf16 Osf] len] hn]  xfn xfdLn]  ef] lu/ x] sf kof{j/ 0fLo, ;fdflhs, ;f+:s[lts, cfly{s / k|flalws laifdtf Pjd cl:y/ tfx¿nfO{ lbuf]  ;+/ rgf, Jojxf/ tyf ;dtfk"0f{ ;f] rdfkm{t ;Daf] wg ub{5  . g] kfnL kl/ k|] Ifdf xfdLn]  Osf] len] hsf cfwf/ e"t dfkb08x¿nfO{ df] 6fdf] 6L ¿kdf tn k|:t't u/ ] sf 5f} +  . gd'gf Osf] len] h sxlng tn pNn] lvt ca:yfx¿sf]  l;h{gf /  lgdf{0f e} ;s] sf]  x'g' kb{5 . oL dfkb08x¿ k"/ f ug] { qmddf lgdf{0fflwg Osf] len] hn]  r/ 0fj4 ¿kdf laleGg ;+/ rgf /  d'No dfGotfx¿sf] lasf; ub} { hfg' kb{5 . tL pknlJwx¿sf] cg'udg tyf d'Nof°gsf nflu laleGg ;"rsfÍx¿sf]  pkof] u ul/ G5  . To;nfO{ cWofo # df ;dfa] z ul/ Psf]  5  . Osf] len] hsf cfwf/ e"t dfkb08x¿ != dlxnfdfly x'g]  u/ ] sf ;a}  k|sf/ sf lx+;fsf] cGTo ePsf] ca:yf @= afnaflnsfx¿dfly x'g]  u/ ] sf ;a}  k|sf/ sf lje] bsf]  cGTo ePsf]  ca:yf #= lzIffdf ;a} sf] ;dfg kx'Fr ;'lglZrt ePsf] ca:yf $= k|fylds :jf:Yodf ;a} sf] ;dfg kx"+r ;'lglZrt /  s'kf] if0f/ lxt ;dfhsf] l;h{gf ePsf] ca:yf %= dlxnfsf laz] if :jf:Yo cfjZostfx¿ ;Daf] wg ePsf]  cj:yf ^= k|fs[lts ;|f] t tyf åGå Joj:yfkgdf ;d'bfosf] ;lqmo ;xeflutf ePsf]  ca:yf &= gjLs/ 0fLo phf{sf] clwstd pkof] u ePsf]  ca:yf Osf] len] hsf dfkb08x¿@
  17. 17. k/Dk/fut ufpFnfO{ Osf]len]hdf ¿kfGt/0fM lgb]{lzsf 17 *= ;3g h} ljs v] tL k|0ffnLsf]  k|j4{g /  Jofj;flosLs/ 0f ePsf]  ca:yf (= ;d'bfosf ;f+:s[lts klxrfg :yflkt / ;+/ lIft ePsf] ca:yf !)= / } yfg]  1fg /  k/ Dk/ fut k|ljlwsf]  ljsf;, ;+/ If0f / k|j4{g ePsf]  ca:yf !!= hnjfo' kl/ jt{g /  jftfj/ 0fLo ljifdtfx¿nfO{ ;fd"lxs¿kdf ;Daf] wg ug{ ;d'bfo ;lqmotfk"j{s nfluk/ ] sf]  ca:yf . !@= ;fd"lxs g] t[Tj lasf; tyf Gofok"0f{ ;dfhsf] ca:yf . oL dfkb08x¿df :yfg /  kl/ j] zcg'¿k s] xL yk36 x'g ;Sb5 . t/ o;sf dfgjclwsf/  -vf;u/ L dlxnf, afnaflnsf /  ;LdfGts[t ;d'bfosf clwsf/ x¿_ ;Fu ;DalGwt tyf k|fs[lts ;|f] tx¿sf]  lbuf] , kof{j/ 0fd} qL Joj:yfkg;Fu ;DalGwt kIfx¿nfO{ eg] 36fpg jf sf‘65f‘6 ug{ ldNb} g . To:tf kIfx¿nfO{ la:tfl/ t ug{ jf yKg rflx“ ldN5 . dfgjclwsf/ x¿sf]  ;'lglZrttf;lxtsf]  a} slNks lbuf]  s[lif -;3g h} las v] tL k|0ffnL_, gjLs/ 0fLo phf{, kmf] x/ d} nfsf]  lbuf]  Joj:yfkg, ;fdflhs ;zQmLs/ 0f tyf dfgj / kof{j/ 0faLr :j:y cGt/ ;DaGwsf]  k|j4{g ug'{ Osf] len] hsf d"ne"t kIfx¿ x'g . gjLs/ 0fLo phf{n] lgDglnlvt rf/  If] qdf k/ Dk/ fut phf{nfO{ la:yflkt ub{5M != ljB't pTkfbg -;f} o{ phf{, atf;]  phf{ (wind mill) /  h} ljs Uof; (biogas) af6_, @= kfgL jf sf] 7f ttfpg -;f} o{ phf{, atf;] phf{ / h} ljs Uof;af6_, #= df] 6/  ufl8sf]  OGwg -afg:klts t] naf6_, /  $= u|fdL0f phf{ ;] jf -;f} o{ phf{, atf;] phf{ / h} ljs Uof;af6_ . To;} n]  xfdLn]  k/ Dk/ fut ufpFaf6 Osf] len] hnfO{ 5'6ofpg]  dfkb08x¿ dfly pNn] lvt kIfx¿;‘u ;DalGwt x'g' kb{5 . o; egfO / ;f] r;‘u ;DalGwt 5nkmn rnfO{ :ki6tf Nofpgsf nflu oxf“g] /  s] xL pbfx/ 0fx¿ k|:t't ul/ Psf 5g . pbfx/ 0f ! M dfgf} + Pp6f ufpFdf dfly pNn] lvt w] / } h;f]  dfkb08x¿ k"/ f ePsf 5g
  18. 18. k/Dk/fut ufpFnfO{ Osf]len]hdf ¿kfGt/0fM lgb]{lzsf18 t/ ToxfF Ps rf} yfO{ -@%%_ 3/ w'/ L o:tf 5g, hxfF rkL{ / ;'wfl/ Psf]  r'nf] 5} g . h+un jf ;fd'bflos jgaf6 c?n] yfxf gkfpg] u/ L ?v jf a'6f sf6] / NofO{ bfp/ f agfpg]  /  To;} n]  vfgf ksfpg]  ul/ G5  . afnaflnsfsf nflu ;fFemdf k9g, n] Vg jf v] Ng cfaZos kg] { pHofnf]  -aQL_ sf] Joa:yf ul/ Psf] 5} g . s] xL 3/ df eg]  dl66t] nsf]  6'sL jf nfnl6g aflnG5 . To:tf] ufpFnfO{ Osf] len] h dfGg ;lsG5 < o;sf]  l;wf hjfkm x'G5 ==;ls+b} g . Tof]  ufpFnfO{ Osf] len] h agfpg s] s]  sfd ug'{ kb{5 xf] nf < xfdLn] ;f] rf} + /  atfcf} +  . pbfx/ 0f @ M dfgf} + Pp6f ufpFdf dfly pNn] lvt w] / } h;f]  dfkb08x¿ k"/ f ePsf 5g t/ ToxfF Ps rf} yfO{ -@%%_ hlt 3/ w'/ Ln]  v] taf/ Ldf / f;folgs dn, / f;folgs laiffbL / gk'+;s aLpx¿sf]  k|of] u ul/ / x] sf 5g  . ljiffbLo'Qm vfB pTkfbg ahf/ df nu] /  a] Rb5g /  / fd|}  wgfh{g ul/ / x] sf 5g  . t/  w] / }  h;f]  3/ df rkL{ / ;'wfl/ Psf] r'nf] 5} g . To:tf]  ufpFnfO{ Osf] len] h dfGg ;lsG5 < o;sf] l;wf hjfkm x'G5 ==;ls+b} g . Tof] ufpFnfO{ Osf] len] h agfpg s]  s] sfd ug'{ kb{5 xf] nf < xfdLn]  ;f] rf} + /  5nkmn u/ f} +  . pbfx/ 0f # M dfgf} + Pp6f ufpFdf dfly pNn] lvt w] / } h;f]  dfkb08x¿ k"/ f ePsf 5g t/ ToxfF bzdf Ps -!)%_ 3/ w'/ Ldf dlxnfdfly lalaw lx+;f x'g]  u/ ] sf]  5  . 3/ leqsf]  ;a}  lg0f{o k'?ifn] dfq ug] { kl/ kf6L 5 . 3/ sf]  ;|f] t Joj:yfkg, cfly{s pkfh{g, / vr{;DaGwL s'g} klg lg0f{o ubf{ dlxnfx¿nfO{ ;l/ s u/ fOFb} g  . To:tf]  ufpFnfO{ Osf] len] h dfGg ;lsG5 < o;sf] l;wf hjfkm x'G5 ==;ls+b} g  . Tof]  ufpFnfO{ Osf] len] h agfpg s] s] sfd ug'{ kb{5 xf] nf < xfdLn]  ;f] rf} + /  atfcf} +  . pbfx/ 0f $ M dfgf} + Pp6f ufpFdf dfly pNn] lvt w] / } h;f]  dfkb08x¿ k"/ f ePsf 5g t/ Toxf“ bzdf Ps 3/ w'/ Ldf -!)%_ afnaflnsfdfly lalaw lje] b e} / x] sf]  5  . s] xL 3/ w'/ Ln]  afnaflnsfnfO{ :s'n k7fpFb} gg a? ufO{afv|f r/ fpg k7fpF5g . s;} n]  5f] / LnfO{ csf{sf]  leQf 6fNg]  hft eGb}  :s'n k7fp+b} gg t/  5f] / f] n] 
  19. 19. k/Dk/fut ufpFnfO{ Osf]len]hdf ¿kfGt/0fM lgb]{lzsf 19 d/ ] kl5 j} t/ 0fL tf5{ eg] /  :s'n k7fpF5g . s] xL 3/ w'/ Ln]  cfˆgf] k'/ fgf]  k/ Dk/ fnfO{ k5ofP/  afnlaafx ul/  lbg] jf !$ aif{d'lgsf 5f] / fx¿nfO{ wgfh{gsf nflu ef/ t k7fpg]  ub{5g . ;Nofgsf s] xL ufla;x¿df o:tf unt Jojxf/ x¿ cfh klg e} / x] sf]  s'/ f k|sfzdf cfPsf 5g  . oL Jojxf/ nfO{ xfd|f]  sfg'gn]  ;d] t jGb] h nufPsf] 5 . t/ k/ Dk/ f /  ;+:s[ltsf gfddf afnaflnsfdfly o:tf lje] bx¿ sfod} 5g . To:tf]  ufpFnfO{ Osf] len] h dfGg ;lsG5 < o;sf] l;wf hjfkm x'G5 ==;ls+b} g . Tof] ufpFnfO{ Osf] len] h agfpg s– s;n] s] s] sfd ug'{ kb{5 xf] nf < xfdLn]  5nkmn u/ f} + /  atfcf} +  . cWoogn]  s]  b] vfPsf]  5 eg]  w] / } h;f]  Osf] len] hx¿sf]  ;aeGbf 7"nf]  r'gf} lt eg] sf]  Osf] len] hsf ;b:ox¿n]  ;a} ;Fu ldn] /  a:g, Ps csf{nfO{ ;Ddfg / dfof u/ L ldn] /  sfd ug{ l;Sg' g} xf]  . o; ;DaGwdf lgDglnlvt ;jfnx¿ dxŒjk"0f{ 5g • xfd|f] k/Dk/fut ;fdflhs dfGotf cg'?k Ps csf{nfO{ uf/ f] ;f/ f]  kbf{ ;xof]u / x] / larf/  ug] { tyf ;|f] tx¿sf]  cfbfgk|bfg ug] { dfGotf / Jojxf/ ePsf]  ;d'bfosf]  l;h{gf ug] {, • kl/ jf/ b] lv ufpF;Dd ;a}  k|sf/ sf lg0f{ox¿ ;fd"lxs ¿kdf dfq ug] {, • Osf] len] hleq x'g}  ;a}  k|sf/ sf åGåx¿sf] Joj:yfkg ufpFleq}  laz] if ;+/ rgf -;fd'bflos dWo:ytf ;ldlt_ dfkm{t kLl8td'vL Gofo k4lt cg'¿k ug] {, • Osf] len] hleq sfo{/ t lalaw ;d"x, Sna, ;xsf/ L / ;fdflhs ahf/ x¿sf]  sfo{;DaGwL lawfg, d'No, dfGotf / ahf/ efp tyf C0f / Aofh;DaGwL Joa:yf d'n'sdf k|rlnt sfg'gsf]  bfo/ fleq / xL Osf] len] hsf ;Dk"0f{ ;b:ox¿sf] ;xeflutfdf lgwf{/ 0f ug] { /  To;sf]  kfngf ug] {, • d"n k|jfxsf] cy{tGqaf6 :jtGq :yfgLo :jfjnDaL cy{tGqsf]  lasf; ug{ k|oTg/ t / xg]  . o;sf lgldQ ;DalGwt laifosf la1x¿;Fu Osf] len] hsf pBdL o'jf, dlxnf / k|f} 9 ;b:ox¿n]  sfo{zfnf u/ L :yfgLo :jfjnDaL cy{tGqsf] pko'Qm gd'gf lasf; ug] { /  To;sf]  k|rf/  k|;f/  ug] {  .
