w
w
w
.w
orecnepal.org
i
"Anbeshi"
Status and Dimension of
Violence against Women,
Reality Revealed
2011
WOREC
Balkumari, Lalitpur
w
w
w
.w
orecn...
ii
"Anbeshi"
Status and Dimension of Violence
against Women, Reality Revealed
A year book on Violence Against
Women 2011
W...
A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011
Table of Contents
FOREWORD	ix
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 	 1
CHAPTER I	 18
REVISITING AN...
A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011
CHAPTER V	 41
AGE OF SURVIVORS 	 42
5.1 Age 	 42
5.2 Below 16 age group 	 43
5....
A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011
8.2. Agriculturists and types of VAW 	 65
8.3. Household work and types of VAW ...
A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011
LIST OF CHARTS
Chart 3.1 VAW in Five Development Regions 	 27
Chart 3.2 Types o...
A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011
Chart 6.1.a Education of VAW Survivors 	 49
Chart 6.1.b Types of VAW and Educat...
A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011
Chart 9.7 Health Check up of Survivors 	 74
Chart 10.1.a Ethnicity of survivors...
A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011
FOREWORD
This year’s Anbeshi once again stresses how complex the issue of viole...
w
w
w
.w
orecnepal.org
1
A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011
1
A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Peace time vio...
A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011
22
numerous instances when VAW is swept under the carpet. The
primary reason fo...
3
A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011
3
purpose of analysis of VAW. The highest percentage of VAW was
reported from...
A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011
44
c. Rape
Rape accounts for the third highest category of VAW. In all, 124
(8%...
5
A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011
5
Anbeshi, it appears to be concentrated on women below 46 years
of age. The ...
A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011
66
6. Occupation and VAW
Women engaged in agriculture (42%) reported the most n...
7
A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011
7
10. Conclusion
Tounderstandthewomenandtheviolencetheyface,itisimperative
to...
A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011
88
women across a wider range of women is urgently needed
to better understand ...
9
A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011
9
6.	 The research shows that mental health has emerged as a
primary health i...
A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011
1010
sfo{sf/L ;f/f+z
zflGt ;dosf] lx+;f o'4n] h:t} sdhf] ® agfpg] vfnsf] x'G5
-...
11
A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011
11
o;f] x'g'df ;f+:s[lts dfGotfsf] cfwf®df lx+;fnfO{ :jLsfg'{' d'Vo
sf®0fsf]...
A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011
1212
To;kl5 !@ k|ltzt dWodf~rn ® !! k|ltzt dWo klZrf~rnaf6
;+sng ul®Psf lyP . T...
13
A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011
13
l5d] sLaf6, !% k|ltzt cGo ® klxrfg gePsf] af6 ePsf] 
kfOof]  eg]  kl®jf®s...
A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011
1414
d'lgsf ®x] sf] b] lvof]  . #$ k|ltzt @^–#% pd] ® ;d"xsf, ##
k|ltzt !^–@% p...
15
A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011
15
lx+;f k|efljt ePsf] kfOof]  . cfw'lgs k] zf h:t} ;®sf®L ;] jf,
u} ®;®sf®L...
A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011
1616
cnfjf, plQs} dxTjk"0f{ dlxnfx¿;DaGwL ;fdflhs d'No, dfGotf
klg x'G5g . ;fdf...
17
A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011
17
ljsf; sfof{no;Fu ul/g] ;xsfo{ k|efljtx¿sf nflu
;xof] uL x'g'sf ;fy} lbuf]...
CHAPTER I
w
w
w
.w
orecnepal.org
19
Violence against Women Year BookA Year Book on Violence against Women 2011
CHAPTER IREVISITING ANBESHI'S HISTORY
1.1	 I...
A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011
20
other NGOs; and cases that came to Women’s Development
Offices throughout Ne...
CHAPTER II
w
w
w
.w
orecnepal.org
A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011
22
CHAPTER II VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN
2.1. Introduction
Peace time violence is a...
23
A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011
integrity and autonomy. The psychological impacts include
fear, anxiety, ang...
A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011
24
2.2. VAW in Nepal
Violence against Women is disturbingly a growing trend in
...
CHAPTER III
w
w
w
.w
orecnepal.org
A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011
26
CHAPTER III VAW DATA ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS
3.1. Patterns of violence and pre...
27
A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011
accounted for 10 percent and the Western region accounted
for 1 percent of t...
A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011
28
However, the paradox is that the division is based on the
politics of geogra...
29
A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011
64%8%
4%
3%
1%
17%
3%
Domestic violence
Rape
Sexual abuse
Murder
Trafficking...
A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011
30
(Price 2002). “Home thus can become a terrorizing space for
women who don’t ...
CHAPTER IV
w
w
w
.w
orecnepal.org
A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011
32
Husband
74%
Family member
26%
CHAPTER IV VAW BY TYPE OF PERPETRATORS
4.1. Do...
33
A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011
to blame themselves for domestic violence since they have
internalized their...
A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011
34
91%
9%
Neighbor
Other & Unidentified
perpetrated by neighbors while 9 percen...
35
A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011
hierarchy become targeted for witchcraft allegations. These
allegations are ...
A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011
36
In order to understand the context of marital rape, it is
important to bring...
37
A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011
survivor may be pressurized to accept what has happened.
Similarly there hav...
A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011
38
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Husband
Family member
Neighbor
Other & Unidentified
No. o...
39
A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
Husband
Family member
Neighbor
Other & Unidentified...
A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011
40
4%
61%
35%
Family members
Neighbor
Other & Unidentified
out by neighbors, fo...
CHAPTER V
w
w
w
.w
orecnepal.org
42
Violence against Women Year BookA Year Book on Violence against Women 2011
CHAPTER VAGE OF SURVIVORS
5.1 Age
While VAW ...
43
A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011
Domestic
violence
18%
Rape
50%
Sexual abuse
8%
Murder
1%
Trafficking
8%
Soci...
A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011
44
5.3 The 16-25 age group
The 16-25 age group accounted for 33 percent of VAW
...
45
A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011
Domestic
violence
71%
Rape
3%
Sexual abuse
1%
Murder
2% Social violence
23%
...
A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011
46
5.6 The above 45 years age group
Chart 5.6 shows that for those above 46 yea...
47
A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011
(forthcoming publication) shows that reporting and
documentation of rape cas...
CHAPTER VI
w
w
w
.w
orecnepal.org
49
Violence against Women Year BookA Year Book on Violence against Women 2011
CHAPTER VI
18%
40%
11%
15%
12%
4%
Illiterate...
A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011
50
Domestic violence appears to be the most common among
all the groups followe...
51
A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011
65%6%
2%
3%
1%
22%
1%
Domestic violence
Rape
Sexual abuse
Murder
Trafficking...
A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011
52
66%
7%
3%
3%
2%
16%
3%
Domestic violence
Rape
Sexual abuse
Murder
Traffickin...
53
A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011
62%
17%
6%
2% 12%
1%
Domestic violence
Rape
Sexual abuse
Trafficking
Social ...
A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011
54
59%
8%
7%
3%
17%
6%
Domestic violence
Rape
Sexual abuse
Murder
Social violen...
55
A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011
Some important points to note:
-	 Given other variables in the Nepali societ...
CHAPTER VII
w
w
w
.w
orecnepal.org
57
Violence against Women Year BookA Year Book on Violence against Women 2011
CHAPTER VIIMARITAL STATUS AND VAW SURVIVORS
...
A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011
58
Chart 7.1.b Type of Violence Reported by Survivors with Various
Marital Stat...
59
A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011
Chart 7.2 Types of Violence among Married Women
7.3. Unmarried women
Violenc...
A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011
60
Chart 7.3 Types of Violence among Unmarried Women
7.4. Separated Women
Viole...
61
A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011
7.5. Violence and Widows
Violence against widows is also relatively low (2.4...
CHAPTER VIII
w
w
w
.w
orecnepal.org
63
Violence against Women Year BookA Year Book on Violence against Women 2011
CHAPTER VIII
42%
24%
11%
1%
2%
5%
1% 10%
4% ...
A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011
64
Chart 8.1.b Occupational Status and Types of VAW
Chart 8.1.c. Types of VAW b...
65
A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011
73%
5%
3%
2%
0%
16%
1%
Domestic violence
Rape
Sexual abuse
Murder
Traffickin...
A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011
66
60%
7%2%
4%
4%
21%
2%
Domestic violence
Rape
Sexual abuse
Murder
Trafficking...
67
A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011
61%
33%
6%
Domestic violence
Social violence
Other
68%
5%
3%
3%
1%
19%
1%
Do...
A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011
68
8.7. Women who do “nothing” and VAW
Note that 10 percent of the survivors re...
CHAPTER IX
w
w
w
.w
orecnepal.org
A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011
70
CHAPTER IX
8%
5%
22%
65%
Impacts:
Social
Economic
Physical
Mental
IMPACTS OF...
71
A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011
7%
6%
21%
66%
Social
Economic
Physical
Mental
9.2. Impact of domestic violen...
A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011
72
11% 3%
23%
63%
Social
Economic
Physical
Mental
8%
4%
28%
60%
Social
Economic...
73
A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011
22%
9%
69%
Social
Physical
Mental
16%
1%
27%
56%
Social
Economic
Physical
Me...
A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011
74
20%
68%
12% Health Checkup
Yes
No
Unidentified
9.7. Health and VAW survivors...
75
A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011
Some important points to note
-	 Overwhelming number of women have reported
...
CHAPTER X
w
w
w
.w
orecnepal.org
77
Violence against Women Year BookA Year Book on Violence against Women 2011
11%
17%
11%
9%16%
23%
11%
2%
0%
Brahman
Chhe...
A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011
78
10.2. Violence among Brahman VAW survivors
Brahman survivors reported 70 per...
79
A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011
10.3. Violence among Chhetri VAW survivors
Chhetri survivors reported 68 per...
A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011
80
10.5. Violence among hill dalits
Hill Dalits account for 11 percent of the t...
81
A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011
10.6. Violence among Hill Janajati
Hill Janajatis account for 23 percent cas...
A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011
82
Chart 10.7 Violence among Terai non-dalit
10.8. Violence among marginalized ...
83
A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011
10.9 Violence among terai janajati
Terai janajatis account for 16 percent (2...
A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011
84
the degree of autonomy women can exercise as well
as confidence to report an...
CHAPTER XI
w
w
w
.w
orecnepal.org
A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011
86
16%
29%
21%
11%
23%
Age of perpetrator
16-25
26-35
36-45
Above 46
Unidentifi...
87
A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011
12%
15%
10%
8%16%
20%
12%
3% 4%
Ethnicity of perpetrator
Brahmin
Chhetri
Hil...
A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011
88
considerably more vocal about the discrimination they face
within these comm...
89
A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011
exploitation and violation of rights. Women working in the
entertainment sec...
A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011
90
to sexual violence. There is already social stigma to begin
with, compounded...
CONCLUSION
w
w
w
.w
orecnepal.org
Anbeshi 2011: Status and Dimension of Violence against Women, Reality Revealed
Anbeshi 2011: Status and Dimension of Violence against Women, Reality Revealed
Anbeshi 2011: Status and Dimension of Violence against Women, Reality Revealed
Anbeshi 2011: Status and Dimension of Violence against Women, Reality Revealed
Anbeshi 2011: Status and Dimension of Violence against Women, Reality Revealed
Anbeshi 2011: Status and Dimension of Violence against Women, Reality Revealed
Anbeshi 2011: Status and Dimension of Violence against Women, Reality Revealed
Anbeshi 2011: Status and Dimension of Violence against Women, Reality Revealed
Anbeshi 2011: Status and Dimension of Violence against Women, Reality Revealed
Anbeshi 2011: Status and Dimension of Violence against Women, Reality Revealed
Anbeshi 2011: Status and Dimension of Violence against Women, Reality Revealed
Anbeshi 2011: Status and Dimension of Violence against Women, Reality Revealed
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Anbeshi 2011: Status and Dimension of Violence against Women, Reality Revealed

969 views

Published on

This year’s Anbeshi once again stresses how complex the issue of violence against women is. The research shows how VAW is intricately linked with larger ideas of masculinity and femininity and their manifestation in extremely private spaces such as one’s home or public spaces such as the work place. The ways in which social
violence is effected through a woman’s body and sanctioned by the state makes violence against women a form of political violence. In this background, the active
role of the women’s movement can help create an environment for the state to address VAW issues comprehensively and ingently.
Violence against women as a core violation of human rights of women has to emerge and reemerge in various discourses around VAW. The timing could not have been
more apt than now for the women’s rights activists in Nepal. The country is presently engaged in a process of socio-economic and political transformation, which will
only be completely accomplished once the culture of respect for women’s rights is established. The women’s movement must have a specific influence in pushing
the women’s agenda from a transnational feminist and women’s rights perspective especially during the constitution writing process. We are positive that the findings in Anbeshi will certainly guide the political leaders of the new emerging Nepal to be cognizant of the reality of Nepali women and at the same time, will ensure its
reflection in the new constitution.