  20. 20. k/Dk/fut ufpFnfO{ Osf]len]hdf ¿kfGt/0fM lgb]{lzsf20 Osf] len] hleqsf x/ ] s 3/ w'/ Ldf x'g}  kg] { ;"rsfÍ tyf ef} lts ;+/ rgfx¿ lgDglnlvt 5g . Osf] len] hdf oL ;+/ rgf jf ;"rsfÍx¿sf]  k|flKtsf lgldQ kl/ of] hgfsf k|flalws ;xfos, ;fdflhs kl/ rfns /  kl/ of] hgf ;+of] hs nufot cGo ;DalGwt sd{rf/ Lx¿ ;lqmo ¿kdf sfo{/ t x'g' afG5gLo 5 . oL ;"rsfÍx¿sf cfwf/df Osf] len] hsf ;b:ox¿ cfkm} n]  xfdL Osf] len] h lgdf{0fsf]  of] hgfa4 sfd ul/ / x] sf 5f} + ls 5} gf} + egL n] vfhf] vf ug{ ;Ifd x'g] 5g . • k|f/ lDes afn lasf; s] Gb| lgdf{0f tyf afnaflnsfdfly x'g]  lae] bsf]  cGTosf]  k|lqmof • dlxnf ;b:ox¿dfly x'g]  u/ ] sf lalaw lae] b /  lx+;fsf]  cGTosf]  k|lqmof • Osf] len] hsf lalaw sfo{df 3/ sf x/ ] s ;b:osf]  ;lqmo ;xeflutf • Osf] len] h lgdf{0fsf nflu ;d"x tyf ;xsf/ Lsf] u7g /  ;xeflutf • ;+:s[lt, snf /  k/ Dk/ fut k|lalwx¿sf]  ;+/ If0f /  kl/ rfng • k|fylds :jf:Yo tyf dlxnf :jf:Yo k/ fdz{ s] Gb|sf]  :yfkgf /  pkof] u • tfhf t/ sf/ L tyf kmnk"mn ;+sng s] Gb|, Pjd ;fdflhs ahf/  lgdf{0f /  pkof] u • :jfjnDaL ufx{:Yo cy{tGqsf]  Osf] len] hsf ;"rsfÍx¿#
  21. 21. k/Dk/fut ufpFnfO{ Osf]len]hdf ¿kfGt/0fM lgb]{lzsf 21 lgdf{0ftkm{ cu|;/ tf • ;fd'bflos dgf] / ~hg /  cfWoflTds :ynsf] lgdf{0f • rlk{ lgdf{0f / k|of] u • afof] Uof; jf uf]a/Uof; lgdf{0f /  k|of] u • ;'wfl/ Psf]  w'“jf/ lxt r'nf]  lgdf{0f /  k|of] u • ufO{ tyf afv|fsf] ;'wfl/ Psf]  uf] 7 lgdf{0f /  k|of] u • s'v'/ f /  xfF;sf]  ;'wfl/ Psf]  vf] /  lgdf{0f /  k|of] u • sDkf] i6 jf h} ljs dn tyf laiffbL pTkfbg / k|of] u • ;3g h} ljs v] tL k|0ffnLdf cfwfl/ t ax'cfoflds v] tLkftL . Osf] len] h jf ;d'bfosf pknlJwx¿nfO{ tn lbOPsf]  rf6{cg'¿k n] vfhf] vf ug{ ;lsG5 . pQm rf6{df xfdLn] k|fKt ug{ vf] h] sf pknlJwx¿nfO{ cyf{t dfkb08x¿nfO{ df] 6fdf] 6L rf/  kIfdf afFl8Psf] 5 . tL kIfx¿ x'gM != kof{j/ 0f -k[YjL_, @= ;fdflhs ;+/ rgf -cUgL_, #= ;+:s[lt / cfWofTd -jfo'_, $= ef} lts ;+/ rgf -hn_ . rf6{df x/ ] s If] qdf rf/  rf/  j6f j[t lbOPsf] 5 / x/ ] snfO{ rf/  rf/ efudf ljeflht ul/ Psf] 5 . Osf] len] hsf]  n] vfhf] vf ubf{ x/ ] s efunfO{ / +ufP/  c° lbOG5 . of] rf6{ cg';f/  n] vfhf] vfsf]  k"0ff{° ^$ 5 /  Osf] len] h sxlngsf nflu cf} ;tdf $* c° k|fKt ug'{ kg] { x'G5 . To;sf ;fy}  o; n] vfhf] vfaf6 Osf] len] hdf s] –s] sfd x'g afFsL 5 Tof] ;"rgf klg k|fKt x'G5 . rf6{df lbOPsf sltko ;+/ rgf tyf n] vfhf] vf ul/ g]  laifoa:t' dfly lbOPsf] dfkb08 tyf ;"rsfÍdf 7ofSs} ToxL zAbdf gk/ ] sf klg x'g ;Sb5g .
  22. 22. k/Dk/fut ufpFnfO{ Osf]len]hdf ¿kfGt/0fM lgb]{lzsf22 Osf] len]hsf] JolQmut tyf ;fd"lxs n]vfhf]vf k|0ffnL kfgL ]fs¿xt]f|;]fsLgfk=! f0fI/+; {fhpoLf0/sLjgt[sLsP=@ _6i]fkDs,;foU]fofa,{o}f;-Lnff0|k fgkfy:fgr/+;solfb'df;=# fdn]d{Ofyt;Sfoˆ,g]fmk=$ rF'xk LjY[k != :j:y vfBfGg /fw';fd{tl"kfc Lbffijl/ndsjl}h÷s/lfu+f|k=@ u]fokp/gbfkTp ;foU]fofa/{Lkr=# Lnff0|kLt]vsjl}hg3;=$ ckgfPsf] cfuf] sn"dftulfex;=! fomql|ko{f0gl tl|kqGt{ycLjDnjfj:]fubl=@ ft4jtl|k fnxld÷fj];y:fj:sdlyf|k=# :jf:Yo k/fdz{ t/lfwfcfdoN"dshlfdf;=$ fj'o/ffIzlnfj kl/rfng xfjf ;fsjltumQloJ,fns,fg{h;l=! stl[s:+f;,tlL/tuf/kD/k=@ ljljwtf f0]fs6il[bFfog=# $= zflGt, dfof tyf ljZjJofkL fomql|kv'dGp{mktfgt]r+; dTfoWfc÷tl[s:+; fgr/+;stl}fe f0/j{fok fgr/+;shlfdf;
  23. 23. k/Dk/fut ufpFnfO{ Osf]len]hdf ¿kfGt/0fM lgb]{lzsf 23 k/ Dk/ fut ufpFFF“nfO{ Osf] len] hdf ¿kfGt/ 0f ug] { k|d'v sfdx¿nfO{ r/ 0fa4 ¿kdf tLg aif{leq ug] { cln dxTjfsf+IfL of] hgfsf ;fy tn k|:t't ul/ Psf] 5 . oxfF pNn] v ePsf hlt sfdx¿ tLg aif{leq ug{ ;lsPdf w] / }  / fd|f] , kfFr aif{leq ug{ ;lsPdf / fd|f] , / ;ft jif{leq ug{ ;lsPdf ;Gtf] ifhgs pknlJw dflgg] 5 . aif{ Ps r/ 0f ! M u|fdL0f ;d'bfo;Fu 5nkmn /  cjwf/ 0ffut cled'vLs/ 0f Osf] len] hsf ;b:ox¿sf]  ;femf p2] Zo xf]  - pgLx¿nfO{ cfaZos kg] { vfg] s'/ f, phf{ / kfgLdf zt k|ltzt cfTd lge{/ x'g' . To;sf nflu pgLx¿n] h] hlt / h] h:tf sfo{x¿ ub{5g To;sf] k|lts"n cyjf g/ fd|f]  c;/ df6f] , kfgL, hnjfo', h+un, h} ljs lalawtf, / z'IdhLjf0f'sf ;fy} dflg; / ufO{j:t'sf] :jf:Yodf klg kg'{ x'Fb} g  . Osf] len] hsf x/ ] s ;b:on]  csf] { ;b:onfO{ o;af/ ]  a'emfpg] , ;Demfpg]  /  To;cg'¿k sfd ug{ pTk|] / 0ff lbg] sfo{ ug'{ kb{5 . of] p2] Zo k|flKtsf nflu pgLx¿n] gofF k|ljlw -;f} o{ phf{sf Kofgndfkm{t laB't pTkfbg_ nfO{ k'/ fgf jf / } yfg]  k/ Dk/ fut k|lalw;Fu PsLs[t ug'{ kb{5 . To:tf k'/ fgf k|ljlwdf aiff{bsf]  kfgL kf] v/ Ldf ;+sng, aLp ;+/ If0f -cfˆgf nflu cfaZos jLp cfkm}  5gf] 6 u/ ] /  / fVg] _, OToflb kb{5g . oL k|ljlwnfO{ k|fs[lts k4ltx¿sf]  -h:t}  u8of} n]  dn, h} ljs k/ Dk/ fut ufp“nfO{ Osf] len] hdf ¿kfGt/ 0f ug] { r/ 0fa4 sfdx¿$
  24. 24. k/Dk/fut ufpFnfO{ Osf]len]hdf ¿kfGt/0fM lgb]{lzsf24 / afg:klts laiffbL_ lbuf]  Joj:yfkgsf nflu ;dli6ut sfo{z} nL -h:t}  ;3g h} ljs v] tL k|0ffnL_ ;Fu PsLs[t ug'{ cfaZos x'G5 . oL sfdx¿ ug{ Osf] len] hdf laleGg vfn] ;d"x, Sna, ;+:yf /  ;xsf/ Lx¿sf] u7g h?/ L x'G5 . UffpFaf;Lx¿n]  of]  s'/ f]  a'emL ;d"x jf Snax¿ u7g ug{ pT;'stf b] vfPdf u} ;;n] To:tf ;d"x jf Snax¿ -h:t} x] Ny Sna, of] ufSna, Osf] Sna, ;f+:s[lts Sna, ;fOa/  Sna, OToflb_ u7g ug{ ;xhLs/ 0f ug'{ kb{5 . s] s'/ f] Wofgdf / fVg' cfaZos 5 eg] o:tf Snax¿ ufpFFFFjf;Ln] cfaZostf dx;'; u/ ] cg';f/ u7g ul/ g' kb{5 . ;a}  jf w] / } Sna jf ;d"xx¿ Ps} kN6 u7g ul/ g' cfaZos x'“b} g . ;d"x jf Snax¿ u7g ul/ g' cfkm} df sfd xf] Og t/ :yfgLo afl;GbfnfO{ To;sf]  dxŒj / cfaZostf af] w u/ fO{ pgLx¿s} kxndf ;d"x jf Snax¿ u7g ul/ g' Ps dxŒjk"0f{ pknlJw eg] xf]  . To;nfO{ ;fdflhs- cfly{s kl/ jt{gtkm{sf]  klxnf]  kfOnf dfGg ;lsG5 . cfˆgf] k/ Dk/ fut ufpFFFFnfO{ Osf] len] hdf ¿kfGt/ 0f ug{ ufpFFFFaf;Lx¿ ;xdt ePdf ;aeGbf klxnf Osf] len] h Joj:yfkg ;ldlt u7g ul/ g' kb{5 . To:tf]  ;ldltdf dlxnf, k'?if, afn aflnsf, lszf] / lszf] / L, o'jf /  k|f} 9x¿sf]  ;dfg'kflts k|ltlglwTj u/ fOg' afG5gLo x'G5 . To:tf] k|ltlglwTj ePsf]  ;ldltn]  / fd|/ L sfd ug{ ;Sb5 To;f] ePdf ¿kfGt/ 0fsf]  sfddf / fd|f] hg;xeflutf ;'lglZrt x'g ;Sb5 . To;kl5 csf] { dxŒjk"0f{ ;ldlt xf]  Osf] Sna . Osf] Snadf klg o'jf, lszf] / lszf] / L, afnaflnsf /  :s'n jf sn] hdf k9g]  ljBfyL{x¿nfO{ ;d] t ;+nUg u/ fP/ u7g ul/ g' kb{5 . To;f] ePdf pQm Snan] kof{j/ 0f, hnjfo' kl/ jt{g, ;/ ;kmfO{, k|fs[lts ;|f] t /  h} ljs ljljwtfsf]  ;+/ If0f, h} ljs v] tL k|0ffnL h:tf ljifox¿df hg;+r] tgfd"ns sfo{ s'zntfk"j{s ug{ ;Sg] 5 . t] ;|f] cfaZos ;d"x xf] - ls;fg ;d"x jf ;xsf/ L . ls;fg ;d"x jf ;xsf/ Lsf] d"n bfloTj / sfd xf]  - ;3g h} ljs v] tL k4lt ckgfP/  k|lt PsfO If] qkmn -k|lt s67f jf k|lt / f] kgL_ :j:ys/ lalaw vfB kbfy{ -cGg, bnxg, t/ sf/ L, kmnk"mn, df5f, df;', c08f, b'w, 3f+F;, OToflb_ / ;Dej eP;Dd w] / }  pTkfbg ug] {, To;;DaGwL k|ljlws 1fg, ;"rgf / cg'ej l5d] sLx¿;Fu cfbfg k|bfg ug] {, / 
  25. 25. k/Dk/fut ufpFnfO{ Osf]len]hdf ¿kfGt/0fM lgb]{lzsf 25 cfˆgf :j:ys/ pTkfbgx¿ ahf/ df nuL a] rlavg ug] { . ;3g h} ljs v] tL k|0ffnLsf cu'jf ls;fgx¿sf]  bfloTjcGtu{t cfˆgf] gd'gf k|bz{gL kmfd{df gf} nf k|ljlw, aLp ljhg /  ;fdu|Lx¿sf] cg';Gwfg, canf] sg /  clen] vLs/ 0f ug] { /  To; laifodf s[ifs kf7zfnf ;~rfng ug] { sfd kb{5 . s[ifs kf7zfnfdfkm{t gf} nf]  k|ljlw / ;fdu|Lx¿sf af/ ] df ;xefuL ls;fgx¿nfO{ cg'ej / 1fg cfbfg k|bfg ul/ G5 . gf} nf k|ljlwcGtu{t ;3g h} ljs v] tL k|0ffnLn]  ;d] 6g]  lgDglnlvt laifo / k|ljlwx¿ kb{5gM • a} 1flgs afnLrqm / To;sf]  Joj:yfkg, • afnL ;3gtfdf a[l4, • PsLs[t zq'hLj Joj:yfkg, • df6f] sf]  ;+/ rgf /  pj{/ f zlQmsf]  k|j4{g, • k|f+ufl/ s tyf h} ljs dn /  laiffbLx¿sf] pTkfbg, k|of] u /  laqmL, • :yfgLo jLpx¿sf] ;+sng, ljsf;, k|of] u, ;+/ If0f / k|j4{g, • :yfgLo kz'x¿sf] gZn ;'wf/  tyf uf] 7 /  kf] if0f Joj:yfkgdfkm{t pTkfbsTj /  pTkfbgdf a[l4, • :yfgLo k+IfLx¿sf] gZn ;'wf/ /  pTkfbsTjdf a[l4, • k|f+ufl/ st/ sf/ L/ kmnk"mnx¿sf]  pTkfbsTj / pTkfbgdf a[l4, • Osf] len] hsf pTkfbgx¿sf]  k|;f] wg /  ahf/  Joj:yfkg, OToflb . To;sf nflu cfaZos kg] { cGo ;xof] u u} / ;/ sf/ L ;+:yfaf6 cyf{t lhNnfsf ;DalGwt ;/ sf/ L lgsfox¿af6 pknJw u/ fOg' kb{5 . Osf] len] hdf ¿kfGt/ 0f ug{ 5gf] 6 ul/ Psf]  ufpFFFFsf ;a}  3/ w'/ Lsf 3/ d'nL jf k|ltlglwx¿sf]  ;xeflutfdf cfof] hgf ul/ g]  klxnf]  5nkmn / cled'vLs/ 0f sfo{qmddf df] 6fdf] 6L oL laifox¿df 5nkmn /  ;xdlt ag] kl5 pQm 5gf] 6 ul/ Psf]  ufpFFFFnfO{ Ps :j:y / lbuf] a:tLsf ¿kdf kl/ sNkgf u/ L Osf] len] hdf ¿kfGt/ 0f ug] { ;a{;Ddt lg0f{o kfl/ t ul/ g' kb{5 . klxnf] a} 7sd} ;a{;Ddt lg0f{oaf6 Osf] len] h Joj:yfkg ;ldltsf] klg u7g ul/ g' kb{5 . pQm ;ldltnfO{ ( jf !! ;b:oLo agfpg ;lsG5 . kbflwsf/ Lx¿sf]  5gf] 6 ubf{ dlxnf ;d"x, ls;fg ;d"x, o'jf ;d"x, lszf] / L ;d"x, afn ;d"x / k|f} 9 gful/ s ;d"xaf6 k|ltlglwTj u/ fOg' kb{5 . ;ldltdf dlxnfx¿sf]  ;+Vof k'?ifx¿sf] eGbf sd x'g' x'Fb} g a? Pshgf a9L g} x'g' kb{5 . lsgeg] 3/ leq, v] taf/ L / 
  26. 26. k/Dk/fut ufpFnfO{ Osf]len]hdf ¿kfGt/0fM lgb]{lzsf26 uf] 7df k'?ifx¿eGbf dlxnfx¿n] a9L sfd ub{5g t/ xfd|f] k/ Dk/ fut d'No dfGotfn] dlxnfnfO{ ;w}  k'?ifeGbf k5fl8 / fv] sf] 5 . Tolt dfq xf] Og dlxnfx¿n] 3/ leq /  aflx/ u/ ] sf sfdx¿nfO{ klg dfGotf lbOPsf] 5} g cyf{t cjd'Nog ug] { ul/ Psf]  5  . To:tf]  k/ Dk/ fx¿df kl/ jt{g Nofpg dlxnfx¿nfO{ lg0f{o k|lqmofdf ;fy}  kl/ jt{gsf]  sfddf cufl8 ;fg'{ lgtfGt h?/ L 5 . pQm lg0f{odf ;a} ;xefuLx¿sf] x:tfIf/  clgjfo{ ¿kdf ul/ g' kb{5 . a} 7ssf]  lg0f{o k'l:tsf a} 7s ;xhLs/ 0f ug] { ;+:yf /  JolQmn]  klxn] b] lv g}  Joj:yf ul/ / fv] sf]  x'g' kb{5 . Osf] len] h Joj:yfkg ;ldlt u7g ePkl5 pQm a} 7s k'l:tsf ;lrjsf]  lhDdfdf lbOg' kb{5 / cfufdL a} 7s sxfF, slxn] slt ah] nfO{ / fVg] eGg]  jf/ ] df klg ;f] xL a} 7sdf lg0f{o ul/ g' kb{5 . ;xhstf{n]  a} 7ssf ;xefuLx¿nfO{ a} 7ssf]  cGTocl3 klxnf]  aif{sf sfdx¿af/ ]  r/ 0fut ¿kdf hfgsf/ L lbg' kb{5 . xfd|f] casf] sfd eg] sf]  ;fdflhs tyf ;|f] t gS;fÍg /  3/ w'/ L ;j] {If0f xf]  eg] /  atfpg' kb{5 . tL ultlalwx¿ s;n] , s;/ L, / lsg ub{5 / To;df ufpFFFFsf ;b:o /  x/ ] s 3/ w'/ Lsf]  s:tf]  ;xeflutf cfaZos x'G5 eGg] af/ ] df klg atfpg'' kb{5  . To;f]  ul/ of]  eg]  x/ ] s 3/ w'/ Lsf d'nL jf a} 7sdf efu lng]  k|ltlglwn] cfk"mnfO{ dfgl;s ¿kdf tof/ kfg'{sf ;fy} cfufdL a} 7sdf cfaZos kg] { ;"rgfx¿ tof/ kf/ L Nofpg ;Sb5g . r/ 0f @ M :ffdflhs tyf ;|f] t gS;fÍg /  3/ w'/ L ;j] {If0f 5gf] 6 ul/ Psf]  ufpFFFFnfO{ Osf] len] hdf ¿kfGt/ 0f ug{sf nflu of] hgf tof/ kfg{ ;fy} eljiodf s] s:tf ;"rsfÍx¿df s] s:tf c;/ x¿ k/ ]  eGg] cf+sng jf d'NofÍg ug{ ;a}  3/ w'/ Lsf]  cnu cnu /  ;dli6ut ¿kdf hfg;f+lVos, ;fdflhs, cfly{s /  ;|f] t ;fwgx¿af/ ]  hfgsf/ L /  To;sf]  gS;f;d] t cfaZos kb{5 . oL ;"rgfx¿ xfdLn]  ufpFFFFjf;Lx¿sf] k|ToIf ;xeflutfdf ;+sng / gS;fÍg ug] { sfd ug'{ kb{5 . pgLx¿sf] ;xeflutf lagf tof/  kfl/ Psf]  tYofÍ, k|ltj] bg jf gS;fsf]  of]  k|lqmofdf s'g}  dxŒj gx'g]  dfq xf] Og To;n]  Osf] len] hsf]  lgdf{0f ug] { k|lqmofnfO{ g} nueu ;dfKt kfl/ lbG5 . csf] { zJbdf ufpFFFFjf;Lx¿sf]  ;xeflutfa] u/  ;fdflhs gS;fÍg, ;j] {If0f jf kl5 uP/ cGo s'g} ultlalw ul/ of] jf ug{ yflnof]  eg]  To;n]  ufpFFFFjf;Lx¿nfO{ lgis[o kfg{ yfNb5 . la:tf/ } uP/ 
  27. 27. k/Dk/fut ufpFnfO{ Osf]len]hdf ¿kfGt/0fM lgb]{lzsf 27 kl/ jt{gsf]  k|lqmofdf k"0f{lj/ fd nfUg ;Sb5 . To;} n] ;xhstf{x¿n]  / ;DalGwt ;+:yfn] o; s'/ fnfO{ Psbd} Wofg lbg' cfaZos 5 . ;fdflhs tyf ;|f] t gS;fÍg ubf{ ufpFFFFjf;Lx¿nfO{ g}  cufl8 ;f/ ] /  ;fg;fgf sfd ug{ nufpFFg' kb{5 . ;aeGbf klxnf t To:tf] gS;f e'OFdf sf] / ] /  agfpg' kg] { ePsf] n]  gS;f s'g 7fpFdf agfpg] xf] , To;sf]  lgSof} {n ufpFFFFjf;Ln]  5nkmnkZrft ug'{ kb{5 . gS;f agfpg :yfgLo :t/ df ;lhn} kfpg ;lsg] a:t'x¿ h:t} ;fgf lu66L, ds} , s] / fp jf rgfsf u] 8fx¿, To;}  u/ L ;] tf] , / ftf] , kx] +nf] , jf xl/ of]  / +ux¿, ;fgf ;fgf kftx¿, ;fgf ;fgf sf7sf 6'qmfx¿sf] k|of] u ul/ g' kb{5 . oL ;fdu|Lx¿sf] Joj:yf gS;fÍgsf]  k|lqmof ;'? x'g' cl3 g} lszf] / L, o'jf jf jfn ;d"xsf ;b:ox¿dfkm{t u/ fpg' kb{5 . ;fdflhs ;|f] t gS;fÍgsf]  ;'?jft ufpFFFFsf] ;aeGbf klxnf]  3/ w'/ Laf6 u/ ] /  clGtd 3/ w'/ Ldf k'uL 6'+Uofpg' kb{5 . x/ ] s 3/w'/ Lsf ef} lts ;+/ rgfx¿ h:t}  3/ , uf] 7, rkL{, wf/ f, afof] Uof;, s/ ] ;faf/ L OToflbnfO{ ;+s] t ug{ lu66L, ds} , s] / fp, /  rgfsf]  u] 8f, sf7sf 6'qmf, ;fgf kft OToflbsf] k|of] u ug'{ kb{5 . v] taf/ Lsf] lsl;dsf -df6f] sf]  / +u jf l;+lrt/ cl;+lrt_ nflu laleGg a:t' / / +ux¿sf] k|of] u ul/ g' kb{5 . To;} u/ L ;fj{hlgs :yfg jf ;|f] t s] Gb|x¿ h:t} lzz' :ofxf/  s] Gb|, :s'n, sn] h, ahf/ , xf6 nfUg] :yfg, ;fd'bflos :jf:Yo s] Gb|, :ffd'bflos tflnd tyf ;|f] t s] Gb|, lhNnf c:ktfn, s[lif ;] jf s] Gb|, kz' ;] jf s] Gb|, ;fa{hlgs wf/ f]  jf k+w] / f] , a; kfs{, lkl;cf] , lkmNd xnnfO{ klg gS;fdf b] vfOg' kb{5 . o;sf cltl/ St ;8s, gbL jf vf] nf, jg jf ;fd'bflos jgnfO{ klg gS;fdf b] vfOg' kb{5 . e'OFdf ;a} ufpFFFFaf;Lsf] ;xeflutfdf gS;f tof/  ul/ ;s] kl5 ;a}  3/ w'/ Lsf d'nL jf k|ltlglwnfO{ gS;fdf cfˆgf] 3/ / ;|f] t ;fwgx¿ l7s 5 ls 5} g x] / L atfpg] ;do lbOg' kb{5 . ;a} n]  cfˆgf] / fo lbO{ cfaZos ;'wf/ ul/  ;s] kl5 Tof] gS;fnfO{ ;xhstf{n]  7"nf] rf6{ k] k/ df x'ax' ptfg'{ kb{5 . To;nfO{ e'O{+df km} nfP/  / fvL km] l/  ;a} 3/ w'/ Lsf d'nL jf k|ltlglwnfO{ sfuhsf] gS;fdf cfˆgf] 3/ / ;|f] t ;fwgx¿ l7s 5 ls 5} g x] / L atfpg]  ;do lbg' kb{5 . ;a} n] cfˆgf] ;xdlt lbO ;s] kl5 Pp6f kmf]6f] klg lvRg' kb{5 . To;kl5 gS;fÍgsf]  sfd l;l4Psf] hfgsf/ L lb+b} wGojfb lbg Osf] len] h Joj:yfkg ;ldltsf cWoIfnfO{ cg'/ f] w ul/ g' kb{5 . pxfFn] dgtJo / fvL wGojfb lbO