0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
969
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Anbeshi 2011: Status and Dimension of Violence against Women, Reality Revealed

  1. 1. w w w .w orecnepal.org
  2. 2. i "Anbeshi" Status and Dimension of Violence against Women, Reality Revealed 2011 WOREC Balkumari, Lalitpur w w w .w orecnepal.org
  3. 3. ii "Anbeshi" Status and Dimension of Violence against Women, Reality Revealed A year book on Violence Against Women 2011 Written By : Retika Rajbhandari Edited by : Dr. Binayak Rajbhandari Layout design: Ramesh Bhandari Cover page design: Prismark Advertising and Marketing Publication year: 2011 WOREC Nepal All materials and data published in this book may be used with due acknowledgement This book publication was supported by Danish Embassy Published by: WOREC P.O.Box 13233 Kathmandu Nepal Phone: 977-01-2123124, 5006373, 5006474 Fax: 977-01-5006373 Email: ics@worecnepal.org Website: www.worecnepal.org © w w w .w orecnepal.org
  4. 4. A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011 Table of Contents FOREWORD ix EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1 CHAPTER I 18 REVISITING ANBESHI'S HISTORY 19 1.1 Introducing Anbeshi 19 1.2 Objectives of Anbeshi 20 CHAPTER II 21 VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN 22 2.1. Introduction 22 2.2. VAW in Nepal 24 CHAPTER III 25 VAW DATA ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS 26 3.1. Patterns of violence and prevalence rates 26 3.2. VAW and five Development Regions 26 3.3. Types of violence 28 CHAPTER IV 31 VAW BY TYPE OF PERPETRATORS 32 4.1. Domestic violence 32 4.2. Social violence 33 4.3. Rape 35 4.4. Murder 38 4.5. Sexual abuse 39 4.6. Trafficking 39 w w w .w orecnepal.org
  5. 5. A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011 CHAPTER V 41 AGE OF SURVIVORS 42 5.1 Age 42 5.2 Below 16 age group 43 5.3 The 16-25 age group 44 5.4. The 26-35 age group 44 5.5 The 36-45 age group 45 5.6 The above 45 years age group 46 CHAPTER VI 48 EDUCATION AND VAW 49 6.1 Educational background of the survivor 49 6.2. Violence against illiterate groups 51 6.3. Violence reported by literate survivors 52 6.4. Violence reported by survivors with primary education 53 6.5. Violence reported by survivors with secondary education 53 6.6. VAW survivors with higher secondary education 54 CHAPTER VII 56 MARITAL STATUS AND VAW SURVIVORS 57 7.1. Marital status of the survivor 57 7.2 Married women 58 7.3. Unmarried women 59 7.4. Separated Women 60 7.5. Violence and Widows 61 CHAPTER VIII 62 OCCUPATION AND VIOLENCE 63 8.1. Occupation of the survivor and types of violence 63 w w w .w orecnepal.org
  6. 6. A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011 8.2. Agriculturists and types of VAW 65 8.3. Household work and types of VAW 65 8.4. Laborer and VAW 66 8.5. Business and VAW 67 8.6. Social work and types of VAW 67 8.7. Women who do “nothing” and VAW 68 CHAPTER IX 69 IMPACTS OF VIOLENCE ON SURVIVOR 70 9.1. Types of impact on VAW survivors 70 9.2. Impact of domestic violence 71 9.3. Impact of social violence 71 9.4. Impact of rape 71 9.5. Impact of sexual abuse on survivors 72 9.6. Impact of trafficking on survivors 73 9.7. Health and VAW survivors 74 CHAPTER X 76 ETHNICITY OF SURVIVORS 77 10.1 Ethnicity and VAW 77 10.2. Violence among Brahman VAW survivors 78 10.3. Violence among Chhetri VAW survivors 79 10.4. Violence among terai dalits 79 10.5. Violence among hill dalits 80 10.6. Violence among Hill Janajati 81 10.7. Violence among terai non-dalit 81 10.8. Violence among marginalized groups 82 10.9 Violence among terai janajati 83 w w w .w orecnepal.org
  7. 7. A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011 LIST OF CHARTS Chart 3.1 VAW in Five Development Regions 27 Chart 3.2 Types of Violence 29 Chart 3.3 VAW According to Perpetrators 30 Chart 4.1 Domestic Violence by Type of Perpetrators 32 Chart 4.2 Social Violence by Type of Perpetrators 34 Chart 4.3 Rape by Type of Perpetrators 35 Chart 4.4 Murder by Type of Perpetrators 38 Chart 4.5 Sexual Abuse by Type of Perpetrators 39 Chart 4.6 Trafficking by Type of Perpetrators 40 Chart 5.1.a Distribution of Age of Survivors 42 Chart 5.1.b Types of VAW by Age Group 43 Chart 5.2 Distribution of VAW Survivors below 16 years 43 Chart 5.3. Distribution of VAW Survivors in the 16-25 Age Group 44 Chart 5.5 Distribution of VAW Survivors in the 36-45 Age Group 45 Chart 5.4 Distribution of VAW Survivors in the 26-35 Age Group 45 Chart 5.6 Distribution of VAW Survivors above 45 years 46 CHAPTER XI 85 BACKGROUND OF PERPETRATORS 86 11.1. Background of perpetrators 86 11.2. Ethnicity of perpetrators 87 11.3. Sex of perpetrators 88 CONCLUSION 91 RECOMMENDATIONS 94 REFERENCES 100 w w w .w orecnepal.org
  8. 8. A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011 Chart 6.1.a Education of VAW Survivors 49 Chart 6.1.b Types of VAW and Education 50 Chart 6.2 Types of Violence against Illiterate Groups 51 Chart 6.3.a Types of Violence Reported by literate Survivors 52 Chart 6.3.b. Illiterate Groups Compared with Literate and Educated Groups 52 Chart 6.4 Types of Violence Reported by Survivors with Primary Education 53 Chart 6.5 Types of Violence Reported by Srvivors with Secondary Education 54 Chart 6.6 Violence Reported by VAW Survivors with Higher Secondary Education 54 Chart 7.1.a. Marital Status of the Survivors 57 Chart 7.1.b Type of Violence Reported by Survivors with Various Marital Status 58 Chart 7.2 Types of Violence among Married Women 59 Chart 7.3 Types of Violence among Unmarried Women 60 Chart 7.4 Violence Reported by Survivors who have been Separated 60 Chart 7.5 Violence Reported by Widows 61 Chart 8.1.a Occupation of the Survivors 63 Chart 8.1.b Occupational Status and Types of VAW 64 Chart 8.1.c. Types of VAW by Traditional and Modern Occupations 64 Chart 8.2 Agriculturists and Types of VAW 65 Chart 8.3 Household Work and Types of VAW 66 Chart 8.4 Laborer and Types of VAW 66 Chart 8.5 Business and Types of VAW 67 Chart 8.6 Social Work and Types of VAW 67 Chart 8.7 Doing “Nothing” and Types of VAW 68 Chart 9.1.a Types of Impact on VAW Survivors 70 Chart 9.1.b. Different Types of Impact on VAW Survivors 70 Chart 9.2 Impact of Domestic Violence 71 Chart 9.4 Impact of Rape on Survivors 72 Chart 9.3. Impact of Social Violence 72 Chart 9.5 Impact of Sexual Abuse on Survivors 73 Chart 9.6 Impact of Trafficking on Survivors 73 w w w .w orecnepal.org
  9. 9. A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011 Chart 9.7 Health Check up of Survivors 74 Chart 10.1.a Ethnicity of survivors 77 Chart 10.1.b Types of VAW and Ethnicity 78 Chart 10.2 Violence among Brahman VAW Survivors 78 Chart 10.3 Violence among Chhetri VAW survivors 79 Chart 10.4 Violence among Terai Dalits 80 Chart 10.5 Violence among Hill Dalits 80 Chart 10.6 Violence among Hill Janajati 81 Chart 10.7 Violence among Terai non-dalit 82 Chart 10.8 Violence among Marginalized Groups 82 Chart 10.9 Violence among Terai Janajati 83 Chart 11.1 Age of Perpetrators 86 Chart 11.2 Ethnicity of perpetrators 87 Chart 11.3 Sex of Perpetrators 89 ACRONYMS DV Domestic violence DV BS Bikram Sambat ICIS WICCE International Cross-Cultural Exchange VAW Violence Against Women WDOs Women Development Offices WOREC Women's Rehabilitation Centre w w w .w orecnepal.org
  10. 10. A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011 FOREWORD This year’s Anbeshi once again stresses how complex the issue of violence against women is. The research shows how VAW is intricately linked with larger ideas of masculinity and femininity and their manifestation in extremely private spaces such as one’s home or public spaces such as the work place. The ways in which social violence is effected through a woman’s body and sanctioned by the state makes violence against women a form of political violence. In this background, the active role of the women’s movement can help create an environment for the state to address VAW issues comprehensively and ingently. Violenceagainstwomenasacoreviolationofhumanrightsofwomenhastoemerge and reemerge in various discourses around VAW. The timing could not have been moreaptthannowforthewomen’s rights activistsin Nepal. Thecountryispresently engaged in a process of socio-economic and political transformation, which will only be completely accomplished once the culture of respect for women’s rights is established. The women’s movement must have a specific influence in pushing the women’s agenda from a transnational feminist and women’s rights perspective especially during the constitution writing process. We are positive that the findings in Anbeshi will certainly guide the political leaders of the new emerging Nepal to be cognizant of the reality of Nepali women and at the same time, will ensure its reflection in the new constitution. I would like thank Rupa Shrestha who was involved in the process of documentation and compilation of the data. It is no easy task to systematically organize the vast amount of field inputs that have been made available by different VAW affected women from all over Nepal. I would also like to thank Retika Rajbhandari for her hard work in writing this report. Baburam Gautam Executive Director WOREC Nepal w w w .w orecnepal.org
  11. 11. w w w .w orecnepal.org
  12. 12. 1 A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011 1 A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Peace time violence is as debilitating as that of war (Scheper- Hughes and Bourgois, 2003). This statement resonates deeply with all the women who have allowed the WOREC Anbeshi team to document the violence they have suffered throughout the year. Nepal is trying to build peace after a decade long armed conflict. ThemostrecentdevelopmentoftheappointmentofDr.BabuRam Bhattarai as the new Prime Minister suggests a positive direction to the current stalemate that Nepal has witnessed over the past one and a half years in terms of writing the constitution. In this larger complicated political process, women in Nepal still are only at the fringe. The marginality of the Nepali women could not be better stated than through the sharing of the everyday violence they face. Domestic violence is by far the most sensitive form of violence that Nepali women encounter. Peace is in the process of being materialized in the Nepali polity. However, the peace that the Nepali women envision appears to be only a far-fetched dream. Violence against women is a manifestation of unequal power relations between women and men. It is both a result and a cause of gender inequality. It refers to violent acts that are primarily or exclusivelycommittedagainstwomen.TheUnitedNationsGeneral Assembly defines VAW as “any act of gender based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or mental harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or in private life” (United Nations, 1993). People all over the world have been increasingly vocal about VAW. However there are still w w w .w orecnepal.org
  13. 13. A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011 22 numerous instances when VAW is swept under the carpet. The primary reason for such covering up has been the acceptability of VAW due to cultural norms. Perpetrators of VAW do not just imbibe violent behavior, but simultaneously learn that these behaviors are socially acceptable. These learnings are reinforced as society and the state fail to punish perpetrators of VAW. At the coreisthefactthatVAWtakesplaceandtoleratedbecausewomen and men do not have equal access to power in most societies. In this light, Violence against Women is disturbingly a growing trend in Nepal. It manifests as a continuum and encompasses an array of abuses targeted at women and girls throughout their life cycles. Silence around the issue has been a characteristic feature of VAW in Nepal. Although VAW has long been on the international agenda, it has only recently become important in the Nepali gender policy context. Women in Nepal have been continuously raising their voice against violations of women’s rights. But it was only in 2008 that Nepal witnessed the passage of the Domestic Violence and Punishment Act 2065 accompanied by the declaration of BS 2067 (2010) as anti-VAW year. Although now that there is a law against domestic violence, the state obligation should expand to protection of women in diverse family forms, and incorporate measuresbeyond prosecution of privateactors to encompass further protection from violence, including provision of legal support and health, safety, and shelter requirements for the survivor, and to develop the obligation to prevent VAW by addressing its root causes. 1. VAW and Five Development Regions A total of 1569 cases were collected by WOREC Nepal for the w w w .w orecnepal.org
  14. 14. 3 A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011 3 purpose of analysis of VAW. The highest percentage of VAW was reported from the Eastern development region accounting for 66%, followed by the Central development region with 12% and the Mid western development region with 11%. Likewise, the Far Western development region accounted for 10% and the Western region accounted for 1% of the total cases. 2. Types of Violence a. Domestic violence Domestic violence accounts for 64% (1002 out of 1569 cases) of the total reported cases. Likewise, 17% accounts for social violence, 8% rape, and 4% murder. Unequal power relations in both the context of a family as well as the State; and persons in authority comprise the context for violence. Husbands (74%) and family (26%) account for all perpetrators of domestic violence. b. Social violence 1. Social violence is the second most frequent type of violence. A total of 266 cases or 17% of the total VAW cases were under this category. 91% of social violence was perpetrated by neighbors while 9% was by others (25 out of 266 cases). 2. For the purpose of Anbeshi, allegations of witchcraft fall under social violence. This year we saw a total of 48 cases of witchcraft accusations. Among these cases, 11 cases were perpetrated by family members and husband whereas rest of the cases have were perpetrated by non family people. w w w .w orecnepal.org
  15. 15. A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011 44 c. Rape Rape accounts for the third highest category of VAW. In all, 124 (8%) cases were reported. Neighbors are responsible for 73 percent of the reported cases, others and unidentified (15%) while family members (8%) and husbands (4%) combined are responsible for 12 percent of the cases. d. Murder Murder was reported in 47 cases and represented a relatively small proportion (3%) of the total VAW cases. 51.1% (or 24 out of 47 cases) of all reported cases of murders are committed by husbands, 17.0% (or 8 cases) was committed by other family membersand23.4%(or11cases)wascommittedbyneighbors. e. Sexual abuse Sexual abuse accounts for 64 cases (4%) of the total reported cases of VAW. 53.1% (34 of 64 cases) of sexual abuse is committed by neighbors. Husbands, other family members, and other/unidentified individuals account for 15.6% (10 cases), 10.9% (7 cases), and 20.3% (13 cases) of sexual abuse respectively. f. Trafficking Regarding trafficking of women, the data reveals that the highest number of cases (61%) (14 of 23 cases) is carried out by neighbors, followed by other/unidentified (35%), and family member (4%). 3. Age group and VAW While VAW cuts across all age groups, according to this year’s w w w .w orecnepal.org
  16. 16. 5 A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011 5 Anbeshi, it appears to be concentrated on women below 46 years of age. The most affected are in the 26-35 age group followed by the 16-25 age group. Almost 40% are below the age of 25 and 7% are below the age of sixteen, 34% are in the 26-35 age group, followed by 33% in the 16-25 age group, 16% in the 36-45 age group. 8% are above 46 years of age. 4. Education and VAW Literate women (41%) (630 of 1569 cases) constitute the highest category of VAW survivors. The women in the illiterate group accounted for about 18% of all survivors of violence. 15% of the total reported cases of violence occur among women with secondary education, followed by 11% among women with primary education, 11% among women with higher secondary education, and 4% among unidentified category. 5. Marital status and VAW The highest percentage of all reported cases of violence is found among married women accounting for 77% (1223 of 1569 cases). The group of unmarried women account for 15% followed by separated women (4%) and widow (3%). The findings once again demonstrate that home is not always a safe space for women. As Veena Das points out, home actually becomes a terrorizing spaceforwomenwhodon’t“properly”dotheirjob ofmaintaining an ideal home (Das, 2008). Although accurate information on the extent of domestic violence is difficult to obtain because of extensive underreporting, the data do bring to the fore that married women within their own homes are prone to most violence. w w w .w orecnepal.org
  17. 17. A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011 66 6. Occupation and VAW Women engaged in agriculture (42%) reported the most number of cases of violence against women. It is not a surprise for Nepal given that it is predominantly an agrarian economy. Agriculture is followed by household work (24%), labor (11%), and women who do “nothing” (10%). Note modern occupations such as government service, non government service, social work, and business make up about 9% of the total. 7. VAW survivor impacts Four different types of impact were identified: social, economic, physical, and mental. The mental effect (65%) on women is the highest under all categories of VAW, followed by physical effect (22%), social effect (8%), and economic effect (5%). 8. Ethnicity of survivors Irrespective of ethnicity, domestic violence stands out as the most reported form of VAW reiterating the fact that home is the most unsafe space for Nepali women. The highest number of cases are reported by the Hill Janjati (23%), followed by Chhettri (17%), and Terai Janjati (16%). Hill Dalit, Brahmin, and Terai non- Dalit all reported 11% of the total cases respectively. Terai Dalit was found to report 9% of the total cases and other marginalized groups only reported 2%. 9. Background of perpetrators The perpetrators in the age group 26-35 account for 30% of all perpetrators, followed by the age group 36-45 which accounts for 21%. 16-25 years account for 15% and the age group above 46 years accounts for 11%. Below 16 years accounts for less than w w w .w orecnepal.org
  18. 18. 7 A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011 7 10. Conclusion Tounderstandthewomenandtheviolencetheyface,itisimperative to focus on how the state constructs its policies on women related issues. Beyond the policies, it is equally imperative to understand the society’s predominant notion on women. Gendered violence has often gone unrecognized or has been treated as “normal” not just by the state but also by people who experience it. Therefore, the focus of the women’s movement and any anti VAW initiatives has to be on the experiences of those that have suffered VAW. It is necessary to focus on how women themselves understand and derive meaning out of those negative experiences. Women must be in center stage in order to find a common solution to end violence against women. Especially in the context of post conflict peace process, it becomes extra necessary to understand the changing context of violence. Understanding women’s notion of peace in order to understand what constitutes as violence and peace for the women themselves will become a segue to capturing the essence of violations and creating specific measures to address them. 11. Recommendations 1. Systematic studies on different forms of violence against one percent of the cases. Finally, 23% of the perpetrators’ age is unidentified. The highest percentage of perpetrators are from Hill janajatis consisting of 19% followed by an equal percentage of Chhetri and Terai janajatis, both at 16%. Terai non dalits and Brahmins are each found to be 12% of the total perpetrators. w w w .w orecnepal.org
  19. 19. A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011 88 women across a wider range of women is urgently needed to better understand the perspective of the women who go through these negative experiences. 2. Home is the most unsafe space for women especially when it comes to domestic violence. This is a critical issue that needs further addressing. It becomes imperative to investigate the reasons for women who choose to continue living under threat of domestic violence. 3. ThepositivestepfromthegovernmentofNepaltoestablish safe houses in different parts of Nepal must be applauded and its close collaboration with the Women Development Offices (WDOs) is a step towards sustainability of this support system for survivors. 4. Since almost 50% of women below the age of 16 are survivors of rape, it is pertinent that young girls receive extra attention in the healing process. As the findings in the recent research on rape shows that “for those with psychological problems, there was no support to enable them to find coping mechanisms and heal,” (WOREC/ ISIS WICCE -forthcoming publication) women have been further isolated and at time even forced to live in hiding. 5. The prevalent impunity for reported cases of VAW should end immediately. Impunity in Nepal has been further complicated in the post-war phase in which perpetrators affiliated with different political parties are protected by influential leaders. w w w .w orecnepal.org
  20. 20. 9 A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011 9 6. The research shows that mental health has emerged as a primary health impact for the survivors of VAW. There is an urgent need to train community level health workers as psycho social counselors who are sensitive to issues of VAW and who can readily identify symptoms of VAW and counsel survivors. 7. VAW is still under reported in Nepal. Efforts to document VAW cases by various feminist organizations should continue so that there is continuous pressure on the state to take it upon themselves the responsibility to reduce VAW. A sustained and systematic action from various feminist organizations will certainly pressure the state to cultivate political will to eradicate VAW. w w w .w orecnepal.org
  21. 21. A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011 1010 sfo{sf/L ;f/f+z zflGt ;dosf] lx+;f o'4n] h:t} sdhf] ® agfpg] vfnsf] x'G5 -:s] k®–xu; ® a'uf] {O;, @))#_ . of] egfO{n] ljut Ps jif{df ePsf dlxnf lx+;fsf 36gfx¿ ;d] 6L cGj] ifL jif{ k':ts tof® ug{ cf] ®] ssf cGj] ifL 6f] nLnfO{ ;3fpg lx+;f k|efljt dlxnfx¿nfO{ pT;fx k|bfg ub{5 . g] kfn Ps bzs nfdf] ;z:q åGåkl5 zflGt :yfkgfsf]  k|s[ofdf ®x] sf] 5 . ;+ljwfg n] vgsf] nflu dfluPsf]  klxnf] @ jif{sf] ;do ;dfKt ePsf] 8] 9 jif{ lalt;s] sf] kl5Nnf]  cj:yfdf 8f= afa'®fd e§®fO{nfO{ gofF k|wfgdGqL lgo'lQm ul®g'nfO{ Ps ;sf®fTds kIfsf] ¿kdf lng ;lsG5 . olt nfdf] hl6n ®fhg} lts k|ls|ofdf g] kfnL dlxnfx¿sf] cj:yf h:tfsf] t:t}  ®x] sf] 5 . o:tf] cj:yfdf ®x] sf g] kfnL dlxnfx¿n]  x®] s lbg lx+;f vk] ® afFRg' k®] sf] 5 . dlxnfx¿n] a9L dfqfdf cfˆg} 3®kl®jf®sf JolQmaf6 lx+;f em] Ng' k®] sf]  cj:yf ;a} eGbf ;+j] bgzLn lx+;fsf]  ¿k xf] . g] kfn zflGt k|s[ofdf ®x] sf]  5, t® klg g] kfnL dlxnfx¿n]  rfx] sf] h:tf] zflGt cem w] ®} 6f9f 5 . dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;f dlxnf ® k'?ifaLr ®x] sf]  c;dfg zlQm ;DaGwn] ubf{ ePsf] xf] . of] n} lËs lje] bsf] sf®0f ® k|ltkmn b'j} xf] . o;n] d'Vo ¿kdf dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;fTds sfo{nfO{ hgfpF5 . ;+o'Qm ®fi6«sf]  dxf;efsf]  kl®efiffdf æ;fdflhs lnËsf cfwf®df ul®g] ;Dk"0f{ sfo{x¿ h;af6 dlxnfnfO{ zf®Ll®s, dfgl;s, ;fdflhs ® of} lgs ¿kdf cf3ft k'Ub5Ù 8®, wfs, wDsL, cf] xf] bf ® x} l;otsf]  k|of] u u®L To; lsl;dsf] cf3ft k'¥ofpg] sfo{ ul®G5Ù jf ank"j{s dlxnfsf] :jtGqtf xgg ub} { JolQmut ® ;fdflhs hLjgdf k|efljt ub{5Æ eg] To:tf ;a} sfo{x¿nfO{ dlxnflj?4sf]  lx+;f elgG5 -;+o'Qm ®fi6« ;‹, !((#_ . ;+;f®df dlxnfdfly x'g]  lx+;fsf lj?4df cfjfh p7fpg] x¿sf] ;+Vof a9b} uO®x] sf] 5 . olt x'Fbfx'Fb} klg ljleGg sf®0fn] dlxnf lx+;fsf] d'2f n's] ® ®lx®x] sf]  5  . w w w .w orecnepal.org
  22. 22. 11 A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011 11 o;f] x'g'df ;f+:s[lts dfGotfsf] cfwf®df lx+;fnfO{ :jLsfg'{' d'Vo sf®0fsf]  ¿kdf ®x] sf] 5 . lx+;fsf kL8sx¿n] lx+;fTds Jojxf® ug] { dfq geO{ ;fdflhs ¿kdf :jLsfl®Psf dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;fsf Jojxf®x¿ Ps} ;fy l;Sb5g . ;dfh ® ®fHon] kL8sx¿nfO{ ;hfo lbg g;Sbf o:tf Jojxf®x¿nfO{ a9fjf ldNb5 . ufF7L s'®f s] xf]  eg]  w] ®} h;f] ;dfhdf zlQmdfly dlxnf ® k'?ifsf] c;dfg kx'Frsf sf®0fn] g} dlxnfdfly lx+;f x'G5 ® To;nfO{ ;lxG5 . of]  kl®k|] Ifdf g] kfndf dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;f lrGtfhgs ¿kdf a9b}  uPsf] 5 . o;n] dlxnf tyf lszf] ®Lx¿ lhGbuLe® lx+;fsf] lzsf® x'G5g eGg] s'®f lrq0f ub{5 . g] kfndf dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;fsf]  d'2fdf r'k nfu] ® a:g' Pp6f ljz] iftf ag] sf] 5 . dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;f cGt®f{li6«o d'2f ePsf] w] ®} ;do eO;s] sf] ePtf klg g] kfnL n} lËs gLltdf o;n] ev{®} dfq dxŒj ®fVg yfn] sf] 5 . g] kfnsf dlxnfx¿n] dlxnf clwsf® xggsf] lj?4df nuftf® cfjfh p7fpFb} cfO®x] sf 5g . To;sf] kl®0ffd :j¿k ;g @))* df 3®] n' lx+;f ® ;hfo P] g @)^% kfl®t x'g'sf ;fy} lj=;+= @)^& nfO{ dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;f lj?4sf] jif{ 3f] if0ff ul®Psf]  lyof] ]   . xfn 3®] n' lx+;f lj?4sf] sfg'g cfO;s] sf] ePtf klg To;df ljljw kfl®jfl®s cj:yfsf dlxnfx¿sf] ;+®If0fsf]  bfloTj ®fHon]  axg ug'{ kg] {Ù tyf kL8snfO{ b08 ;hfosf ;fy} kLl8t jf k|efljtnfO{ k'gM lx+;fdf kg{af6 arfpg cfjZos pkfox¿, h:t} kLl8tnfO{ sfg'gL, :jf:Yo, ;'®Iff, af; pknAw u®fpg', nufot dlxnfdfly x'g]  lx+;fsf] cGTosf nflu To;sf] d'Vo sf®0fnfO{ lgd"{n ug] { pkfox¿ ljsf; ug] { ®fHosf] bfloTjnfO{ ;dfj] z ul®g' cfjZos 5 . != dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;f / % ljsf; If] qx¿ dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;fsf] ljZn] if0f ug{sf nflu cf] ®] s g] kfnn]  hDdf !%^( j6f 36gfx¿ ;+sng u®] sf]  lyof]   . dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;fsf 36gfdWo] ;a} eGbf a9L k"jf{~rnaf6 ^^ k|ltzt, w w w .w orecnepal.org
  23. 23. A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011 1212 To;kl5 !@ k|ltzt dWodf~rn ® !! k|ltzt dWo klZrf~rnaf6 ;+sng ul®Psf lyP . To:t} !) k|ltzt ;'b"®–klZrdf~rn ® ! k|ltzt klZrdf~rnaf6 ;+sng ul®Psf]  lyof]   . @= lx+;fsf k|sf/x¿ s_ 3/] n' lx+;f dlxnf lx+;fsf s"n 36gfx¿dWo] ^& k|ltzt -!%^( 36gfx¿dWo] !))@ j6f_ 3®] n' lx+;f ®x] sf]  kfOof]   . To:t} !& k|ltzt ;fdflhs lx+;f, * k|ltzt anfTsf® ® $ k|ltzt xTof ePsf] kfOof]  . kl®jf® ® ®fHosf ;Gbe{df ljBdfg c;dfg zlQm ;DaGw ® clwsf® k|fKt JolQmx¿n] lx+;fsf nflu jftfj®0f agfpFb5g . 3®] n' lx+;fsf kL8sdWo] >Ldfg -&$Ü_ ® kl®jf®sf ;b:o -@^Ü_ ePsf] kfOof]  . v_ ;fdflhs lx+;f != dlxnf lx+;fdWo] ;fdflhs lx+;f bf] ;|f] k|sf®sf]  ® w] ®}  h;f] x'g] lx+;f ePsf] kfOof]  . dlxnf lx+;fdWo] hDdf @^^ j6f cyf{t !& k|ltzt o; k|sf®sf] lx+;f cGtu{t ePsf]  kfOof]  . ;fdflhs lx+;fdWo] (! k|ltzt l5d] sLaf6 ® ( k|ltzt cGoaf6 ePsf] b] lvof]  . @= cGj] ifLdf  af] S;Lsf]  cf®f] ksf 36gfx¿ ;fdflhs lx+;f cGt{ut kb{5 . o; jif{ af] S;Lsf] cf®f] ksf]  $* j6f 36gfx¿ ePsf] kfOof]  . To;dWo] !! j6f 36gfx¿ kl®jf®sf ;b:o ® >Ldfgaf6 ® afFsL 36gfx¿ kl®jf® aflx®sf JolQmx¿af6 ul®Psf]  kfOof]   . u_ anfTsf/ anfTsf®sf] 36gf ;+Vof t] ;|f] :yfgdf ®x] sf]  5, h'g !@$ j6f -*Ü_ 5 . anfTsf®sf] 36gfdWo] &# k|ltzt w w w .w orecnepal.org