  28. 28. k/Dk/fut ufpFnfO{ Osf]len]hdf ¿kfGt/0fM lgb]{lzsf28 ;s] kl5 ;xhstf{n]  ;+:yfsf] tkm{af6 wGojfb lb+b} s] xL lbgkl5 ul/ g]  3/ w'/ L ;j] {If0fsf af/ ] df 5f] 6s/ Ldf atfpg' kb{5 . 3/ w'/ L ;j] {If0f slxn]  /  s;/ L ul/ g] 5 eGg]  af/ ]  atfpFb}  pSt ;a] {If0fdf ;a}  3/ w'/ Ln]  ;lqmo ¿kdf ;xof] u ug{ lsg cfaZos 5 eGg] af/ ] atfpg' kb{5 . r/ 0f # M ;d"xx¿sf] u7g jf k'gu{7g / klxnf] aif{sf] sfo{ of] hgf lgdf{0f Osf] len] hdf ¿kfGt/ 0fsf nflu 5gf] 6 ePsf] ufpFFFFdf dlxnf ;d"x, ls;fg ;d"x, s[ifs ;xsf/ L, afn ;d"x, lszf] / L ;d"x, o'jf ;d"x, Osf]  Snj, k|f} 9 gful/ s ;dfh h:tf ;d"x /  ;xsf/ Lx¿ u7g e} ;s] sf /  sfd ul/ / x] sf x'g ;Sb5g . o:tf ;a}  ;d"x lqmofzLn 5g eg] Psbd} / fd|f]  eof]  . s] xL ;d"x / ;xsf/ L 5g t/  Osf] len] hsf p2] Zocg'¿k sfd ug] { vfnsf 5} gg eg] To:tf ;d"xnfO{ ;b:ox¿sf] ;xdltdf k'gu{7g jf gofF u7g ug{ ;lsG5 . dfly pNn] v ul/ Psf sltko ;d"x 5Fb}  5} gg eg] To:tf ;d"xx¿ u7g ug'{ kg] { x'G5 . h:t} afn clwsf/ Sna, dlxnf ;d"x, Osf] Sna, o'jf Sna, lszf] / L ;d"x, k|f} 9 gful/ s ;dfh, k|f+ufl/ s s[lif ;xsf/ L, gub] afnL ;xsf/ L, vfB k|zf] wg ;xsf/ L, ;fd'bflos dWo:ytf ;ldlt, dlxnf :jf:Yo clwsf/ ;ldlt, OToflb . Osf] len] hdf oL ;a} Sna / ;d"xsf cf-cfˆg} lhDd] jf/ L / e"ldsf x'G5g . To;} n]  o:tf ;d"x /  ;xsf/ Lx¿sf]  u7g /  k'gu{7g 3/ w'/ L ;a] {If0fkZrft ul/ xfNg' kb{5 . ;d"x u7g ug'{ cl3 x/ ] s ;d"xsf sfd, st{Jo /  Osf] len] hdf ltgLx¿sf e"ldsfsf af/ ] df df] 6fdf] 6L ;xdlt ul/ g'sf ;fy} ltgnfO{ a} 7s k'l:tsfdf ;d] t clen] lvs[t ul/ g' h?/ L x'G5 . Osf] len] hdf laleGg sfd jf ultlalwnfO{ Jojl:yt¿kdf l56f] 5l/ tf]  ug{/ u/ fpg klxnf]  aif{ -!@ dlxgfdf_ ul/ g] sfdx¿sf]  ;"rL tof/ kfl/ g' kb{5 . o:tf] ;"rL klxnf] a} 7sdf k|d'v ;|f] t JolQmn]  lbPsf]  cled'vLs/ 0fsf] ]  cfwf/ df tof/ kfl/ g' kb{5 . ;fwf/ 0ftof o:tf]  ;"rLsf]  k|fyldstfdf qmdzM dlxnf / lszf] / L :jf:Yo /  clwsf/ , afnaflnsfsf]  :jf:Yo / clwsf/ , o'jf ;zQmLs/ 0f tyf kof{j/ 0f /  ufpFFFFsf]  jftfj/ 0f, hnjfo' / s[lif, ;3gh} ljs v] tL k|0ffnL / hLljsf] kfh{g, :j:ys/  s[lif pTkfbg /  k|zf] wg, ;/ sf/ L lgsfo;Fu ;fem] bf/ L /  ;dGjo, ahf/  Aoj:yfkg, ;~rf/  /  aflx/ L hut;Fu ;dGjo tyf ;xsfo{
  29. 29. k/Dk/fut ufpFnfO{ Osf]len]hdf ¿kfGt/0fM lgb]{lzsf 29 kb{5g . oL laifox¿nfO{ ;Daf] wg ug{ agfOg] sfo{ of] hgf tLg aif{sf]  x'g] 5 . klxnf] aif{d} tLg aif{sf]  df] 6fdf] 6L sfo{ of] hgf klg agfpg ;lsG5 . t/ klxnf] aif{sf] sfo{ of] hgfdf eg] ToxL aif{df ug{ ;lsg]  sfdx¿nfO{ dfq ;d] 6g'kb{5 . o;sf nflu cWofo # df lbOPsf]  Osf] len] hsf ;"rsfÍx¿sf cfwf/ df agfpFbf pQd x'G5 . r/ 0f $ M ;3g h} las v] tL k|0ffnLaf/ ]  tflnd tyf cled'vLs/ 0fx¿ ;3g h} las v] tL k|0ffnL lsg < • Jofj;flos / f;folgs s[lif k|0ffnLsf] t'ngfdf ;3g h} las v] tL k|0ffnL ckgfpFbf Ps} If] qkmnaf6 $ u'0ff;Dd a9L pTkfbg x'G5 eGg] tYofÍ k|sflzt ePsf] 5 . • To;}  u/ L ;3g h} las v] tL k|0ffnLdf l;rfOsf] nflu Jofj;flos s[lifdfeGbf sd kfgL rflxG5 . Ps ;o ju{dL6/  If] qkmndf ;3g h} las v] tL k|0ffnL ckgfpFbf $)) ln6/ kfgL rflxG5 eg] TolQs} If] qkmn, pxL :yfg, pxL afnL / pxL df} ;ddf Jofj;flos v] tL ubf{ l;rfOsf nflu &%) ln6/ kfgL rflxG5 . • ;3g h} las v] tL k|0ffnLdf afnL nufpFFFbf cln glhs glhs nufOG5 tfls Pp6f af] 6n]  csf] {nfO{ clnslt 5fofF kf/ f] ;  . 5fofFn]  jf] 6 lj?jfaf6 x'g]  jfikLs/ 0f (evaporation) df ^# k|ltztn] sdL cfpF5 . ;3g h} las v] tL k|0ffnLn]  df6f] df pj{/ tf /  k|f+ufl/ s tTjx¿sf]  dfqf cfjZostf cg';f/ ;+t'lnt / fVg d2t ub{5 . To;} sf/ 0f af] 6 lj?jfsf]  kftaf6 / ;fpg]  lqmof -transpiration_ sd x'G5 . v] t af/ Lsf]  df6f] sf]  kfgLdf kf] ifs tTjx¿ ;+t'lnt dfqfdf ePdf / ;fpg]  lqmofdf -transpiration_ &% k|ltzt;Dd sdL cfpF5 . jfikLs/ 0f tyf / ;fpg]  lqmofdf sdL x'g' eg] sf] kfgL sd v] /  hfg' xf] cyf{t af] 6la?jfsf] a[l4 lasf;sf nflu sd kfgL rflxg' xf]  . s[lif pTkfbgdf hlt w] / } kfgL nfU5 Tolt w] / } k} ;f vr{ x'G5 . • ;3g h} las v] tL k|0ffnL ckgfpFbf df6f] sf]  ;+/ rgf /  pj{/ tf lalu|g kfpFb} g h:tf] ls Jofj;flos v] tL k|0ffnLdf x'g]  ub{5 . Jofj;flos v] tL k|0ffnLdf k|of] u ul/ g]  / f;folgs dnx¿sf sf/ 0f df6f] df k|f+ufl/ s tTjx¿ sd x'Fb}  hfg]  /  df6f] sf]  ;+/ rgf lalu|g] x'G5 . v] taf/ L hf] Tg jf vGg ufxf/ f] x'g] x'G5 . 8Nnfx¿sf] 
  30. 30. k/Dk/fut ufpFnfO{ Osf]len]hdf ¿kfGt/0fM lgb]{lzsf30 ;fOh 7"nf] 7"nf] x'Fb} hfG5 . 8Nnf k'm6fNg dxfef/ t o'4 n8]  h:t} x'G5 . To;sf ;fy} df6f] sf]  cDnLokgf klg a9] / hfG5 . df6f] sf] kLPr ^– & x'g' kg] { 7fpFdf Tof] 36b} uP/ # – $ x'G5 . To:tf]  cDnLokgf w] / }  jfnLgfnLsf]  a[l4 lasf;sf lgldQ pko'Qm x'Fb} g . csf] {lt/  ;3g h} las v] tL k|0ffnL ckgfpFbf df6f] sf]  dflyNnf]  ;tx -!! OGr_ df To;sf] cfotgsf]  @ k|ltzteGbf a9L k|f+ufl/ s tTj sfod x'g hfG5 . kmn:j¿k df6f] sf]  agf] 6 /  kLPr afnLgfnLsf nflu pko'Qm / lx/ xG5 . • Jofj;flos v] tL k|0ffnLdf laleGg vfnsf / f;folgs laiffbLx¿sf]  k|of] u x'G5 . laiffbLn] xfjf /  kfgLnfO{ b"lift agfpF5 . dflg;, ufO{a:t' / k+IfLx¿sf] :jf:Yodf k|lts"n c;/ kfb{5 . df6f] sf z'IdhLjf0f' / u8of} nf clg cl/ Ëfn /  dfx'/ L h:tf pkof] uL ls/ fx¿sf]  ;+Vof w] / } sd x'g hfG5 . ;3g h} las v] tL k|0ffnLn]  o;k|sf/ sf k|lts"n c;/ x¿ kfb} {g . • ;3g h} las v] tL k|0ffnL ckgfP/  pTkfbg ul/ Psf vfBa:t'x¿ -cGg, bfn, t/ sf/ L_ sf] cfˆgf] ;'uGw / :jfb sfod / xG5 . To:tf s'/ fx¿ ksfpg klg sd OGwg /  ;do nfUb5 . sd OGwg nfUg' eg] sf] sd vr{ x'g' xf]  . • Jofj;flos v] tL k|0ffnLn]  h} ljs lalawtfdf k|lts"n c;/ kfb{5 . o;sf] 7Ls pN6f] ;3g h} las v] tL k|0ffnLn]  h} ljs lalawtf -af] 6la?jf tyf jfnLgfnLsf hftx¿ / hgfj/ x¿sf k|hftL tyf hftx¿_ sf] ;+/ If0f /  lasf;df dxŒjk"0f{ of] ubfg ub{5 . • jftfj/ 0f / :jf:Yodf kfg] { k|lts"n c;/ x¿nfO{ jf:tf gug] { xf] eg]  Jofj;flos v] tL k|0ffnL w] / }  hUuf hdLg ePsf ls;fgx¿sf nflu cfocfh{g ug{ dfq plrt 5 . t/ ;fgf ls;fgx¿sf nflu of]  v] tL k|0ffnL pko'Qm 5} g . ;fgf ls;fgx¿sf]  vfB /  hLljsf] kfh{g ;'/ Iff / cfo cfh{gsf nflu ;3g h} las v] tL k|0ffnL pko'Qm 5 . • ;3g h} las v] tL k|0ffnLn]  / } yfg]  1fg /  k/ Dk/ fut k|lalwsf]  hu] gf{, lasf;, k|j4{g / ;b'kof] u ub{5 .