  24. 24. 13 A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011 13 l5d] sLaf6, !% k|ltzt cGo ® klxrfg gePsf] af6 ePsf]  kfOof]  eg]  kl®jf®sf ;b:oaf6 -*Ü_ ® >Ldfgaf6 -$Ü_ u®L hDdf !@ k|ltzt 36gf ePsf] b] lvof]  . 3_ xTof cGo lx+;fsf] bfFhf] df xTof sd ePsf] kfOof] , h'g $& j6f -#Ü_ ®x] sf] 5 . h;dWo] %!=! k|ltzt -$& dWo] @$ j6f_ 36gf >Ldfgaf6, !&=) k|ltzt -* j6f_ kl®jf®sf ;b:oaf6 ® @#=$ k|ltzt l5d] sLaf6 ePsf] b] lvof]  . ª_ of} g b'Jo{jxf/ ;+slnt 36gfdWo] ^$ j6f -$Ü_ of} g b'Jo{jxf®sf]  36gf ®x] sf] kfOof]  . To;dWo] %#=! k|ltzt -^$ dWo] #$j6f_ of} g b'Jo{jxf® l5d] sLaf6 ePsf] b] lvof]  . >Ldfg, kl®jf®sf cGo ;b:o, ® cGo÷klxrfg gv'n] sf] JolQmaf6 qmdzM !%=^ k|ltzt -!) j6f_, !)=( k|ltzt -& j6f_ ® @)=# k|ltzt -!# j6f_ of} g b'Jo{jxf®sf]  36gf ePsf]  b] lvof]   . r_ a] rljvg dlxnf a] rljvgsf] ;DaGwdf, ;a} eGbf w] ®} ^) k|ltzt -@# df !$ j6f_ 36gfx¿ l5d] sLaf6, To:t} #% k|ltzt cGo÷klxrfg gv'n] sf]  ® $ k|ltzt kl®jf®sf]  ;b:oaf6 ePsf]  kfOof]   . #= pd] / ;d"x / dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;f dlxnf lx+;f ;a} pd] ® ;d"xsf] dlxnfx¿dfly x'g] ePtf klg o; jif{sf] cGj] ifLdf w] ®} h;f] dlxnf lx+;f $^ jif{eGbf sd pd] ® ;d"xdf a9L ®x] sf] kfOof]  . To;df klg @^–#% pd] ® ;d"xsf dlxnfx¿ a9L dfqfdf k|efljt ePsf] kfOof] eg] To;kl5 !^–@% pd] ® ;d"xsf dlxnfx¿ ®x] sf] kfOof]  . lx+;f k|efljt dlxnfdWo] $) k|ltzt @% jif{ d'lgsf ® & k|ltzt !^ jif{ w w w .w orecnepal.org
  25. 25. A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011 1414 d'lgsf ®x] sf] b] lvof]  . #$ k|ltzt @^–#% pd] ® ;d"xsf, ## k|ltzt !^–@% pd] ® ;d"x, !^ k|ltzt #^–$% pd] ® ;d"x ® * k|ltzt $^ jif{eGbf dflysf dlxnfx¿ ®x] sf]  kfOof]   . $= lzIff / dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;f ;+slnt 36gfx¿dWo] ;a} eGbf w] ®} cyf{t $! k|ltzt -!%^( df ^#)_ lx+;f k|efljt dlxnfx¿ ;fIf® ®x] sf]  b] lvof]   . lg®If® dlxnfx¿ !* k|ltzt, dfWolds txsf] lzIff kfPsf] !% k|ltzt, k|fylds txsf] lzIff kfPsf !! k|ltzt ® pRr dfWolds txsf]  lZfIff kfPsf !! k|ltzt dlxnfx¿dfly lx+;f ePsf] b] lvof]  . $ k|ltzt lx+;f k|efljt dlxnfx¿sf] z} lIfs cj:yf v'n] sf] lyPg . %= j} jflxs cj:yf / dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;f j} jflxs cj:yfsf]  cfwf®df x] bf{ o; ljZn] if0fn] ;a} eGbf w] ®}  cyf{t && k|ltzt -!%^( df !@@#_ ljjflxt dlxnfx¿ lx+;faf6 k|efljt ePsf] kfOof]  . To:t} !%Ü cljjflxt dlxnf, $Ü >Ldfg;Fu 5'l§P® a;] sf ® #Ü ljwjf dlxnfx¿dfly lx+;f ePsf] kfOof]  . o; tYofÍn]  km] l® klg s] b] vfpF5 eg] dlxnfx¿ cfˆg} 3®df klg ;'®lIft 5} gg . ljgf bf;sf] egfO{ cg';f® 3®nfO{ gd'gf 3® agfpg grfxg] x¿n]  ubf{ 3® g} dlxnf lx+;f ug] { ynf] aGg k'u]sf] 5 -bf;, @))*_ . 3®] n' lx+;fsf 36gfx¿sf] ;TotYo ;"rgf kfpg hl6n 5 lsgeg]  o;;Fu ;DalGwt 36gf Tolt ;f®f]  aflx® Nofpg] ul®+b} g ® klg o; k|ltj] bgn] ljjflxt dlxnfx¿ ;a} eGbf a9L lx+;f k|efljt ePsf]  s'®f cufl8 NofPsf] 5 . ^= k] zf / dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;f ;a} eGbf a9L -$@Ü_ s[lif k] zfdf cfj4 ePsf dlxnfx¿ lx+;f k|efljt ePsf] kfOof]  . g] kfn s[lif k|wfg b] z ePsf] n] ubf{{ of] s'g}  crDdsf] ljifo xf] Og . To:t} s[lif afx] s 3®fo;L sfd -@$Ü_, dhb'®L -!!Ü_ ® s'g} klg sfo{df ;+nUg gePsf] -!)Ü_ dlxnfx¿ w w w .w orecnepal.org
  26. 26. 15 A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011 15 lx+;f k|efljt ePsf] kfOof]  . cfw'lgs k] zf h:t} ;®sf®L ;] jf, u} ®;®sf®L ;] jf, ;fdflhs sfo{ ® Jofkf®df cfj4 ePsf lx+;f k|efljt dlxnfx¿ ( k|ltzt ®x] sf]  kfOof]   . &= dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;fsf c;/x¿ dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;fn] dlxnfx¿df rf® lsl;dsf M ;fdflhs, cfly{s, zf®Ll®s ® dfgl;s c;®x¿ x'g] u®] sf] yfxf eof]  . tL c;®x¿dWo] ;a} eGbf a9L dfgl;s -^%Ü_, To;kl5 zf®Ll®s -@@Ü_, ;fdflhs -*Ü_ ® cfly{s -%Ü_ ®x] sf]  kfOof]   . *= k|efljtx¿sf] hftLotf lx+;f k|efljt s"n dlxnfx¿dWo] ;a} eGbf w] ®} kxf8] hghftL -@#Ü_ ®x] sf] kfOof]  . To;kl5 If] qL -!&Ü_ ® t®fO{ hghftL -!^Ü_ ®x] sf]  kfOof]  . kxf8] blnt, a|fDx0f ® t®fO{ u} x| blnt a®fa® dfqdf -!!Ü_ ®x] sf]  kfOof]  . t®fO blnt (Ü ® cGo cNk;+Vos ;d"xsf @Ü ®x] sf]  kfOof]   . (= kL8ssf] k[i7e"ld ;a} eGbf w] ®} -#)Ü_ kL8sx¿ @^–#% pd] ® ;d"xsf ®x] sf]  kfOof]   . To;kl5 #^–$% pd] ® ;d"xsf -@!Ü_, !^–@% pd] ® ;d"xsf -!%Ü_ ® $^ jif{eGbf dflysf -!!Ü_ ®x] sf] b] lvof]  . !^ jif{eGbf sd pd] ®sf] kL8s ! k|ltzt eGbf sd ®x] sf] kfOof]  . cGtdf @#Ü kL8sx¿sf]  pd] ® yfxf x'g ;s] g . ;a} eGbf a9L -!(Ü_ kL8sx¿ kxf8]  hghfltsf ®x] sf]  kfOof]  eg]  If] qL ® t®fO{ hghftL b'j}  a®fa® ;+Vofdf -!^Ü_ ®x] sf] kfOof] . To;} u/L t®fO{ u} x| blnt ® a|fDx0f b'j} a®fa® -!@Ü_ sf] ;+Vofdf ®x] sf]  kfOof]   . !)= lgisif{ dlxnf ® pgLdfly x'g] lx+;fnfO{ a'‰g ®fHon] dlxnf;Fu ;DalGwt d'2fx¿df agfpg] gLltx¿nfO{ s] nfpg' cfjZos x'G5 . gLltx¿sf w w w .w orecnepal.org
  27. 27. A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011 1616 cnfjf, plQs} dxTjk"0f{ dlxnfx¿;DaGwL ;fdflhs d'No, dfGotf klg x'G5g . ;fdflhs n} lËs lx+;fnfO{ ®fHon] dfq xf] Og lx+;f k|efljtx¿n] ;d] t ;fdfGo ¿kdf lnG5g cyf{t To;nfO{ lx+;fsf]  ¿kdf ln+Ob} g . t;y{ dlxnf cfGbf] ng tyf dlxnf lx+;f lj?4sf]  s'g} klg cu|;®tf lx+;f k|efljt dlxnfx¿sf cg'ejx¿df s] lGb|t x'g'kb{5 . To:tf dlxnfx¿n] cfˆgf gsf®fTds cg'ejx¿nfO{ s;®L a'‰b5g ® To;sf] s] cy{ lgsfNb5g eGg] s'®fdf s] lGb|t x'g' h?®L x'G5 . dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;fsf] cGTosf nflu ;femf ;dfwfg lgsfNg dlxnfnfO{ s] Gb| ljGb'df ®flvg' kb{5 . vf;u®L åGåkZrft zflGt k|lqmofsf] ;Gbe{df lx+;fsf] kl®jlt{t ;Gbe{ ® ¿kx¿nfO{ a'‰g' cltl®Qm cfjZostf ePsf] 5 . dlxnfx¿sf nflu lx+;f ® zflGt s] xf] eGg] s'®f yfxf kfpgsf nflu lx+;f ® HofbtLsf sf®0fx¿ v'6ofpg' ® ltgnfO{ ;Daf] wg ug] { ljz] if pkfox¿ tTsfn klxNofpg' kb{5 . !!= ;'emfjx¿ s_ lx+;f h:tf] gsf®fTds cg'ejx¿af6 u'h] |sf dlxnfx¿sf]  af®] df lj:t[t ¿kdf a'‰g ljljw kl®l:ylt÷kl®k|] Ifsf dlxnfx¿nfO{ ;d] 6L dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;fsf ljleGg ¿kx¿af®] qmda4 cWoogx¿ ul®g' h?®L 5 . v_ vf;u®L 3®] n' lx+;fsf ;Gbe{df dlxnfx¿sf nflu 3® ;aeGbf c;'®lIft :yfg xf] / yk ;Daf] wg ul®g'kg] { of]  Ps ;+j] bgzLn d'2f xf]  . 3®] n' lx+;f vk] ® 3®leq a;L ®fVg] dlxnfx¿sf sf®0fx¿af®] cWoog ul®g' h?®L x'G5 . u_ g] kfnsf ljleGg efudf ;'®lIft cfjf; :yfkgf ug] { g] kfn ;®sf®sf]  ;sf®fTds sbd :jfut of] Uo 5 ® dlxnf w w w .w orecnepal.org
  28. 28. 17 A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011 17 ljsf; sfof{no;Fu ul/g] ;xsfo{ k|efljtx¿sf nflu ;xof] uL x'g'sf ;fy} lbuf] kgtkm{ klxnf] sbd xf]  . 3_ ;f] x| jif{ d'lgsf em08} %)Ü lszf]/Lx¿ anfTsf®sf]  lzsf® ePsfn] , lszf] ®Lx¿nfO{ cltl®Qm :jf:Yo÷k®fdz{ ;] jf pknAw u®fOg' cfjZos 5 . ª= ph'®L ul®Psf dlxnfdfly ePsf lx+;fsf 36gfx¿dfly x'g]  u®] sf] b08xLgtfsf] cGTo x'g'kb{5 . hgo'4kl5sf] cj:yfdf ljleGg ®fhg} lts kf6L{df cfj4 kL8sx¿nfO{ k|efjzfnL g] tfx¿n]  g}  ;+®If0f ugf{n] g] kfndf b08xLgtfsf] cj:yf emg} hl6n x'Fb} uO®x] sf]  5  . r= o; cWoogn] lx+;f k|efljt dlxnfx¿df d'Votof dfgl;s :jf:Yodf c;® ®x] sf]  b] vfPsf]  5  . To;} n]  dlxnfdfly x'g]  lx+;fsf] d'2fdf ;+j] bgzLn ;d'bflos :jf:Yo sfo{stf{x¿ ®  dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;fsf] nIf0f ;lhn} kQf nufpg ;Sg]nfO{ dgf] ;fdflhs ljdz{sf] tflnd lbOg' h?®L b] lvPsf]  5  . 5= g] kfndf dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;f cem} klg aflx® cfpg ;ls®x] sf] 5} g . dlxnf clwsf®df sfo{®t ljleGg ;‹;+:yfx¿n]  clen] vg ul®®x] sf]  dlxnf lx+;fsf 36gfx¿nfO{ lg®Gt®tf lbg'k5{, h;n] ubf{ dlxnf lx+;f Go"g ug{ ®fHonfO{ lg®Gt® ¿kdf bafa lbg ;lsG5 . dlxnfdfly x'g] lx+;f cGTosf nflu dlxnf clwsf®df sfo{®t ;‹;+:yfx¿n]  lbuf]  ® Jojl:yt cleofg ;~rfng u®L /fHodf dlxnf lx+;f cGTo ug]{ OR5fzlQm hufpg' kb{5 . w w w .w orecnepal.org
  29. 29. CHAPTER I w w w .w orecnepal.org
  30. 30. 19 Violence against Women Year BookA Year Book on Violence against Women 2011 CHAPTER IREVISITING ANBESHI'S HISTORY 1.1 Introducing Anbeshi Violence against women (VAW) has remained one of the most significant but least talked about issues that Nepal faces today. Although articles on VAW do appear in daily news papers and periodicals, there is a huge gap in systematic documentation of VAW at the national level. With an attempt to lessen the gap, since 2008, as a year book of WOREC Nepal, Anbeshi is striving to shed light not only on various forms of violence that are already widely discussed but also on lesser known forms. Anbeshi has sincerely attempted to be the voice of women who face violence everyday. In addition, Anbeshi also examines women’s resistance strategies and collective efforts to subvert the established norms so that women are no longer seen only as survivors but as change agents in their community. The documentation process was initially triggered by the Royal Coup of February 2005, which had led to increase violence and human rights violation of every form, including VAW. The documentation process gained momentum since 2007, after WOREC Nepal started releasing a report every four months and organizing media interactions on the trends and patterns of VAW. As a continuation of the quarterly updates, WOREC in 2008 launched a year book on VAW, which was the first attempt to compile cases of VAW from various sources, including WOREC’s own documentation from all its district chapters; cases reported in the media; cases documented by w w w .w orecnepal.org
  31. 31. A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011 20 other NGOs; and cases that came to Women’s Development Offices throughout Nepal. 1.2 Objectives of Anbeshi 1.2.1 To map out the scenario of VAW in Nepal and to pressure the government to formulate relevant laws, policies, and action plans towards eliminating VAW. 1.2.2 To identify key areas that will ensure survivors’ access to justice and lobbying the government to effectively address those areas. 1.2.3 To identify the needs of VAW survivors and advocate for relevant support mechanisms. w w w .w orecnepal.org
  32. 32. CHAPTER II w w w .w orecnepal.org
  33. 33. A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011 22 CHAPTER II VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN 2.1. Introduction Peace time violence is as debilitating as that of war (Scheper- Hughes and Bourgois, 2003). This statement resonates deeply with all the women who have allowed the WOREC Anbeshi team to document the violence they have suffered throughout the year. Nepal is trying to build peace after a decade long armed conflict. The most recent development of the appointment of Dr. Babu Ram Bhattarai as the new Prime Minister suggests a positive direction to the current stalemate that Nepal has witnessed over the past one and a half years in terms of writing the constitution. In this larger complicated political process, women in Nepal still are only at the fringe. The marginality of the Nepali women could not be betterstatedthanthroughthesharingoftheeverydayviolence they face. Domestic violence (DV) is by far the most sensitive form of violence that Nepali women encounter. Peace is in the process of being materialized in the Nepali polity. However, the peace that the Nepali women envision appears to be only a far-fetched dream. Violence is a phenomenon that varies in its presence, its character, and its severity. Therefore, the need is to analyse the ideology of violence, try to assess how and why various acts of violence are repudiated, ignored, denied, praised, or glorified (Jackman, 2002). Physical violence such as injury, disfigurement, bodily alteration, functional impairment, physical restraint or confinement and even death, infringe on our basic desire for physical survival and preservation of bodily w w w .w orecnepal.org
  34. 34. 23 A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011 integrity and autonomy. The psychological impacts include fear, anxiety, anguish, shame, or diminished self-esteem. The material outcomes include destruction, confiscation, or defacement of property or the loss of earnings; and the social outcomes comprises of public humiliation, stigmatization, exclusion, imprisonment, banishment or expulsion, which are all highly consequential and sometimes devastating (Jackman, 2002). Violence can have a prolonged effect often enduring long after physical injuries have healed. Violence against women is a manifestation of unequal power relations between women and men. It is both a result and a cause of gender inequality. It refers to violent acts that are primarily or exclusively committed against women. The United Nations General Assembly defines VAW as “any act of gender based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or mentalharmorsufferingtowomen,including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or in private life” (United Nations, 1993). People all over the world have been increasingly vocal about VAW. However there are still numerous instances when VAW is swept under the carpet. The primary reason for such covering up has been the acceptability of VAW due to cultural norms. Perpetrators of VAW do not just imbibe violent behavior, but simultaneously learn that these behaviors are socially acceptable. These learnings are reinforced as society and the state fail to punish perpetrators of VAW. At the core is the fact that VAW takes place and tolerated because women and men do not have equal access to power in most societies. w w w .w orecnepal.org
  35. 35. A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011 24 2.2. VAW in Nepal Violence against Women is disturbingly a growing trend in Nepal. It manifests as a continuum and encompasses an array of abuses targeted at women and girls throughout their life cycles. Silence around the issue has been a characteristic feature of VAW in Nepal. Although VAW has long been on the international agenda, it has only recently become important in the Nepali gender policy context. Women in Nepal have been continuously raising their voice against violations of women’s rights. But it was only in 2008 that Nepal witnessed the passage of the Domestic Violence and Punishment Act 2065 accompanied by the declaration of 2010 (BS 2067) as anti- VAW year. Although now that there is a law against domestic violence, the state obligation should expand to protection of women in diverse family forms, and incorporate measures beyond prosecution of private actors to encompass further protection from violence, including provision of legal support and health, safety, and shelter requirements for the survivor, and to develop the obligation to prevent VAW by addressing its rootcauses.Thestateshouldbecarefulnottoequatedomestic violence (DV) to VAW, and must define the broad range of women’s experiences of violence within familial relationships as well as outside, being cognizant of the multiple layers of discrimination that combine to heighten the vulnerability of women and their experience of violence. Equating DV with VAW will homogenize the diverse experiences of women, and fragment the experience of each individual woman by neglecting women’s experience of violence in the public sphere. w w w .w orecnepal.org
  36. 36. CHAPTER III w w w .w orecnepal.org
  37. 37. A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011 26 CHAPTER III VAW DATA ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS 3.1. Patterns of violence and prevalence rates Tracing back the findings from Anbeshi 2008 to present, it becomes obvious that VAW in Nepal follows a peculiar pattern with domestic violence as the most reported form of VAW. Hence, for many Nepali women home becomes an extended space of fear and domination. However, there are other severe forms of VAW that have lower reporting levels, but are extremely severe. WOREC Nepal has consistently collected data on VAW in order to contribute to the broader goal of tackling VAW. An institutionalized and regular collection of VAW has enabled the issue to get required visibility and also made contributions towards making it impossible to deem VAW as a personal, private, local or isolated event. The intention is not just a mechanical documentation but to create a push towards making the state more responsible to prevent violence by formulating and implementing appropriate laws for VAW and also ensuring that all concerned parties address the complexities of this critical issue. 3.2. VAW and five Development Regions A total of 1569 cases were collected by WOREC Nepal for the purpose of analysis of VAW. The highest percentage of VAW wasreportedfromtheEasterndevelopmentregionaccounting for 66 percent, followed by the Central development region with 12 percentand the Mid western development region with 11 percent. Likewise, the Far Western development region w w w .w orecnepal.org
  38. 38. 27 A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011 accounted for 10 percent and the Western region accounted for 1 percent of the total cases (Chart 3.1). Note that the maximum number of cases reported is from the Eastern region similar to the findings of past three Anbeshis. Chart 3.1 VAW in Five Development Regions As stated elsewhere, such trend is not only due to alarming prevalence of VAW in the East but also due to WOREC’s presence in the region for more than two decades. WOREC’s extensive work on women’s rights in the East has encouraged women to break their silence and seek justice. In addition, Eastern Nepal is far ahead in comparison to Western regions in terms of infrastructure and level of education and awareness. The five development regions as a geographic category are based on a specific ideology of the center and the periphery. Kathmandu, the capital is in the central region and every other place is in relation to Kathmandu. In order to devolve power and strengthen the sub national authorities, the Nepali state under the Late King Birendra’s initiative in the early 1970s divided Nepal into five development regions. 65% 12% 1% 12% 10% Region Eastern Central Western Mid-western Far-western Region of Survivor w w w .w orecnepal.org
  39. 39. A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011 28 However, the paradox is that the division is based on the politics of geography that maintains Kathmandu- the capital, as the center further reinforcing the centralized structure of the Nepali nation state. In the four years of WOREC’s documentation of VAW cases, it has become clear that the pattern of reporting of VAW cases in the five development regions maps on to the ideology of centreversusperiphery.VAWcasesarereportedthemostfrom the Eastern region, which is clearly the most developed part of the country if one is to exclude the bubble of Kathmandu valley.ThelatekingMahendra’s massiveindustrialinvestments in the East did bring, albeit temporary, prosperity in the region. The region boasts infrastructural development in terms of schools, industries etc that the Mid and the Far West still only dream to obtain. In this light, the Eastern region witnesses rigorous reporting of VAW cases because state’s development intervention has been the most in the region, which has enabled the inhabitants to increasingly live with dignity and be assertive about their rights. 3.3. Types of violence The encounter with domestic violence has been a fact of life for Nepali women. The Anbeshi this year again reveals this established fact. Domestic violence accounts for 64 percent of the total reported cases. Likewise, 17 percent accounts for social violence, 8 percent rape, and 4 percent murder. Unequal power relations in both the context of a family as well as the State and persons in authority comprise the context for violence. w w w .w orecnepal.org
  40. 40. 29 A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011 64%8% 4% 3% 1% 17% 3% Domestic violence Rape Sexual abuse Murder Trafficking Social violence Other Chart 3.2 Types of Violence Essentially, Nepali women have been victims of intimate violence. As the data on Chart 3.3 suggest, the husbands and other family members are reported to be the primary perpetrators. In addition, social violence is perpetuated by neighbors,thatispeoplewhonormallyinteractswitheveryday. Our data reinforce the larger ongoing global discussion on sexualviolenceandthetypeofperpetratorsinvolved.AsGavey (2005) points out, statistics of sexual violence reveal that in most cases the perpetrator is usually someone known or even intimate with a woman rather than a stranger. Therefore, it only becomes obvious that one has to look at how a home functions in order to understand domestic violence. According to Veena Das, a prominent South Asian anthropologist who works on “gender, violence, and female subjectivity, home is a space of many domesticities. Different members of the same householdexperiencehomedifferently”(Das,2008:292).The home is usually the place of masculine dominion in which the man expects the woman’s labor to secure the peace he desires Type of Event w w w .w orecnepal.org
  41. 41. A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011 30 (Price 2002). “Home thus can become a terrorizing space for women who don’t “properly” do their job of maintaining an ideal home“ (Das, 2008: 292). Chart 3.3 VAW According to Perpetrators Perpetrators w w w .w orecnepal.org
  42. 42. CHAPTER IV w w w .w orecnepal.org
  43. 43. A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011 32 Husband 74% Family member 26% CHAPTER IV VAW BY TYPE OF PERPETRATORS 4.1. Domestic violence Out of the total 1569 cases documented at WOREC Nepal, domestic violence accounts for a total of 1002 cases (64%) making domestic violence the single biggest category of VAW (Chart 4.1). Husbands (74%) and family members (26%) account for all perpetrators of domestic violence. Chart 4.1 Domestic Violence by Type of Perpetrators Domestic violence includes violence that takes place in one’s own home: polygamy, dowry-related abuses, denial of food and lodging, battering, allegations of witchcraft and torture, character assassination, and other forms of discrimination and mental torture. Women from all ethnic groups, classes, ages, and geographical areas suffer from domestic violence. Past Anbeshis have continuously pointed this out and thetrend continues this year as well. Many feminists have pointed out that women tend Domestic Violence w w w .w orecnepal.org
  44. 44. 33 A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011 to blame themselves for domestic violence since they have internalized their husband’s accusations of failing to create an ideal home. Others cannot leave abusive relationships since their social networks derive from their position as wives (Abraham 2000; Gelles & Strass 1988; Hoff, 1990). However, there are more variables at play. Women continue to stay in abusive relationships because there is no other outlet for women. Since majority women are not economically independent, it becomes impossible to get out of a marriage and try to live independently. In addition, those who courageously get out of abusive relationships continue to face social stigma of being single that women think more towards reconciliation to resolve the issue of domestic violence rather than separate. Our research continues to suggest that domestic violence has continued to intensify even after the armed conflict is over in Nepal. Almost stagnant post-conflict economy has increased economic marginalization and hardship for women in various ways. A sudden increase in lack of economic opportunities and ever increasing inflation in the country has forced women to seek employment mostly in the informal sector thereby increasing women’s vulnerability to trafficking and sexual slavery. 4.2. Social violence Social violence is the second most frequent type of violence. A total of 266 cases or 17 percent of the total VAW cases were under this category. Ninety One percent of social violence was w w w .w orecnepal.org
  45. 45. A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011 34 91% 9% Neighbor Other & Unidentified perpetrated by neighbors while 9 percent was by others (25 out of 266 cases) (Chart4.2). The fact that there is no reporting of social violence by the husband and family may be the result of the definition of social violence, that is, violence outside the family. Social violence includes discriminatory practices based on caste, acid spraying, labor exploitation, allegations of witchcraft, threats, verbal abuse, character assassination, and feeding of urine and feces. Chart 4.2 Social Violence by Type of Perpetrators Social Violence For the purpose of Anbeshi, allegations of witchcraft fall under social violence. This year we saw a total of 48 cases of witchcraft accusations. Among these cases, 11 cases are perpetrated by family members and husband whereas rest of the cases have been perpetrated by non family people. It is not surprising that the women from the most marginalized communitiesorthosewomen withtheleastpowerandagency are more often the survivors of allegations of witchcraft. In other words, women who are in the bottom rung of social w w w .w orecnepal.org
  46. 46. 35 A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011 hierarchy become targeted for witchcraft allegations. These allegations are not an isolated event but usually follow many instances of physical, sexual and/or verbal abuse. Note that such allegations are mostly linked with gender based factors such as sense of supremacy, traditional opinions on the role of each family member, issues regarding land ownership, economic dependency, etc. 4.3. Rape Rape accounts for the next highest category of VAW. In all, 124 (8%) cases were reported. Neighbors are responsible for 73 percent of the reported cases, others and unidentified 15 percent, while family members (8%) and husbands (4%) combined are responsible for 12 percent of the cases (Chart 4.3). There is a very little reporting of rape by husbands. Inadequate understanding of marital rape could be an important factor behind this low figure. Chart 4.3 Rape by Type of Perpetrators Husband 4% Family member 8% Neighbor 73% Other & Unidentified 15% Rape w w w .w orecnepal.org
  47. 47. A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011 36 In order to understand the context of marital rape, it is important to bring into discussion notions of consent that Veena Das shed light on through her work. According to Das (2008), “the woman’s consent to male violence has a taken –for-granted character, which explains why marital rape has been most difficult to legislate in most liberal regimes” (293). Within a marriage, a woman implicitly becomes a property of her husband making the male the guardian. Hence the man as the guardian has access and control over his property and the assumptionisthatconsentisprovided bydefaultsincethewife is his property. As shown by the national research on rape by WOREC and ISIS WICCE (forthcoming publication), it is difficult to identify and document marital-rape related cases since talking about rape within marriage remains as a taboo which is kept well hidden and institutionalized within the family structure. However, rape outside of marriage takes a different turn since it becomes an “offense against the property rights of the man who is her guardian” (Das, 2008: 292). But in no situation, does rape become an offense against the woman’s bodily integrity. Note that the greatest number of rape cases are perpetrated by neighbors contradicting the popular myth that it is usually dangerous unknown men (strangers) who are most likely to assault women. Previous Anbeshi findings also indicated that the greatest risk of rape against women comes from men they know, often intimately. This is a very disturbing aspect of rape as the rape survivor in such instances may find it very difficult toseekjusticeasitcouldmeangoingagainstone’sownpeople, sometimes even close relations. Instead of support the rape w w w .w orecnepal.org
  48. 48. 37 A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011 survivor may be pressurized to accept what has happened. Similarly there have also been instances when the people who are meant to protect these women may support the perpetrators, usually for a bribe. The case studies that have been collected have revealed that two distinct types of pressure may be felt by the survivors of rape cases. The first type of pressure is an attempt by the family members to marry the rape survivor to the perpetrator if in case the survivor is unmarried. Rather than bringing the perpetrator to court, the tendency to give social and cultural legitimacy to a heinous crime like rape only further violates the right of the survivor. The second type of pressure that the survivor experiences when she attempts to report the case is the massive pressure she gets from her family members to suppress the event. The reasons on the one hand are bringing shame to the family. However on the other hand, it is due to the fear of reprisals from the perpetrators who are usually the close relatives of the survivor. The case studies have also revealed that perpetrators of rape especially in the case of Dalit women are often men from privileged background against whom locals are reluctant to bring any case. Fear of public humiliation, beatings, and rape keep Dalit women silent. In addition, it is usually the upper caste people in positions of power who will turn a deaf ear to the Dalit women even if they were to report their cases. As Anbeshi 2010 reveals, “majority of the crimes against Dalit w w w .w orecnepal.org