  31. 31. k/Dk/fut ufpFnfO{ Osf]len]hdf ¿kfGt/0fM lgb]{lzsf 31 t/ Jofj;flos v] tL k|0ffnLn]  To;nfO{ dxŒj lb+b} g . kmn:j¿k tL 1fg / k|lalw x/ fP/ hfg] hf]lvd 5g . ;3g h} las v] tL k|0ffnLn] d"ne"t ¿kdf lgDglnlvt laifoa:t'x¿nfO{ ;d] 6b5M != ;fd'bflos ;zQmLs/ 0f /  kl/ jt{g, @= a} 1flgs afnLrqm / To;sf]  Joj:yfkg, #= afnL ;3gtfdf a[l4, $= PsLs[t zq'hLj Joj:yfkg, %= df6f] sf]  ;+/ rgf /  pj{/ f zlQmsf]  k|j4{g, ^= k|f+ufl/ s tyf h} ljs dn /  laiffbLx¿sf] pTkfbg, k|of] u /  laqmL, &= :yfgLo jLpx¿sf] ;+sng, ljsf;, k|of] u, ;+/ If0f / k|j4{g, *= :yfgLo kz'x¿sf] gZn ;'wf/  tyf uf] 7 / kf] if0f Joj:yfkg tyf ltgLx¿sf] pTkfbsTj /  pTkfbgdf a[l4, (= :yfgLo k+IfLx¿sf] gZn ;'wf/ /  pTkfbsTjdf a[l4, !)= k|f+ufl/ st/ sf/ L/ kmnk"mnx¿sf]  pTkfbsTj / pTkfbgdf a[l4, !!= Osf] len] hsf pTkfbgx¿sf]  k|;f] wg /  ahf/  Joj:yfkg, !@= hnjfo' kl/ jt{gsf r'gf} tLx¿sf]  laZn] if0f, / :ffdgf ug] { / 0fgLlt . of] ;a} sf nflu cfaZos kg] { ;xof] u u} /  ;/ sf/ L ;+:yf /  ;DalGwt ;/ sf/ L lgsfox¿af6 pknJw u/ fOg' kb{5 . oL / cGo ;DalGwt laifox¿df Osf] len] hsf ls;fg /  o'jfx¿nfO{ ;Lkjfg / ;lqmo agfpg ;do ;dodf ;3g h} las v] tL k|0ffnLsf tŒjx¿af/ ] tflnd/ cled'vLs/ 0fx¿ lbg' cTofjZos x'G5 . To:tf tflnd /  cled'vLs/ 0fx¿ k"j{ of] hgfsf cfwf/ df cfof] hgf ul/ g' pQd x'G5 . To:tf]  of] hgf Osf] len] h;DaGwL k|flalws ;Nnfxsf/ ;Fu k/ fdz{ u/ L sfo{qmd ;+of] hs / sfo{qmd clws[tx¿n] :yfgLo ufpFFFFjf;Lx¿sf cfaZostfx¿nfO{ Wofgdf / fvL th'{df ug'{ kb{5 . o:tf] sfo{ of] hgf klxnf] aif{d} tof/ kf/ L tflnd /  cled'vLs/ 0f klg ;'? ul/ xfNg' kb{5 . r/ 0f % M ;3g h} las v] tL k|0ffnLsf]  sfof{Gjog r/ 0f $ df pNn] v ul/ P cg';f/ sf ;3g h} las v] tL k|0ffnLn]  ;d] 6g]  laifosf sfdx¿ tflndkZrft ;'? ul/ g' kb{5 . o;;DaGwL sltko ;"rsfÍx¿ cWofo # df lbO{Psf 5g . ltgsf] cfwf/ df sfo{ ;Dkfbg of] hgf agfO{ sfof{Gjog ubf{ pQd
  32. 32. k/Dk/fut ufpFnfO{ Osf]len]hdf ¿kfGt/0fM lgb]{lzsf32 x'G5 . ;3g h} ljs v] tL k|0ffnL;DaGwL la:t[t 1fgsf nflu cf] / ] s g] kfnåf/ f k|sflzt æ;3g h} ljs v] tL k|0ffnLÆ gfds k':ts k9g / ;f] xLcg';f/  sfof{Gjog ug{ ;'emfj lbOG5 . aif{ b'O{ M r/ 0f ^ M klxnf] aif{sf sfd /  pknlJwx¿sf]  k'g/ fjnf] sg /  bf] ;|f] aif{sf] sfo{ of] hgf lgdf{0f /  sfof{Gjog Osf] len] hdf laleGg sfd jf ultlalwnfO{ Jojl:yt¿kdf l56f] 5l/ tf]  ug{ /  u/ fpg klxnf]  aif{ -!@ dlxgf_ df ul/ Psf sfdx¿sf pknlJwx¿nfO{ k'g/ fjnf] sg ul/ g' kb{5 /  bf] ;|f]  aif{sf]  sfo{ of] hgf tof/ kfg'{ kb{5 . o:tf] sfdsf]  ;"rL k|d'v ;|f] t JolQmn] lbPsf]  cled'vLs/ 0fsf] ]  cfwf/ df tof/  kfl/ g' kb{5 . ;fwf/ 0ftof o:tf]  ;"rLsf] k|fyldstfdf klxnf] aif{df em} + dlxnf / lszf] / L :jf:Yo /  clwsf/ , afnaflnsfsf]  :jf:Yo / clwsf/ , o'jf ;zQmLs/ 0f tyf kof{j/ 0f /  ufpFFFFsf]  jftfj/ 0f, hnjfo' / s[lif, ;3gh} ljs v] tL k|0ffnL /  hLljsf] kfh{g, :j:ys/ pTkfbg /  k|zf] wg, ;/ sf/ L lgsfo;Fu ;fem] bf/ L / ;dGjo, ahf/ Aoj:yfkg, ;~rf/  / aflx/ L hut;Fu ;dGjo tyf ;xsfo{ kb{5g . dfly g} pNn] v ul/ ;lsPsf] 5 ls oL laifox¿nfO{ ;Daf] wg ug{ agfOg] sfo{ of] hgf tLg aif{sf] x'g] 5 . klxnf] aif{d} tLg aif{sf]  df] 6fdf] 6L of] hgf klg agfpg ;lsG5 . t/ bf] ;|f] aif{sf] sfo{ of] hgfdf ToxL aif{df ug{ ;lsg]  sfdx¿nfO{ dfq ;d] 6g' kb{5 . bf] ;|f]  aif{df ljleGg ;d"x / ;xsf/ LnfO{ lbOg]  tflnd, cled'vLs/ 0f, ;d'bfonfO{ lbOg] laleGg ;xof] u /  ;dGjosf nflu ul/ g] sfox{?nfO{ sfo{ of] hgfdf ;d] l6g' kb{5 . cWofo # df lbOPsf] Osf] len] hsf ;"rsfÍx¿sf cfwf/ df lj:t[t sfo{ of] hgf agfOg' pko'Qm x'G5 . r/ 0f & M ;/ sf/ L lgsfosf k|ltlglwx¿;Fu 5nkmn / ;xsfo{ Osf] len] hsf ;"rsfÍx¿nfO{ x] bf{ kf7sx¿nfO{ :ki6 e} ;s] sf] x'g' kb{5 ls g] kfn h:tf]  b] zdf k/ Dk/ fut ufpFFF+nfO{ Osf] len] hdf ¿kfGt/ 0f ug] { sfd ufpFFF+af;Lx¿af6 dfq jf cf] / ] s g] kfn h:tf u} /  ;/ sf/ L ;+:yfsf] PSnf] k|of;af6 dfq ;Dej x'Fb} g . To;sfnflu sltko ;/ sf/ L lgsfox¿;Fu klg ;xsfo{ ug'{ / ;xof] u lng' cfjZos x'G5 . pbfx/ 0fsf nflu s[lif;Fu ;DalGwt sltko sfdx¿ lhNnf s[lif lasf; sfof{no, lhNnf kz' ;] jf sfof{no tyf lhNnf jg sfof{nosf ;fy} 
  33. 33. k/Dk/fut ufpFnfO{ Osf]len]hdf ¿kfGt/0fM lgb]{lzsf 33 lhNnf l;+rfO sfof{no, e";+/ If0f /  hnfwf/ lasf; sfof{no / ;fgf l;rfO sfof{no;Fu ;dGjo u/ ] / /  ;xof] u lnP/ ug'{ kg] { x'G5 . dlxnf ;zQmLs/ 0fsf] sfd lhNnf dlxnf lasf; sfof{no;Fu ;dGjo u/ L ug'{ kg] { x'G5 . k|f/ lDes afn lasf;sf]  sfd lhNnf lzIff sfof{no, :yfgLo lasf; sfof{no -lhlj; / uflj;_ / lhNnf dlxnf lasf; sfof{no;+Fu ;dGjo u/ L ug'{ kg] { x'G5 . s'g sfdsf nflu s'g ;/ sf/ L sfof{no;Fu s;/ L ;dGjo ug] { /  s:tf]  ;xof] u slxn] / s;/ L lng ;lsG5 eGg]  af/ ] df ufpFFF+af;Lx¿ tyf pgLx¿sf ;d"x / ;xsf/ LnfO{ sd} yfxf x'G5 . ;/ sf/ L lgsfo / ufpFFF+af;L tyf pgLx¿sf ;ª3;+:yfx¿aLr / x] sf]  of] vf8nnfO{ sd ug{ :yfgLo u} / ;/ sf/ L ;+:yfx¿n]  cxd e"ldsf lgaf{x ug'{ kb{5 . :ki6 zJbdf eGbf :yfgLo ls;fg ;d"x, dlxnf ;d"x, o'jf Sna, lszf] / L ;d"x, Osf] Sna, ax'd'vL s[lif ;xsf/ L ;+:yfx¿nfO{ ;DalGwt lhNnf sfof{nox¿df btf{ u/ fpg / cfaZos ;DaGw /  ;dGjo :yflkt ug{ ;xof] u ug'{ jfG5gLo x'G5 . of] sfo{nfO{ bf] ;|f]  aif{df / flvP klg of] sfd x/ ] s aif{ lg/ Gt/ ul/ g' kb{5 . r/ 0f * M ;fd'bflos ;+:yf Pjd ;d"xx¿sf]  ;zQmLs/ 0f /  kl/ rfng klxnf]  aif{df pNn] v ul/ Psf sltko ;d"xnfO{ k'gu{7g / sltko gofF ;d"xx¿ u7g ul/ ;s] kl5 pgLx¿nfO{ sfo{ bIftfsf nflu sltko tflnd / cled'vLs/ 0fx¿ lbg' kg] { x'G5 . klxnf] aif{df u7g jf k'gu{7g ePsf ;d"xx¿df afn Sna, dlxnf ;d"x, Osf] Sna, o'jf Sna, lszf] / L ;d"x, k|f} 9 gful/ s ;dfh, k|f+ufl/ s s[lif ;xsf/ L, gub] afnL ;xsf/ L, vfB k|zf] wg ;xsf/ L OToflb kb{5g . gfdaf6}  yfxf kfOG5 ls Osf] len] hdf oL ;a} Sna, ;d"x / ;xsf/ Lsf cf- cfˆg} lhDd] jf/ L / e"ldsf x'G5g . ;d"x u7g jf k'gu{7g ug'{cl3 x/ ] s ;d"x jf ;xsf/ Lsf sfd, st{Jo /  Osf] len] hdf ltgLx¿sf e"ldsfsf af/ ] df ;xdlt ul/ g' kb{5 / To;nfO{ a} 7s k'l:tsfdf ;d] t clen] lvs[t ul/ g' h?/ L x'G5 . bf] ;|f] aif{df laleGg ;d"x, Sna tyf ;xsf/ Lx¿nfO{ pgLx¿sf] ;Lk / sfo{ bIftfnfO{ k|j4{g ug{sf nflu laleGg tflnd / cled'vLs/ 0fx¿ lbOg' kb{5 . t;y{ bf] ;|f] aif{ ;'? x'g'cl3 g} s'g ;d"x, Sna jf ;xsf/ LnfO{ s'g tflnd jf cled'vLs/ 0f slxn]  lbg]  eGg]  af/ ] df la:t[t sfo{ of] hgf agfO;s] sf] x'g' kb{5 . Tof] sfo{ of] hgfsf]  sfof{Gjog bf] ;|f]  /  t] ;|f]  aif{df ul/ g' kb{5 .