  49. 49. A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011 38 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Husband Family member Neighbor Other & Unidentified No. of cases women (especially rape) do not get reported to the police for fear of social ostracism and threat to personal safety and security” (Anbeshi, 2010: 58). 4.4. Murder Murder was reported in 47 cases and represented a relatively small proportion (3%) of the total VAW cases. 51.1 percent (or 24 out of 47 cases) of all reported cases of murders are committed by husbands, 17.0 percent (or 8 cases) was committed by other family members and 23.4 percent (or 11 cases) was committed by neighbors (Chart 4.4). Murder Chart 4.4 Murder by Type of Perpetrators Dowry has been the commonly cited reason for murder and in most cases, excessive beating, sustained humiliation in the family or in extreme cases rape has preceded murder. The cases are primarily from Central and Eastern Nepal. The dowry related cases of murder also highlight the fact that the girls are married young and perhaps are not assertive enough to w w w .w orecnepal.org
  50. 50. 39 A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Husband Family member Neighbor Other & Unidentified No. of cases lodge official complaints or report to their maternal family members. In any case, the cases of murder also show that it is primarily ones own family that are the perpetrators reiterating the already established fact that women are the most unsafe at their own homes. 4.5. Sexual abuse Sexual abuse accounts for 64 cases (4%) of the total reported cases of VAW. 53.1 percent (34 of 64 cases) of sexual abuse is committed by neighbors. Husbands, other family members, and other/unidentified individuals account for 15.6 percent (10 cases), 10.9 percent (7 cases), and 20.3 percent (13 cases) of sexual abuse respectively (Chart 4.5). Chart 4.5 Sexual Abuse by Type of Perpetrators Sexual Abuse 4.6. Trafficking Regarding trafficking of women, the data revealed that the highest number of cases (61%) (14 of 23 cases) was carried w w w .w orecnepal.org
  51. 51. A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011 40 4% 61% 35% Family members Neighbor Other & Unidentified out by neighbors, followed by other/ unidentified (35%), and family members (4%) (Chart 4.6). Chart 4.6 Trafficking by Type of Perpetrators Trafficking w w w .w orecnepal.org
  52. 52. CHAPTER V w w w .w orecnepal.org
  53. 53. 42 Violence against Women Year BookA Year Book on Violence against Women 2011 CHAPTER VAGE OF SURVIVORS 5.1 Age While VAW cuts across all age groups, according to this year’s Anbeshi, it appears to be concentrated on women below 46 years of age. The most affected are in the 26-35 age group followed by the 16-25 age group. Almost 40 percent are below the age of 25 and 7 percent are below the age of 16 (Chart 5.1.a). Thirty four percent are in the 26-35 age group, followed by 33 percent in the 16-25 age group, 16 percent in the 36-45 age group. 8 percent are above 46 years of age. These figures underscore the fact that out of every five survivors, as many as three are below the age of 35. The age profile (Chart 5.1.b) shows the types of violence most affecting different age groups. Among all types of VAW, domesticviolenceisthemostcommon.Itaccountedforalmost 64 percent of all the survivors in the different age groups. Domestic violence also follows the overall trends pointed out earlier. There are however some differences between the typesofviolence encountered amongthedifferent agegroups. Chart 5.1.a Distribution of Age of Survivors 7% 33% 34% 16% 8% 2% Age of Survivor Below 16 16-25 26-35 36-45 Above 46 Unidentified w w w .w orecnepal.org
  54. 54. 43 A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011 Domestic violence 18% Rape 50% Sexual abuse 8% Murder 1% Trafficking 8% Social violence 8% Other 7% Chart 5.1.b Types of VAW by Age Group 5.2 Below 16 age group It is rather shocking that rape accounts for almost half (50%) of alltheVAWcasesinthisagegroup.Thisisfollowedbydomestic violence (18%), and trafficking (8%), while sexual abuse and social violence are almost equally distributed (Chart 5.2). Chart 5.2 Distribution of VAW Survivors below 16 years Age Group Below 16 w w w .w orecnepal.org
  55. 55. A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011 44 5.3 The 16-25 age group The 16-25 age group accounted for 33 percent of VAW surveyed. Domestic violence was the highest in this age group (61%), followed by social violence (16%), sexual abuse (7%), rape (7%), murder (2%) followed by trafficking (2%) (Chart 5.3). Chart 5.3. Distribution of VAW Survivors in the 16-25 Age Group 5.4. The 26-35 age group The 26-35 age group is the single largest group among survivors of VAW, accounting for 34.7 percent of all survivors. Regarding the types of violence reported domestic violence is the highest (72%) followed by social violence (17%), with similar percentages for rape and murder (Chart 5.4). 16-25 Age Group w w w .w orecnepal.org
  56. 56. 45 A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011 Domestic violence 71% Rape 3% Sexual abuse 1% Murder 2% Social violence 23% 5.5 The 36-45 age group This age group accounted for about 16 percent of the total survivors. Similar to the other age groups, domestic violence accounted for the largest category (71%), followed by social violence (23%), with smaller percent of rape and murder (Chart 5.5). Chart 5.5 Distribution of VAW Survivors in the 36-45 Age Group Chart 5.4 Distribution of VAW Survivors in the 26-35 Age Group 36-45 Age Group 26-35 Age Group w w w .w orecnepal.org
  57. 57. A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011 46 5.6 The above 45 years age group Chart 5.6 shows that for those above 46 years of age, domestic violence constituted the largest category (65%), followed by social violence (20%) and murder and rape. This group was about 8 percent of the total survivors. Chart 5.6 Distribution of VAW Survivors above 45 years The following points are important to note: - It is very troubling to note that rape accounts for almost half (50%) of all the VAW in the below 16 age group. Subjected to such violence at a formative age has larger consequences in life. Essentially, security of young girls is at stake and it is imperative that the state comes up with measures to protect young girls. However this also raises questions on reporting the cases. One would require more research to decipher if it is more reporting of the cases of younger girls and less reporting of older women. A recent national research on rape by WOREC and ISIS WICCE Domestic violence 65%Rape 4% Sexual abuse 2% Murder 7% Social violence 20% Other 2% Above 45 Age Group w w w .w orecnepal.org
  58. 58. 47 A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011 (forthcoming publication) shows that reporting and documentation of rape cases is still very marginal. - The highest percentage of murder among the age group of 26-35 suggests that mostly married women are survivors of murder. Murder could be the ultimate form of domestic violence clearly suggesting that security of women within homes are at risk. However, more research needs to be conducted on the specifics of murder and its relation with marital status. - Sexual abuse is highest among the age group 16-25 years. This finding suggests a patriarchal notion of sexuality in which a certain age group women become sexual objects reinforcing the stereotypical values on women. - Trafficking is reported by a very small number of survivors and over 90 percent are reported by those below 35 years of age. - As mentioned earlier, domestic and social violence stand out as the biggest threat to all age groups under consideration. For other types of violence some age groups may be more vulnerable than others. For instance, rape is concentrated on the below 16 years age group and sexual abuse is concentrated on 16-25 age group. w w w .w orecnepal.org
  59. 59. CHAPTER VI w w w .w orecnepal.org
  60. 60. 49 Violence against Women Year BookA Year Book on Violence against Women 2011 CHAPTER VI 18% 40% 11% 15% 12% 4% Illiterate Literate Primary Secondary Higher education Unidentified EDUCATION AND VAW 6.1 Educational background of the survivor Literate women (40%) (630 of 1569 cases) constitute the highest category of VAW survivors. This figure is significantly different than Anbeshi 2010 in which we saw an even split betweenliterateandilliterategroups(Anbeshi,2010).However though if we include those who have gone beyond literacy and actually completed some years of formal schooling, then in totality the literate and women with higher education seem to be reporting higher levels of VAW than illiterate women. The crucial difference this year is that there are fewer cases reported from the illiterate women. The decreasing reporting of VAW cases by illiterate women raises important questions: Is there actually a reduction of VAW, hence less reporting or the environment to report VAW cases has become less and less conducive for illiterate women who are primarily in rural Nepal? Chart 6.1.a Education of VAW Survivors Education of Survivor w w w .w orecnepal.org
  61. 61. A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011 50 Domestic violence appears to be the most common among all the groups followed by social violence. 15 percent of the total reported cases of violence occur among women with secondary education, followed by 11 percent among women withprimaryeducation, 11percentamongwomenwith higher secondary education, and 4% among unidentified category (Chart 6.1.b) Chart 6.1.b Types of VAW and Education Primary and higher secondary education emerge as the factor most strongly associated with reduced prevalence of all forms of violence, which is 11 percent each respectively. Women with primary and secondary education may be better exposed to strategies to deal with any VAW related problems they face. They may be better able to understand their legal rights, and hence assert themselves to claim their legal rights. Higher education opens up access to earning, thus decreasing economic dependence on their husbands, Type of Vaw and Education w w w .w orecnepal.org
  62. 62. 51 A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011 65%6% 2% 3% 1% 22% 1% Domestic violence Rape Sexual abuse Murder Trafficking Social violence Other fathers and brothers. Women may be able to also question discriminatory practicesathome.Inaddition,highereducation mayincreaseconfidence,and increasedself-esteem increasing more interaction with people outside the home. This becomes especially important when home is not the safest space for women to share their issues. These factors lead to wider experience and an enhanced ability to deal with violence. However, important to keep in mind is that only speaking up about violence does not always enable women to access justice. It can also backfire in the shape of retribution or other harmful activities by the perpetrators and their allies sometimes further discouraging women to speak up and thus furthering silence. 6.2. Violence against illiterate groups The women in the illiterate group accounted for about 18 percent of all survivors of violence and domestic violence accounted for almost 65 percent of all the violent acts. It was followed by social violence, then rape and finally murder. Chart 6.2 Types of Violence against Illiterate Groups Illiterate w w w .w orecnepal.org
  63. 63. A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011 52 66% 7% 3% 3% 2% 16% 3% Domestic violence Rape Sexual abuse Murder Trafficking Social violence Other 6.3. Violence reported by literate survivors The majority (41%) of all survivors studied were literate. The most common form of violence experienced by this group was domestic violence (66%) followed by social violence (16%), and rape (7%). These three categories account for 89 percent of the reported cases (Chart 6.3.a). Chart 6.3.b compares illiterate with literate and educated, with the latter group proportionately reporting all types of VAW more. Chart 6.3.a Types of Violence Reported by literate Survivors Chart 6.3.b. Illiterate Groups Compared with Literate and Educated Groups Literate 0 200 400 600 800 1000 Domestic violence Rape Sexual abuse Murder Trafficking Social violence Other No. of cases Literate & educated Illiterate w w w .w orecnepal.org
  64. 64. 53 A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011 62% 17% 6% 2% 12% 1% Domestic violence Rape Sexual abuse Trafficking Social violence Other 6.4. Violence reported by survivors with primary education VAW survivors with primary education reported domestic violence as the most frequent (62%), followed by rape (17%) and social violence (12%) (Chart 6.4). Chart 6.4 Types of Violence Reported by Survivors with Primary Education 6.5. Violence reported by survivors with secondary education Survivors with secondary education accounted for 15 percent of the total survivors. Regarding different types of violence reported by this group, the most frequently reported was domestic violence (63%), followed by social violence (16%) and sexual abuse (7%). Violence Reported by Survivors with Primary Education w w w .w orecnepal.org
  65. 65. A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011 54 59% 8% 7% 3% 17% 6% Domestic violence Rape Sexual abuse Murder Social violence Other 63% 5% 7% 3% 2% 16% 4% Domestic violence Rape Sexual abuse Murder Trafficking Social violence Other Chart 6.5 Types of Violence Reported by Srvivors with Secondary Education Violence Reported by Survivors with Secondary Education Violence Reported by Survivors with Higher Secondary Education 6.6. VAW survivors with higher secondary education Survivors with higher secondary education accounted for 11 percent of the total survivors. This group also reported domestic violence (59%) as most frequent form of VAW followed by social violence (17%) and rape (8%). Chart 6.6 Violence Reported by VAW Survivors with Higher Secondary Education w w w .w orecnepal.org
  66. 66. 55 A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011 Some important points to note: - Given other variables in the Nepali society, literacy and education alone are not adequate factors for reducing violence against women. It is clear from the data on education since there is a general trend of higher rate of violence among women with some education. What does this mean? One way to look at it could be that more women are at least receiving a basic level of education, while on the other hand there is no change in terms of mindsets of people who engage in violent acts. In other words, violence against women will not decrease without larger structural changes and changes of social values that people imbibe. Education does play a substantial role in enabling structural or cultural changes. However, for education to take effect, the educational system has to be remodeled. Our data suggest that even with some form of education women’s security is still threatened. - The data that rape among literate group is higher than illiterate group suggest some or all of the following: o In the case of the Terai, literacy may result in seeking spouses who are equally or more literate resulting in higher bride price and violence associated with the failure to pay such a price. o Reporting of marital rape is constrained by women’s understandingand interpretation of the phenomenon (i.e. many women would accept that their husbands have the right to engage in sexual acts whenever they wanted, and that consent is irrelevant). w w w .w orecnepal.org
  67. 67. CHAPTER VII w w w .w orecnepal.org
  68. 68. 57 Violence against Women Year BookA Year Book on Violence against Women 2011 CHAPTER VIIMARITAL STATUS AND VAW SURVIVORS 7.1. Marital status of the survivor The highest percentage of all reported cases of violence is found among married women accounting for 77 percent (1223 of 1569 cases). The group of unmarried women account for 15 percent followed by separated women (4%) and widow (3%) (Chart 7.1.a). The findings once again demonstrate that home is not always a safe space for women. As Veena Das points out, home actually becomes a terrorizing space for women who don’t “properly” do their job of maintaining an ideal home (Das, 2008). Although accurate information on the extent of domestic violence is difficult to obtain because of extensive underreporting, the data do bring to the fore that married women within their own homes are prone to most violence (Chart 7.1.b). Chart 7.1.a. Marital Status of the Survivors 15% 78% 4% 3% 0% Unmarried Married Seperated Widow Other Marital Status w w w .w orecnepal.org
  69. 69. A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011 58 Chart 7.1.b Type of Violence Reported by Survivors with Various Marital Status 7.2 Married women Marriage as a social institution is a sexual contract in which abstract consent is given by a woman to the head or the guardian of the family (husband) who has the sole control over operationswithinoneshome(Das,2008).Asmentionedearlier domestic violence is the most common form of violence that married women face. After domestic violence, social violence is the second highest form of violence that married women face. Describing the type of violence encountered, 72 percent (877 of 1223) married women reported domestic violence, followed by social violence (18%) (223 of 1223), murder (3.4%) (41 of 1223) and rape (3.5%) (36 of 1223 cases). Violence Reported by Survivors with Various Marital Status w w w .w orecnepal.org
  70. 70. 59 A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011 Chart 7.2 Types of Violence among Married Women 7.3. Unmarried women Violence reported by the unmarried group is 15 percent (238of 1569 cases). Rape accounts for the highest (35.7%) (85 of 238 cases), followed by domestic violence (22.2%) (53 of 238 cases), sexual abuse (16.8%) (40 of 238 cases), social violence (9.7%) (17 of 238 cases), and trafficking (7.1%) (17 of 238 cases). The fact that rape accounts for the highest form of violence among unmarried women perhaps suggests that unmarried women are vocal about it than married women. Since abstract consent is part of the sexual contract that comes with marriage, there is a tendency not to talk about marital rape. However, the case with the unmarried is different. Violence among Married Women w w w .w orecnepal.org
  71. 71. A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011 60 Chart 7.3 Types of Violence among Unmarried Women 7.4. Separated Women Violence reported by women who have been separated is 4 percent, which is significantly lower compared to married women. However, even in this category, domestic violence is the highest form of violence (80%) (46 of 57 cases). It is followed by social violence, which is 14 percent (8 of 57 cases). Chart 7.4 Violence Reported by Survivors who have been Separated Violence among Unmarried Women Violence among Separated Women w w w .w orecnepal.org
  72. 72. 61 A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011 7.5. Violence and Widows Violence against widows is also relatively low (2.4%). 57 percent (24 of 42 cases)of the total reported cases within this category is of domestic violence followed by social violence (26.2%) (11 of 42 cases). Chart 7.5 Violence Reported by Widows Violence Reported by Widows w w w .w orecnepal.org
  73. 73. CHAPTER VIII w w w .w orecnepal.org
  74. 74. 63 Violence against Women Year BookA Year Book on Violence against Women 2011 CHAPTER VIII 42% 24% 11% 1% 2% 5% 1% 10% 4% Agriculture Household work Labor Govt. service Non-govt. service Business Social work Nothing Other & Unidentified OCCUPATION AND VIOLENCE 8.1. Occupation of the survivor and types of violence Women engaged in agriculture (42%) reported the most number of cases of violence against women (Chart 8.1.a). It is not a surprise for Nepal given that it is predominantly an agrarian economy. Agriculture is followed by household work (24%), labor (11%), and women who do “nothing” (10%). Modern occupations such as government service, non government service, social work, and business make up about 9% of the total. Chart 8.1.a Occupation of the Survivors Domestic violence is reported as the most common form of VAW by majority women engaged in varied forms of occupation (Chart 8.1.b). This fact is further substantiated by chart 8.1.c. in which distribution of VAW is analyzed based on traditional and modern occupations. Occupation w w w .w orecnepal.org
  75. 75. A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011 64 Chart 8.1.b Occupational Status and Types of VAW Chart 8.1.c. Types of VAW by Traditional and Modern Occupations Traditional occupation includes agriculture, household, and labor while modern includes government services, business, Occupation Traditional and Modern Occupations w w w .w orecnepal.org
  76. 76. 65 A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011 73% 5% 3% 2% 0% 16% 1% Domestic violence Rape Sexual abuse Murder Trafficking Social violence Other and social work (Chart 8.1.c). Although the sample is relatively small, it is interesting to note that even for modern occupations, domestic violence predominates. 8.2. Agriculturists and types of VAW Outof42percentofthewomenthatareengagedinagriculture, 73 percent reported domestic violence as the most common form of VAW followed by social violence, which is 16 percent. Rape accounts for 5 percent and sexual abuse accounts for 3 percent (Chart 8.2). Chart 8.2 Agriculturists and Types of VAW 8.3. Household work and types of VAW Violence for those engaged in household work (24%) is also quite similar to those engaged in agriculture, with domestic violence (67.4%) and social violence (18%) dominating and followed by rape (4.7%), murder (4.5%), and sexual abuse (3.6%) (Chart 8.3). Agriculture w w w .w orecnepal.org
  77. 77. A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011 66 60% 7%2% 4% 4% 21% 2% Domestic violence Rape Sexual abuse Murder Trafficking Social violence Other Chart 8.3 Household Work and Types of VAW 8.4. Laborer and VAW Out of the total respondents, 11 percent reported their occupation as laborer. Out of them, 60 percent reported as going through domestic violence followed by social violence (21%), and rape (6.7%) (Chart 8.4). Chart 8.4 Laborer and Types of VAW Household Work Labor w w w .w orecnepal.org
  78. 78. 67 A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011 61% 33% 6% Domestic violence Social violence Other 68% 5% 3% 3% 1% 19% 1% Domestic violence Rape Sexual abuse Murder Trafficking Social violence Other 8.5. Business and VAW Only about 5 percent women reported being in business. However even their pattern of violence was not very different, with domestic (68%) and social violence (19%) dominating, followed by rape (5%) (Chart 8.5). Chart 8.5 Business and Types of VAW 8.6. Social work and types of VAW Around one percent said that they were in social work. Majority of the respondents of this category only reported domestic and social violence (Chart 8.6). Chart 8.6 Social Work and Types of VAW Business Social Work w w w .w orecnepal.org
  79. 79. A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011 68 8.7. Women who do “nothing” and VAW Note that 10 percent of the survivors reported that they did “nothing” for work. This is a very important category because the survivors reported the highest number of rape cases (49 out of 124) (39.5%) out of total cases of rape reported for Anbeshi2011.Withinthecategory,reporteddomesticviolence is 31%, sexual abuse (15%), and social violence (10%) (Chart 8.7). Chart 8.7 Doing “Nothing” and Types of VAW Critical analysis is needed for the category of survivors who reported as doing no work. Why is it that rape is the most reported cases in this category? How is sexual violence that women face linked with the notion of the survivor’s own worth which can be reflected by how important they consider themselves? One hypothesis could be that the self esteem and self worth of the women who are survivors of rape is scarred deeply. It will be productive to take up the issue of rape survivors for future Anbeshi research as the national research on rape that WOREC and ISIS WICCE conducted in 2010 has not addressed this issue of self worth and rape. 30% 31% 15% 4% 4% 10% 6% Domestic violence Rape Sexual abuse Murder Trafficking Social violence Other Doing 'nothing' w w w .w orecnepal.org
  80. 80. CHAPTER IX w w w .w orecnepal.org
  81. 81. A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011 70 CHAPTER IX 8% 5% 22% 65% Impacts: Social Economic Physical Mental IMPACTS OF VIOLENCE ON SURVIVOR 9.1. Types of impact on VAW survivors Four different types of impact were identified: social, economic, physical, and mental. The mental effect (65%) on women is the highest under all categories of VAW, followed by physical effect (22%), social effect (8%), and economic effect (5%) (Chart 9.1.a). Chart 9.1.a Types of Impact on VAW Survivors Domestic violence has been reported to have the highest number of mental and physical impacts among the survivors (Chart 9.1.b). Chart 9.1.b. Different Types of Impact on VAW Survivors Types of Impact on VAW Survivors Impact w w w .w orecnepal.org
  82. 82. 71 A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011 7% 6% 21% 66% Social Economic Physical Mental 9.2. Impact of domestic violence Survivors (66%) reported mental effect as the cardinal effect due to domestic violence. Physical effect (21%) was second, followed by social impact (7%), and economic impact (6%) as shown in chart 9.2. Chart 9.2 Impact of Domestic Violence 9.3. Impact of social violence Mental impact is the highest accounting for 60 percent (160 of 266 cases) in the case of social violence. Physical impact was 28 percent (73 of 266 cases), social impact 8 percent (23 of 266 cases), and economic impact 4 percent (11 of 266 cases) due to social violence (Chart 9.3). 9.4. Impact of rape Rape survivors reported mental impact to be dominant (63%) (78 out of 124 cases). It was followed by physical impact 23 percent (23 of 124 cases), social impact 11 percent (14 of 124) and economic impact 3 percent (3 of 124 cases). Impact of Domestic Violence w w w .w orecnepal.org
  83. 83. A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011 72 11% 3% 23% 63% Social Economic Physical Mental 8% 4% 28% 60% Social Economic Physical Mental Chart 9.4 Impact of Rape on Survivors Chart 9.3. Impact of Social Violence Impact of Social Violence Impact of Rape on Survivors 9.5. Impact of sexual abuse on survivors Mental impact (56%) (36 out of 54) is found to be dominant among survivors of sexual abuse. Physical impact is 27 percent (17 of 64 cases), and social impact is 16 percent (10 out of 64 cases) w w w .w orecnepal.org
  84. 84. 73 A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011 22% 9% 69% Social Physical Mental 16% 1% 27% 56% Social Economic Physical Mental Chart 9.5 Impact of Sexual Abuse on Survivors 9.6. Impact of trafficking on survivors Mental impact is the highest that is 69 percent (16 of 23 cases) among the survivors of trafficking followed by social impact 22 percent (5 of 23 cases) and physical impact 9 percent (2 of 23 cases). It is interesting to note that social impact reported in Anbeshi 2010 was zero (Anbeshi 2010). It certainly was not an expected result. However, in this report it is the second highest impact after mental impact. Chart 9.6 Impact of Trafficking on Survivors Impact of Sexual Abuse on Survivors Impact of Trafficking on Survivors w w w .w orecnepal.org