  34. 34. k/Dk/fut ufpFnfO{ Osf]len]hdf ¿kfGt/0fM lgb]{lzsf34 :yfgLo ;d"x, Sna /  ;xsf/ LnfO{ lgDglnlvt tflnd /  cled'vLs/ 0fx¿ lbOg' kb{5 M != Osf] len] hdf ;d"x kl/ rfng lsg / s;/ L < @= kof{j/ 0f, :yfgLo ;|f] t /  h} ljs lalawtfsf] ;+/ If0f, k|j4{g /  pkof] udf o'jf / afnaflnsfsf]  e"ldsf #= Osf] len] hsf]  ;kmfOdf o'jf Sna /  lszf] / L ;d"xx¿sf]  bfloTj /  e"ldsf $= dlxnf :jf:Yo / afn clwsf/ af/ ]  hgr] tgf clej[l4sf nflu dlxnf ;d"x, lszf] / L ;d"x /  o'jf Snjx¿sf] e"ldsf %= k|f+ufl/ s t/ sf/ L pTkfbg, u|] l8ª /  ahf/  Aoj:yfkg ^= t/ sf/ L /  kmnk"mnx¿sf]  k|zf] wg /  ahf/  Aoj:yfkg &= b'Uw kbfy{sf] pTkfbg, u'0f:t/  Joj:yfkg /  ahf/ Ls/ 0f *= cfod"ns Joj;fosf] k|j4{g /  jhf/ Ls/ 0f (= s'l6/ pBf] u k|j4{g !)= a} slNks phf{ s] , lsg /  s;/ L < !!= ;3g h} ljs v] tL k|0ffnL /  s[ifs clwsf/ ;'lglZrttfsf nflu h] l6P, ls;fg ;d"x /  dlxnf ;d"xx¿sf] bfloTj /  e"ldsf !@= PsLs[t zq'hLj Joj:yfkgdf h] l6P / cu'jf ls;fgx¿sf]  e"ldsf !#= h} ljs dn / h} ljs laiffbL s] , lsg /  s;/ L< !$= cfly{s, ;fdflhs / ;f+:s[lts tyf kof{j/ 0fLo clwsf/ x¿ !%= s[ifs clwsf/ / lbuf] s[lif ;~hfn dfly pNn] lvt sltko tflnd /  cled'vLs/ 0fx¿ ;a}  Osf] len] hsf afl;Gbf jf ;d"xx¿sf nflu Ps}  x'g ;Sb5g . t/ tLdWo] sltko tflnd jf cled'vLs/ 0fx¿ :yfgLo afl;Gbfsf cfaZostfcg'¿k of] hgf ul/ g' kb{5 . dfly pNn] lvt sltko tflnd /  cled'vLs/ 0fx¿ kl/ of] hgf lasf; ug] { jf sfof{Gjog ug] { u} ;;n]  cfof] hgf ug'{ kg] { x'G5 eg] sltko tflnd jf cled'vLs/ 0fx¿ lhNnfsf ;/ sf/ L lgsfox¿;Fu ;dGjo u/ ] /  ug'{ kg] { x'G5 . clg sltko tflnd / cled'vLs/ 0fx¿ :yfgLo ;d"x jf ;xsf/ Lsf kbflwsf/ L tyf tflnd k|fKt cu'jf ls;fgx¿n] ;~rfng ug{ ;Sb5g . ;s] ;Dd ;xefuLx¿nfO{ Jofjxfl/ s ¿kdf v] taf/ L, s'l6/  pBf] u wGbf jf Joj;fod} ;+nUg u/ fP/  tflndx¿ ul/ +bf pknlJwd"ns x'G5 . pbfx/ 0fsf nflu tn s] xL
  35. 35. k/Dk/fut ufpFnfO{ Osf]len]hdf ¿kfGt/0fM lgb]{lzsf 35 tflnddf ug{ ;lsg] ultlalwx¿af/ ]  ;"rL k|:t't ul/ Psf] 5 . cfocfh{gsf nflu s'l6/ pBf] u k|j4{g tflndx¿ M Osf]  len] hsf]  s'l6/  pBf] udf pTkfbg ug{ ;lsg] vfB a:t'x¿ x'gMM blx, lrh, u'Gb|'s jf l;GsL, crf/ x¿, ;'sfPsf t/ sf/ Lx¿ -d'nf, uf] ne] +8f, ss{nf] , ufh/ , d:of} / f, l;dL, OToflb_ / kmnx¿ -d] jf, cf?, sfFrf]  cfFk, cdnf, s] / f, OToflb_, ;'sfPdf df5f / df;' -s'v'/ f, v;L, Rof+u|f, / f+ufsf_ . tof/ ePsf ;fdu|Lx¿sf]  u'0f:t/ k/ LIf0f, Koflsª / n] alnª . ;xefuLx¿nfO{ oL ultlalwx¿df k|ToIf ¿kdf ;xefuL u/fOg' kb{5 . r/ 0f ( Osf] len] hsf ;"rsfÍx¿ cg'¿k x/ ] s 3/ w'/ LcGtu{t ef} lts ;+/ rgfx¿sf]  lgdf{0f /  k'glgdf{0f Osf] len] hsf x/ ] s 3/ w'/ Ldf lgDglnlvt ef} lts ;+/ rgfx¿sf]  lgdf{0f jf k'glgdf{0f ul/ g} kb{5M • rlk{ • afof] Uof; • ;'wfl/ Psf]  w'“jf/ lxt r'nf]  • ufO{ tyf afv|fsf] ;'wfl/ Psf]  uf] 7 • s'v'/ f /  xfF;sf]  ;'wfl/ Psf] ]  vf] /  • sDkf] i6 vf8n jf h} ljs dn tyf laiffbLsf] 8«d rlk{ lsg < v'nf lb;f lk;fa ug] { Jojxf/  c;Eotfsf] ;"rs dfq xf] Og Tof]  Jojxf/ sf sf/ 0f xfd|f ufpFFFF3/ df sltko ;?jf / f] ux¿n]  h/ f uf8] /  a;] sf 5g . Tolt dfq xf] Og To;af6 xfdLn]  /  ufO{a:t'n]  lkpg]  kfgL;d] t k|b'lift x'g]  u/ ] sf]  5  . Osf] len] h k|fs[lts ;|f] t / ;Dkbfx¿sf] lbuf]  Joj:yfkg ug{ k|ltj4 ePsf ;Eo dflg;x¿sf] a:tL ePsfn] rlk{ lbuf]  Osf] len] hsf]  klxnf]  ;"rs xf]  . xfn g] kfn ;/ sf/ n] klg o;sf nflu laz] if sfo{qmd uDeL/tfsf ;fy nfu" ul/ / x] sf] 5 . sltko ufpFFFFx¿nfO{ v'nf lb;fd'Qm ufpFFFF / a:tLsf ¿kdf 3f] if0ff ul/ Psf]  kfOG5 . ;/ sf/ n] :yfgLo lasf; sfof{noaf6 v'nf lb;fd'Qm ufpFFFF /  a:tLsf hgtfsfnflu dfq cg'bfg /  ;xof] u lbg] gLlt agfO{ sfof{Gjog ul/ / x] sf]  5  . ofb / fVg' kg] { s'/ f s]  5 eg]  of]  ;/ sf/ sf]  / fli6«o sfo{qmd xf]  . o;sf nflu o; kl/ of] hgfaf6 s'g} cfly{s cg'bfg jf ;kf] 6{ ug] { Joj:yf 5} g . t;y{ Osf] len] hsf afl;GbfnfO{ cfˆgf] ufpFFFFnfO{ v'nf lb;fd'Qm ufpFFFFdf ¿kfGt/ 0f ug{ cfaZos ;/ ;NNffx /  cled'vLs/ 0f lbg' jf~5gLo x'G5 .