  85. 85. A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011 74 20% 68% 12% Health Checkup Yes No Unidentified 9.7. Health and VAW survivors An overwhelming majority (68%) of the survivors reported that they did not receive any from of health check up after facing violence (Chart 9.7). Women reported either as having no physical or economic access to a health facility or being fearful to go to the health facility. In addition, women reported that they did not have any visible physical problem, so they did not go for a health check up. Moreover, women also reported being discouraged to go to a doctor since the health facilities lacked doctors, or even if they were present, having a woman doctor was extremely rare. Although women did not explicitly mentionthatsymptomsofVAWarerarelyrecognizedbyhealth personnel as valid reasons to seek medical support, there are several instances of symptoms of VAW not being recognized as valid health problems. These reasons suggest that there is a general pattern of keeping any health issues within oneself because there is still a massive lack of women friendly health infrastructure. Chart 9.7 Health Check up of Survivors Health Check up w w w .w orecnepal.org
  86. 86. 75 A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011 Some important points to note - Overwhelming number of women have reported mental health as the key impact of VAW. However, mental impact does not occur in isolation. It has been reported that the experience of a physical assault created a constant fear of having it repeated. The unpredictability and possibility of its recurrence exacerbated the mental and emotional stress. - Survivors’ post-assault interactions with service providers like police, prosecutors, health care providers are reported to be traumatizing in most instances. - The psychological impact of their experiences have inhibited women from productively participating in a private as well as public life. - Since majority rape survivors are below the age of 16, they faced numerous health problems. - Continuous subjection to violence in different forms be it physical or mental has hindered women’s control over their body and sexuality. There have been many reporting of unwanted pregnancies, ill-treatment during and post pregnancy, and marital rape. Many women expressed having suicidal tendencies; and symptoms of depression, backache, body ache, abdominal pain and vaginal bleeding were reported as common health issues. w w w .w orecnepal.org
  87. 87. CHAPTER X w w w .w orecnepal.org
  88. 88. 77 Violence against Women Year BookA Year Book on Violence against Women 2011 11% 17% 11% 9%16% 23% 11% 2% 0% Brahman Chhetri Hill dalit Terai dalit Terai janjati Hill janajati Terai non-dalit Marginalized Others & Unidentified CHAPTER XETHNICITY OF SURVIVORS 10.1 Ethnicity and VAW Irrespective of ethnicity, domestic violence stands out as the most reported form of VAW reiterating the fact that home is the most unsafe space for Nepali women. The highest number of cases are reported by the Hill Janjati (23%), followed by Chhetri (17%), and Terai Janjati (16%). Hill Dalit, Brahmin, and Terai non-Dalit all reported 11percent of the total cases respectively. Terai Dalit was found to report 9 percent of the total cases and other marginalized groups only reported 2 percent. Chart 10.1.a Ethnicity of survivors Ethnicity of Survivors w w w .w orecnepal.org
  89. 89. A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011 78 10.2. Violence among Brahman VAW survivors Brahman survivors reported 70 percent (124 of 178) cases of domestic violence followed by 13 percent (23 of 178) social violence, and 10 percent (18 of 178) rape cases (Chart 10.2). Chart 10.2 Violence among Brahman VAW Survivors Chart 10.1.b Types of VAW and Ethnicity Ethnicity Brahman w w w .w orecnepal.org
  90. 90. 79 A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011 10.3. Violence among Chhetri VAW survivors Chhetri survivors reported 68 percent (177 of 260) cases of domestic violence followed by 13.5 percent (35 of 260) cases of social violence, and 5 percent (35 of 260) cases of sexual abuse (Chart 10.3). Chart 10.3 Violence among Chhetri VAW survivors 10.4. Violence among terai dalits Terai Dalits account for 9 percent of all survivors and domestic violence accounts for 58.7 percent (81 of 138 cases), followed by social violence 21.7 percent (30 of 138 cases), rape 10 percent (14 of 138 cases), and murder 6.5 percent (9 of 138 cases). Chhetri w w w .w orecnepal.org
  91. 91. A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011 80 10.5. Violence among hill dalits Hill Dalits account for 11 percent of the total cases (167 of 1569 cases). Domestic violence accounts for 66 percent (110 of 167 cases), followed by social violence 13.2 percent (22 of 167 cases), and rape 10.8 percent (18 of 167 cases). Chart 10.5 Violence among Hill Dalits Chart 10.4 Violence among Terai Dalits Terai Dalits Hill Dalits w w w .w orecnepal.org
  92. 92. 81 A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011 10.6. Violence among Hill Janajati Hill Janajatis account for 23 percent cases (357 of 1569 cases). Domestic violence is 60 percent (213 of 357 cases), followed by social violence 14.3 percent (51 of 357 cases), and rape 9.5 percent (34 of 357 cases). Chart 10.6 Violence among Hill Janajati 10.7. Violence among terai non-dalit Terai non dalits account for 11 percent (174 of 1569 cases) of the total cases. Domestic violence accounts for 62.6 percent (109 of 174 cases), followed by social violence 25.3 percent (44 of 174 cases), and rape 7 percent (12 of 174 cases). Hill Janajati w w w .w orecnepal.org
  93. 93. A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011 82 Chart 10.7 Violence among Terai non-dalit 10.8. Violence among marginalized groups The category of marginalized group primarily includes landless people, widows, urban poor. This group accounts for 2 percent ( 36 of 1569 cases) in which domestic violence is faced by 56 percent (20 of 36 cases), social violence 25 percent (9 of 36 cases), and rape 9 percent (4 of 36 cases). Chart 10.8 Violence among Marginalized Groups Marginalized Groups Terai non-dalit w w w .w orecnepal.org
  94. 94. 83 A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011 10.9 Violence among terai janajati Terai janajatis account for 16 percent (255 of 1569 cases) of the total collected cases. Domestic violence accounts for 64.7 percent (165 of 255 cases), followed by social violence 20 percent (51 of 255 cases), and rape 6 percent (15 of 255 cases). Chart 10.9 Violence among Terai Janajati Some important points to note: - VAW is not confined to a specific group or community. Most times it works in conjunction with caste-based discrimination and socio-economic status. - Given Nepal’s immense ethnic diversity, the treatment ofwomenwithineachethnicgroupdifferssignificantly. Although there is an overarchingpatriarchal valuethat governsthesegroups, theways in which itmanifests in specific groups are different. These differences affect Terai Janajati w w w .w orecnepal.org
  95. 95. A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011 84 the degree of autonomy women can exercise as well as confidence to report and speak up about violence. - Although it is not obvious from the data collected, manywomenreportedthatitissignificantlydifficultto report the cases of VAW. There have been instances of refusal to register the cases of VAW by the authorities and undertake necessary corrective action. Hence what we observe here is only the tip of the iceberg in terms of cases of VAW. There is bound to be numerous cases that go unreported. Another factor for underreporting has been due to a fear of reprisal. Especially now given a sensitive political climate especially in the Terai, fear of reprisal have increased significantly as WOREC’s reportsfromthefieldsuggest (WOREC Nepal, 2010). w w w .w orecnepal.org
  96. 96. CHAPTER XI w w w .w orecnepal.org
  97. 97. A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011 86 16% 29% 21% 11% 23% Age of perpetrator 16-25 26-35 36-45 Above 46 Unidentified CHAPTER XI BACKGROUND OF PERPETRATORS 11.1. Background of perpetrators In this chapter we present some of the available information on the perpetrators as pointed out by the survivors. Chart 11.1 shows that 23 percent of the perpetrators’ age is unidentified. The perpetrators in the age group 26-35 account for 30 percent of all perpetrators, followed by the age group 36-45 which accounts for 21 percent. 16-25 years account for 15 percent and the age group above 46 years accounts for 11 percent. Below 16 years accounts for less than one percent of the cases. Chart 11.1 Age of Perpetrators The chart 11.3 shows that 25 percent perpetrators are women which clearly show that men from all age groups can be perpetrators. This is extremely critical as it suggests the level of male privilege that exists within our society. The fact that a man of any age group has the potential to threaten a w w w .w orecnepal.org
  98. 98. 87 A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011 12% 15% 10% 8%16% 20% 12% 3% 4% Ethnicity of perpetrator Brahmin Chhetri Hill dalit Terai dalit Terai janajati Hill janajati Terai non-dalit Muslim Other & Unidentified woman’s security is enough to suggest that unequal power relations are normalized in the Nepali society. The result of such normalization is the way in which VAW becomes manifest in everyday life. Men are under constant under pressure to become aggressive and masculine whereas women are socially conditioned to be submissive who do not question subordination and exploitation. 11.2. Ethnicity of perpetrators Chart 11.2 shows that the highest percentage of perpetrators are from Hill janajatis consisting of 19 percent followed by an equal percentage of Chhetri and Terai janajatis, both at 16 percent. Terai non dalits and Brahmins are each found to be 12 percent of the total perpetrators. One possible reason for the highest reporting of hill janajati as the perpetrators might be due to the fact that women are Chart 11.2 Ethnicity of perpetrators w w w .w orecnepal.org
  99. 99. A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011 88 considerably more vocal about the discrimination they face within these communities. Unequal gender relations that dictate the ways in which people seek control by engaging in acts of violence are defined in less rigid terms compared to other communities. Therefore, it is important to bear in mind the variations within different ethnic groups when analyzing VAW. 11.3. Sex of perpetrators Chart 11.3 highlights that perpetrators of VAW are both men and women. The data reveal that 74 percent of the perpetrators are male and 25 percent are female and unidentified are 1 percent. Specifically, in the cases where women are perpetrators, violence is committed by mother- in-laws or sister-in-laws on daughter-in laws. The reasons vary within households. However, one primary reason is related to migration of men to primarily the Gulf region for work leaving their wives behind. The wives face violence at home because they have access and control over the money that the husband sends. On the other hand, women also face violence because the in-laws do not want her to be claiming any share on the remittance being sent back. Migration for work has increased with the changed political context of the country and is thus directly proportional to increasing domestic violence. At the same time, women face violence when they migrate for work. Again, rural to urban migration is an increasing trend for women due to changed socio-political climate. Women working in the entertainment sector face tremendous w w w .w orecnepal.org
  100. 100. 89 A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011 exploitation and violation of rights. Women working in the entertainment sector have challenged the traditional social norm of sexuality. They have become targets because they are perceived as those crushing the moral value structure that the Nepali society rests on. However, it is interesting to note that the culture of dance restaurants, night clubs, and strip clubs are further proliferating in urban spaces with Nepal. This suggests that there is indeed a high demand for such business and hence an even higher demand for workers for such businesses. The Nepali state has turned blind eye to such increase and unfortunately is narrowly focused only on “protecting” and “purifying” women and the Nepali society by shutting down such businesses, reducing their hours, and most importantly, arresting women workers. Such measures only reveal the biased short sightedness of the Nepali state that is seeped in moral values highly influenced by Manusmriti. The women workers are usually considered outside the protection of the state laws, which makes them particularly vulnerable Chart 11.3 Sex of Perpetrators 25% 74% 1% Sex of perpetrator Female Male Unidentified w w w .w orecnepal.org
  101. 101. A Year Book on Violence against Women 2011 90 to sexual violence. There is already social stigma to begin with, compounded by state’s inadequate addressal makes the women the easiest target for violence. Dowry related violence is also common which highlights the continuing significance of women in a patriarchal culture. Women who are economically dependent on their husbands are deprived of autonomy and self-esteem and are rendered voiceless. The culture of consumerism has reached alarming heights that dowry has permeated into those communities which traditionally did not have dowry as a part of their culture. It is a means of demonstrating one’s upward mobility and social status. w w w .w orecnepal.org
  102. 102. CONCLUSION w w w .w orecnepal.org

×