  36. 36. k/Dk/fut ufpFnfO{ Osf]len]hdf ¿kfGt/0fM lgb]{lzsf36 afof] Uof; KnfG6 lsg < h+un df;] /  bfp/ f afNg]  k/ Dk/ f k'/ fgf]  xf]   . t/  To;n]  xfd|f]  jftfj/ 0f /  hnjfo'df gsf/ fTds c;/ kfb{5 eGg] s'/ f k|dfl0ft e} ;s] sf]  5  . To;} n]  vfgf ksfpg tyf hf8f] 7fpFdf sf] 7f tftf] kfg{ bfp/ fsf] ;66fdf cGo OGwgx¿sf]  k|of] u ug{' kg] { ePsf] 5 . To:tf a} slNks OGwgx¿dWo]  afof] Uof; -uf] a/ Uof;_ klg Ps xf]  . afof] Uof; pTkfbgsf nflu uf] a/ / rlk{ dn klg k|of] u ug{ ;lsG5 . rlk{ dn k|of] u ug{ lxlRsrfpg]  3/ kl/ jf/ n]  uf] a/ dfq klg k|of] u ug{ ;Sb5g . g] kfn ;/ sf/ n]  ufpFFFj:tLdf afof] Uof; KnfG6 agfpg ;xof] u ul/ / x] sf]  5  . ofb / fVg' kg] { s'/ f s]  5 eg]  of]  ;/ sf/ sf]  / fli6«o sfo{qmd xf]  . o;sf nflu o; kl/ of] hgfaf6 s'g} cfly{s cg'bfg jf ;kf] 6{ ug] { Joj:yf 5} g . To;} n]  Osf] len] hsf afl;GbfnfO{ o; ljifodf cfaZos ;/ ;Nnfx /  cled'vLs/ 0f dfq lbOg' cfaZos 5 . g] kfndf Ps 3g ld6/ afof] Uof; KnfG6 agfpg xfn ? &%)) b] lv *%)) ;Dd nfUg] cg'dfg 5 . qm=;+= phf{sf k|sf/ x¿ k|lt:yfkg kl/ df0f ! cNsf] xn !=! ln6/  @ UffO{sf]  u'OF7f !@=#) s] hL # rfsf] {n !=$ s] hL $ dl66t] n )=^@ ln6/  % l8h] n )=%@ ln6/  ^ laB't $=& lsnf] jf6 cfj/  & bfp/ f #=$& s] hL * PnlkhL -l;ln08/ sf]  Uof;_ )=$% s] hL ( UffO{sf]  u'OF7f !@=#) s] hL !) rfsf] {n -s8f sf] Onf_ !=$ s] hL !! uf] n -g/ d sf] Onf_ !=^ s] hL afof]Jof; KnfG6 Ps 3g ld6/ afof]Uof;n] k|lt:yflkt ug]{ cGo phf{sf k|sf/x¿sf] kl/df0f
  37. 37. k/Dk/fut ufpFnfO{ Osf]len]hdf ¿kfGt/0fM lgb]{lzsf 37 !) 3gld6/  Ifdtfsf]  afof] Uof; Knf06af6 dfl;s !$=@ s] hLsf !) j6f PnlkhL -Uof;_ l;ln08/ n]  hlQs} Uof; pTkfbg ub{5 . Ps 3g ld6/  afof] Uof;n]  k|lt:yflkt ug] { cGo OGwg jf phf{sf k|sf/ x¿sf]  kl/ df0f lgDgfg';f/  5M ;'wfl/ Psf]  w'“jf/ lxt r'nf] lsg < xfd|f]  k/ Dk/ fut r'nf] df bfp/ f / fd|/ L aNb} g /  efG;f k"/ }  w'jfFn]  el/ G5 . To;/ L w'jfF el/ Psf]  efG;fdf vfgf ksfpg] JolQm vf;u/ L dlxnfsf]  :jf:Yodf g/ fd|f]  c;/  kl/ / x] sf]  x'G5  . pgL kmf] S;f]  / Zjf;k|Zjf;;DaGwL lalaw ;d:ofaf6 kLl8t e} / x] sL x'lG5g . csf] {tkm{ bfp/ f / fd|/ L gaNbf vfgf ksfpg a9L ;do nfUg] x'G5 . To;sf klg cfkmg} c;/ x¿ 5g h:t}  sfa{g8fOcS;fO8sf]  pT;h{g w] / }  kl/ df0fdf x'G5 . To;n] e"d08nLo tfkdfg a9fpg d2t ub{5 . To;} n]  Osf] len] hdf k/ Dk/ fut r'nf] x¿nfO{ w'jfF/ lxt r'nf] df ¿kfGt/ 0f ug'{ kb{5 . To;f] ul/ Pdf dfly pNn] lvt ;d:ofx¿sf]  ;Daf] wg /  ;dfwfg x'G5  . xfd|f Osf] len] hx¿df w] / }  3/ x¿df w'jfF/ lxt r'nf]  5g /  s] xL dflg;nfO{ To:tf] r'nf] agfpg klg cfpF5 . o;sf] nflu :yfgLo ;|f] t eP k'U5 / x/ ] s 3/ n] clnslt ;do lbP/  To:tf]  w'jfF/ lxt r'nf]  agfpg ;Sb5g . :yfgLo ;+:yfx¿n] o;nfO{ tbf?stfsf ;fy k"/ f ug'{ h?/ L 5 . ufO{ tyf afv|fsf]  ;'wfl/ Psf]  uf] 7 lsg < xfd|f] ufpFFFF3/ df ufO{, e} ++;L, afv|f, e] +8f /  a+u'/  jf ;'+u'/ sf vf] / x¿ cAoal:yt x'G5g . To:tf vf] / x¿sf sf/ 0f 3/ kfn'jfsf]  :jf:Yo gfh's ;'wfl/Psf] uf]7;'wfl/Psf] r'nf]
  38. 38. k/Dk/fut ufpFnfO{ Osf]len]hdf ¿kfGt/0fM lgb]{lzsf38 / x] sf]  kfOG5  . t;y{ ;a}  k|sf/ sf 3/ kfn'jf a:t'efpsf] nflu kfgL gr'lxg] , a:g]  7fpF cf] efgf]  /  Gofgf]  x'g] , dn d"q hDdf eP/ lxnfDd]  gx'g] , bfgfkfgL / fVg] ;kmf efF8f jf 8'F8x¿ ePsf vf] / x¿sf]  Joa:yf ul/ g' kb{5 . ufO{sf] ;'wfl/ Psf]  uf] 7df ux"Ft ;+sng x'g] gfnL / ;fgf]  sG6] g/  jf 8«dsf]  Aoa:yf u/ ] sf]  x'g' kb{5 . To;/ L hDdf ul/ Psf]  ux"FtnfO{ kfgLdf ld;fO{ jf kmd] {G6] zg u/ L kftnf] kf/ L -kfgLdf ld;fO{_ afnLgfnLdf dn jf laiffbLsf ¿kdf k|of] u ug{ ;lsG5 . o;k|sf/ uf] 7 ;'wf/  /  To;sf dxŒjk"0f{ kIfx¿ x'gM kf] if0f, ux"Ft ;+sng / k|of] u, sDkf] i6, uf] a/ Uof; / vfgf ksfpg]  OGwgsf ¿kdf uf] a/ sf]  ;d'lrt k|of] u  . pTkfbgx¿sf]  clen] vLs/ 0f / plrt ahf/ Joj:yfkg . s'v'/ f /  xfF;sf]  ;'wfl/ Psf]  vf] /  lsg < xfd|f] ufpFFFF3/ df s'v'/ f / xfF;nfO{ ;fgf]  xfjf gl5g] { vf] / df / ftLdf y'Gg]  /  c? a] nfdf v'nf 5f] 8g] tyf c08f kfg] { kf] yLsf nflu 3/ sf] s'gfdf Pp6f 8fnf] df k/ fn / fv] /  agfOPsf]  kfOG5  . w] / }  ;do;Dd aflx/  v'nf 5f] l8g]  ePsfn]  s'v'/ f /  xfF;n]  htftt}  kmf] x/  ug] {, af/ Lsf ;fu;JhLx¿ vfP/ w'?Ss}  kfg] {, la/ fnf] , afh / cGo hGt' jf lzsf/ L k+IfLx¿sf]  lzsf/  aGg k'Ug] , aiff{ ofddf kfgLdf leh] / la/ fdL kg] {, kfgL lkpg gkfpg] tyf kmf] x/ kfgL lkP/  la/ fdL kg] { /  ;?jf / f] ux¿ v'nf¿kdf ;g] { h:tf ;d:ofx¿ cfO kb{5g . oL ;d:ofx¿sf] ;dfwfg ug] { u/ L s'v'/ f /  xfF;sf]  vf] / df ;'wf/ ug'{ kg] { x'G5 . To:tf vf] / x¿df lgDglnlvt Aoa:yf ul/ g' kb{5M • / ftLdf ;'/ lIft ¿kdf -aGb ug{ ;lsg] emofn 9f] sf ePsf] _ af; a:g ;Sg] xfjf v] Ng]  Joj:yf;lxtsf]  vf] /  • c08f kfg] { kf] yLx¿sf nflu vf] / leq PsfGtdf c08f kfg] { :yfgsf]  Aoa:yf • aGb vf] / aflx/  xl/ of]  3fF;kftdf rg{ / df6f] v] Ng kfpg] Aoa:yf • aGb vf] / leq /  aflx/  :jR5 lkpg]  kfgLsf]  laz] if efF8f]  /  bfgf / fVg]  laz] if efF8f] sf]  Aoa:yf  . s'v'/ f / xfF;sf cnfjf sltko t/ fO{sf lhNnfx¿df s] xL ;d'bfon]  ;'wfl/Psf] xfF; / s'v'/f]sf] vf]/
  39. 39. k/Dk/fut ufpFnfO{ Osf]len]hdf ¿kfGt/0fM lgb]{lzsf 39 k/ ] jf kfng ug] { u/ ] sf]  kfOG5  . k/ ] jf kfng g] kfnL s[lifsf] Ps cleGg cªu / x] sf]  kfOG5  . k/ ] jf kfngaf6 klg ls;fgx¿n]  hLljsf] kfh{gnfO{ ;xh kfg{ s] xL cfly{s pkfh{g ug] { u/ ] sf 5g . t;y{ k/ ] jf kfngsf nflu agfOg]  vf] /  ;'/ lIft -3fd kfgL /  x'/ L jtf;af6 k/ ] jfsf]  ;'/ Iff x'g] , rf] / x¿ /  lzsf/ L r/ f tyf hgfj/ x¿af6 ;'/ Iff x'g] , c08f kfg] { kf] yL k/ ] jf -k/ ] jL_ sf nflu plrt Joj:yf_ x'g' kb{5 . To;sf ;fy}  k/ ] jfx¿nfO{ lbgsf]  b'O{ k6s rf/ f]  lbg] / :jR5 lkpg] kfgLsf] Joa:yf klg ul/ g' kb{5 . k+IfL -s'v'/ f, xfF;, k/ ] jf, OToflb_ pTkfbgsf kIfx¿ x'g vf] /  Joj:yfkg, EoflS;g] zg, kf] if0f, pTkfbg, k|f] ;] l;ª /  ahf/  Joj:yfkg . sDkf] i6 vfN8f] jf h} ljs dn tyf laiffbLsf] 8«d lsg < Osf] len] hdf / f;folgs v] tL k|0ffnLnfO{ :yfg x'Fb} g . Osf] len] hsf ;a}  ls;fgx¿n]  h} ljs jf k|f+ufl/ s v] tL ug'{ kb{5 . To;sf lgldQ ls;fgx¿n] cfkm} jf ;d"x /  ;xsf/ Ldfkm{t k|f+ufl/ s dn tyf h} ljs dn tyf laiffbL pTkfbg ug'{ kb{5 . cfkmg} ufO{a:t'sf] dnd"q, af/ L / sfNgfsf 3fF;kft, lkgf /  v/ fgL nufotsf s'/ fx¿ ldnfP/  pRr u'0f:t/ Lo k|f+ufl/ s dn tyf sDkf] i6 pTkfbg ug'{ kb{5 . To;} u/ L ufO{sf]  uf] a/  -h'6sf]  af] / fdf kf] sf kf/ ] /  / fVg] _, lalaw hl8a'6Lo laz] iftf ePsf ?v la?jf -lgd, asfOgf] , lr/ fOtf] , c;'/ f] , tLt] kftL, lv/ f] {, l;:g', af] emf] , cfFv, l6d'/ , ;'lt{, ;okqL, uf] bfj/ L, 9'ª«L km"n, wt'/ f] , OToflb_ sf kft / kmnx¿nfO{ dl;gf]  kf/ L sf6] /  8«ddf a/ fa/ dfqfdf / fVg] , /  ux"Ft -8«ddf / flvPsf s'/ fx¿ 8'Ag] u/ L_ xfnL xfjf l5g{ gkfpg] u/ L lasf] { aGb u/ L # xk mtf;Dd / fvL emf] n h} ljs dn tyf laiffbL pTkfbg ug'{ kb{5 . o:tf] h} ljs dn tyf laiffbLnfO{ a9L k|efjsf/ L kfg{ OPd -Okm] lS6e dfOqmf] cu] {lgHd_ sf]  klg k|of] u ug{ ;lsG5 . OPd gePdf @) ln6/ sf]  8«ddf ! ln6/ blx -NoflS6s JofS6] l/ ofsf]  ;|f] tsf ¿kdf_ /  Ps lsnf] u|fd sf] ;] afnL af] 6 la?jfsf]  luvf{x¿ ePsf h/ fx¿nfO{ dl;gf]  u/ L sf6] /  -gfO6«f] hg l:y/ Ls/ 0f JofS6] l/ ofsf nflu_ ld;fpg' kb{5 . o; laifodf Osf] len] hsf ls;fgx¿nfO{ h] l6P tyf s[lif
  40. 40. k/Dk/fut ufpFnfO{ Osf]len]hdf ¿kfGt/0fM lgb]{lzsf40 clws[tx¿af6 cfaZos Jofjxfl/ s tflnd / cled'vLs/ 0f lbOg' kb{5 . ;f] tflnddf s] s] s'/ f slt slt dfqfdf s;/ L / lsg ld;fP/ / fVg' kb{5 clg slt ;dokl5 dn jf laiffbL tof/ x'G5 / To;nfO{ s;/ L k|of] u ug'{ kb{5 eGg] laifodf :k:6 u/ L a'emfpg' cfaZos x'G5 . o; laifodf cfaZos hfgsf/ L / 1fgsf nflu cf] / ] s g] kfnåf/ f k|sflzt ";3g h} las v] tL k|0ffnL" gfds k':ts k9g ;lsG5 . aif{ tLg M r/ 0f !) M bf] ;|f] aif{sf sfd /  pknlJwx¿sf]  k'g/ fjnf] sg /  t] ;|f] aif{sf] sfo{ of] hgf lgdf{0f /  sfof{Gjog Osf] len] hdf laleGg sfd jf ultlalwnfO{ Jojl:yt tyf l56f] 5l/ tf]  ¿kdf ug{ /  u/ fpg bf] ;|f] aif{df ul/ Psf sfd /  pknlJwx¿nfO{ k'g/ fjnf] sg ul/ g' kb{5 / t] ;|f] aif{sf] sfo{ of] hgf tof/  kfg'{ kb{5 . o:tf] sfo{ of] hgf k|d'v ;|f] t JolQmn]  lbPsf]  cled'vLs/ 0fsf] ]  cfwf/ df tyf cWofo # df lbO{Psf]  Osf] len] hsf ;"rsfÍx¿sf cfwf/ df lj:t[t agfOg' pko'Qm x'G5 . o:tf sfdx¿sf] k|fyldstfdf klxnf] /  bf] ;|f]  aif{df em} + dlxnf /  lszf] / L :jf:Yo / clwsf/ , afnaflnsfsf]  :jf:Yo / clwsf/ , o'jf ;zQmLs/ 0f tyf kof{j/ 0f /  ufpFFFFsf]  jftfj/ 0f, hnjfo' / s[lif, ;3gh} ljs v] tL k|0ffnL / hLljsf] kfh{g, :j:ys/  pTkfbg /  k|zf] wg, ;/ sf/ L lgsfo;Fu ;fem] bf/ L /  ;dGjo, ahf/  Aoj:yfkg, ;~rf/  /  aflx/ L hut;Fu ;dGjo tyf ;xsfo{ kb{5g . dfly g} pNn] v ul/ ;lsPsf]  5 ls oL laifox¿nfO{ ;Daf] wg ug{ agfOg] sfo{ of] hgf tLg aif{sf]  x'g] 5  . t] ;|f]  aif{sf]  sfo{ of] hgfdf ToxL aif{df ug{ ;lsg] sfdx¿nfO{ dfq ;d] 6g'kb{5 . bf] ;|f] aif{df ljleGg ;d"x / ;xsf/ LnfO{ lbOPsf sltko tflnd, cled'vLs/ 0f, tyf ;d'bfonfO{ lbOPsf laleGg ;xof] u /  ;/ sf/ L lgsfox¿;+u ;dGjosf nflu ul/ g]  sfox{?nfO{ t] ;|f]  aif{sf]  sfo{ of] hgfdf klg ;d] l6g' kb{5 . r/ 0f !! M ;fd'bflos ;+/ rgfx¿sf]  lgdf{0f /  pkof] u Osf] len] hsf ;Defljt /  cfaZos ;fd'bflos ;+/ rgfx¿ cGtu{t lgDglnlvt kb{5gM • afn lasf; s] Gb| • dlxnf :jf:Yo k/ fdz{ tyf ;|f] t s] Gb| • ;fd'bflos Sna jf ejg • ;fd'bflos dgf] / ~hg :yn -v] n
  41. 41. k/Dk/fut ufpFnfO{ Osf]len]hdf ¿kfGt/0fM lgb]{lzsf 41 d} bfg, lkslgs :yn, kfsf ;b:ox¿sf] nflu la>fd :yn_ • ;fd'bflos ;~rf/  s] Gb| • ;fd'bflos xf6 ahf/  • ;fj{hlgs wf/ f jf Ogf/  • ;fj{hlgs kf} jf jf kf6L ¿kfGt/ 0fsf]  r/ 0fdf / x] sf sltko Osf] len] hdf dfly pNn] lvt s] xL ;+/ rgfx¿sf]  lgd{f0f e} ;s] sf]  5 eg]  sltko Osf] len] hdf oLdWo]  s'g}  klg ;+/ rgf ag] sf 5} gg . oL ;+/ rgfx¿ :yfgLo cfaZostfcg';f/ ufpFFFFaf;L, u} / ;/ sf/ L ;ª3;+:yf /  :yfgLo ;/ sf/ L lgsfox¿sf]  ;fem] bf/ Ldf lgdf{0f ug'{ kb{5 . dfly pNn] lvt ;+/ rgfx¿sf] nflu plrt :yfgsf]  5gf] 6 ;a} sf]  ;xdltdf cfjZos sfg'gL k|lqmof k'/ ofO{ ul/ g' kb{5 . afn lasf; s] Gb|, dlxnf :jf:Yo k/ fdz{ tyf ;|f] t s] Gb| tyf ;fd'bflos ;~rf/ s] Gb| h:tf ;+/ rgfx¿sf]  lgdf{0f k|fs[lts ;fdu|Lx¿ /  ;'wfl/ Psf]  k/ Dk/ fut k|lalwsf]  k|of] u u/ L ug'{ a] z x'G5 . o:tf k|s[lts ;fdfu|Lx¿df af+;, 9'+uf, df6f] , / sf7 kb{5g . ;'wfl/ Psf]  k/ Dk/ fut k|lalwdWo]  Ps xf]  -kmnfd]  ;fFrf] df lyr] /  agfOPsf]  df6f] sf]  sfFrf]  O66f Compressed Stabilized Earth Blocks (CSEB) . of] 3/ sf] kvf{nsf nflu cfjZos O§f agfpg] / fd|f] k|ljlw xf]   . of]  k/ Dk/ fut ksfPsf]  / ftf]  O66feGbf km/ s / ;:tf] klg x'G5 . o:tf O66faf6 agfOPsf 3/ x¿ hf8f] df} ;ddf Gofgf / udL{ ofddf 708f x'G5g . Osf] len] hleq kfos kg] { :yfgdf dlxnf :jf:Yo k/ fdz{ tyf ;|f] t s] Gb| -d:jfk;|f] s] _ sf]  :yfkgf /  ;+rfng ug{ ;+:yf / Osf] len] h Joj:yfkg ;ldltn]  dxŒjk"0f{ e"ldsf v] Ng' kb{5 . dlxnf :jf:Yo k/ fdz{ tyf ;|f] t s] Gb| tflnd k|fKt dgf] ;fdflhs k/ fdz{stf{n]  ;+rfng ug'{ kb{5 . d:jfk;|f] s] df :yfgLo h8La'6Lx¿ / laleGg :jf:Yo ;d:ofdf ltgsf] k|of] u lalwx¿ /  ;+/ If0faf/ ]  hfgsf/ L lbOg' kb{5  . oL sfdx¿sf nflu cf] / ] s g] kfnn]  lasf; u/ ] sf]  /  k|of] u ub} { cfPsf]  k|lqmof, lalw / kmf/ fdx¿ ;a}  Osf] len] hx¿df k|of] u ul/ g' kb{5 . To;}  u/ L ;fd'bflos ;~rf/  s] Gb| tyf ;fd'bflos xf6 ahf/ klg :yfgLo cfaZostfcg';f/ ufpFFFFaf;L, u} / ;/ sf/ L ;ª3;+:yf /  :yfgLo ;/ sf/ L lgsfox¿sf]  ;fem] bf/ Ldf lgdf{0f ug'{ kb{5 . dfly pNn] lvt
  42. 42. k/Dk/fut ufpFnfO{ Osf]len]hdf ¿kfGt/0fM lgb]{lzsf42 ;+/ rgfx¿sf] nflu plrt :yfgsf]  5gf] 6 ;a} sf]  ;xdltdf cfjZos sfg'gL k|lqmof k'/ ofO{ ul/ g' kb{5 . r/ 0f !@ M ;3g h} las v] tL k|0ffnLaf/ ] cfaZos tflnd /  ;xof] u k|f+ufl/ s v] tL g] kfnL s[lifsf]  ;+:s[lt xf]  . t/ cfh o;n] a9bf] / f;folgs v] tL k|0ffnLsf]  Jofj;flos k|j4{g / To;n] lgDTofPsf kof{j/ 0fLo /  :jf:YohGo ;d:of / r'gf} ltx¿sf]  ;fdgf ug'{ k/ ] sf] 5 . To;sf]  nflu xfdLn] ;3g h} las v] tL k|0ffnL h:tf lbuf] s[lifnfO{ k|j4{g / k|;f/ ug'{ afG5gLo ePsf] 5 . ;3g h} las v] tL k|0ffnL h:tf lbuf] s[lifnfO{ k|j4{g u/ L ;fgf ls;fgx¿sf]  hLljsf] kfh{g /  vfB ;'/ IffnfO{ ;'/ lIft kfg{ ;kmntf kfOPsf 5g . To;afx] s ;3g h} las v] tL k|0ffnLn]  jftfj/ 0fLo ;d:of, df6f] sf]  ;+/ rgf /  pj{/ tf, dflg; / a:t'efpsf] :jf:Yo h:tf s'/ fdf klg ;sf/ fTds k|efj kf/ ] sf]  kfOPsf] 5 . To; laifodf dfly klg xNsf 5nkmn e} ;s] sf] 5 . ;fd'bflos :jf:Yo lSnlgsn]  Osf] len] h Joj:yfkg ;ldlt;Fu ;dGjo u/ L dlxnf, afnaflnsf /  ;d'bfosf cGo ;b:ox¿nfO{ k|fylds :jf:Yo ;] jf pknJw u/ fpg' kb{5 . kf] if0f /  hg:jf:Yosf b[li6sf] 0faf6 nfesf/ L t/ sf/ L -xl/ of ;fu;JhL, lel08, ef06f, k/ jn, ss{nf] , ufh/ , d'nf, l;dL, OToflb_ / kmnkm"nx¿ -d] jf, s] / f, cDaf, gf:kftL, cfFk, cdnf, sfutL, hfd'g, OToflb_ sf]  pTkfbg Osf] len] hleqsf x/ ] s af/ L jf s/ ] ;faf/ Lx¿df ug{ cfaZos cled'vLs/ 0f, tflnd, ;xof] u /  ;/ sf/ L lhNnf sfof{nox¿;Fu cfaZos ;dGjo ;+:yf / Osf] len] h Joj:yfkg ;ldltx¿ b'a} n] ;lqmo ¿kdf ug'{ kb{5 . r/ 0f !# M Osf] len] haf/ ]  cfˆg}  j] a;fO6dfkm{t ;fj{hlgs hfgsf/ L xfdL clxn] ;"rgf k|lalwsf] o'udf 5f} + . ;a} ;"rgf, hfgsf/ L / 1fgsf]  ;|f] t OG6g] {6 cyjf j] a;fO6x¿ ePsf 5g . j] a;fO6df k|jflxt hfgsf/ L /  ;"rgf ;f/ f ;+;f/ e/ L t'?Gt} / k|efjsf/ L ¿kdf k'Ub5 . To;} n]  Osf] len] hn]  pknJw u/ fpg]  ;] jf /  ;'lawfx¿af/ ] sf]  hfgsf/ L cfkmg}  j] a;fO6dfkm{t lbg]  Joj:yf ul/ g' / fd|f]  x'G5  . Osf] len] hsf]  j] a;fO6df s]  s:tf ;"rgf cyjf hfgsf/ Lx¿ x'g' knf{ < Osf] len] hsf]  j] a;fO6x¿df df] 6fdf] 6L ¿kdf tn lbOPsf laifox¿df hfgsf/ L lbOPsf] kfOG5M
  43. 43. k/Dk/fut ufpFnfO{ Osf]len]hdf ¿kfGt/0fM lgb]{lzsf 43 • Osf] len] h sxfF 5 < slxn] /  s;/ L :yfkgf ePsf]  xf] < • Osf] len] hsf]  b[li6sf] 0f, bz{g /  laz] if ultlalwx¿ • Osf] len] hsf]  ;fdflhs, ef} uf] lns /  kof{j/ 0fLo ljj/ 0f • Osf] len] h glhssf ko{6sLo :yfg / cWoog cg';Gwfg ul/ g' kg] { laifox¿af/ ]  hfgsf/ L • Osf] len] hdf sfo{/ t laleGg ;d"x, Sna /  ;xsf/ Lx¿af/ ]  hfgsf/ L • Osf] len] hsf ;fj{hlgs ;+/ rgfx¿ -dfly pNn] v ul/ Psf ;a}  ;+/ rgfx¿_ af/ ]  hfgsf/ L • Osf] len] hn]  cfˆgf ;b:o /  cGo ;d'bfosf ;b:ox¿nfO{ pknJw u/ fpg]  ;] jf /  ;'ljwfx¿af/ ]  hfgsf/ L • Osf] len] hdf aGb] h nufOPsf s'/ fx¿ • Osf] len] hleqsf]  ;'/ Iff Aoa:yf • Osf] len] hdf :jod;] jsx¿sf nflu :yfg, ;'ljwf / pgLx¿n]  ug{'kg] { sfdx¿ • Osf] len] hdf cfpg]  cg'';Gwfgstf{ jf kfx'gfsf nflu ul/ Psf]  Joj:yf, ;] jf, ;'ljwf / z'Ns • Osf] len] hdf :jod;] as, cg';Gwfgstf{ jf kfx'gf e}  cfpgsf nflu e/ ] /  k7fpg' kg] { lgj] bg kmf/ fd • lh1f;f / ;'emfjx¿sf] nflu ;Dks{ Od] n . Osf] len] hx¿n]  cfˆgf] j] a;fO6df of] eGbf afx] s cGo laifodf klg hfgsf/ Lx¿ / fVg ;Sb5g . d'Vo s'/ f s]  xf]  eg]  j] a;fO6 hlt w] / }  hfgsf/ Ld"ns / cfsif{s x'G5 Tolt g}  w] / }  To:tf Osf] len] hdf :jod;] as, cg';Gwfgstf{ / kfx'gfx¿ cfpg]  ;Defjgf x'G5 . Osf] len] hdf :jod;] as, cg';Gwfgstf{ /  kfx'gfx¿ cfpg' eg] sf]  Osf] len] hsf ;b:ox¿sf] cfo{cfh{g a9g] ;fy}  Osf] len] hsf]  cem Jofks k|rf/  x'g]  ;Defjgf klg xf]  .

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