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Rethinking the cloud_-_limitations_and_oppotunities_-_2011_nexcom

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This was presented for the subject, Rethinking the Cloud, at NEXCOM 2011. …

This was presented for the subject, Rethinking the Cloud, at NEXCOM 2011.
This presentation includes cloud business and strategy, and covers overall cloud technologies such as virtualization, storage, network, and cloud platform.

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  • 1. Rethinking the Cloud - A View of Virtualization, Storage, Network, and PlatformWoohyun KimCloud Platform TeamS-Core2011-05-18
  • 2. Cloud Success Stories
  • 3. What is the Cloud? • A computing environment to elastically provide virtualized resources as a service over the Internet in a pay-as-you-go manner
  • 4. Amazon’s Challenge and Paradigm Shift
  • 5. Success Cases in Amazon SmugMug(http://www.smugmug.com/) • an online photo storage application that stores more than half a petabyte of data on S3 • estimates cost savings on service and storage to be close to $1 million New York Times(http://www.nytimes.com) • use EC2 to process terabytes of archival data using hundreds of EC2 instances within 36 hours 37Signals(http://37signals.com/) • maker of popular online project-management software Basecamp, uses S3 for storage needs. Animoto(http://animoto.com/) • an online presentation video generator that needs gobs of computing power for video processing • recently successfully withstood a surge in Web traffic that would kill most companies’ systems by scaling up their processing power quickly using EC2 with RightScale • Animoto ramped from 25,000 users to 250,000 users in three days, signing up 20,000 new users per hour at peak • Using RightScale, EC2 instances automatically scaled out 40 to 4000 at that time • For more detail, refer to http://blog.rightscale.com/2008/04/23/animoto-facebook- scale-up/
  • 6. Start-up Company: Powerset  Powerset had a great idea, “Natural Language Search”  It should index millions of pages of data and content  They knew that this would require a massively large datacenter and extensive computing power  CPUs, terminal switches, cable, racks, datacenters, hosting, power, maintenance, staffs  But they needed to keep infrastructure costs at a minimum “By using Amazon EC2, Powerset is able to match the infrastructure of large scale search companies on a startup budget.” - Barney Pell, Founder and CEO of Powerset ““Amazon EC2 is a complete game-changer. EC2 and Amazon Web Services make it easy for start-ups to build a complete infrastructure without having to spend much on capital .”- Paul Hammann 6
  • 7. Start-up Company: Powerset  Powerset had a great idea, “Natural Language Search”  It should index millions of pages of data and content  They knew that this would require a massively large datacenter and extensive computing power  CPUs, terminal switches, cable, racks, datacenters, hosting, power, maintenance, staffs  But they needed to keep infrastructure costs at a minimum “By using Amazon EC2, Powerset is able to match the $100 millions infrastructure of large scale search companies on a startup budget.” - Barney Pell, Founder and CEO of Powerset ““Amazon EC2 is a complete game-changer. EC2 and Amazon Web Services make it easy for start-ups to build a complete infrastructure without having to spend much on capital .”- Paul Hammann 7
  • 8. Temporary & Data-intensive : The New York Times  The New York Times is a 150-year old company, and serves the largest newspaper Website, NYTimes.com  1 billion page views per month  20+ million monthly unique visitors  They tried to convert TIFF images to PDFs  TIFF images(405,000),  Articles(3.3 million) in SGML PNG images(810,000)  XML files(405,000) mapping articles to TIFFs JavaScript files(405,000) “I had was this: upload 4TB of source data into S3, write some code that would run on numerous EC2 instances to read the source data, create PDFs, and store the results back into S3. S3 would then be used to serve the PDFs to the general public.” - Derek Gottfrid “I got access to a few more machines and churned through all 11 million articles in just under 24 hours using 100 EC2 instances, and generated another 1.5TB of data to store in S3. It just costs $3000.” - Derek Gottfrid 8
  • 9. Temporary & Data-intensive : The New York Times  The New York Times is a 150-year old company, and serves the largest newspaper Website, NYTimes.com  1 billion page views per month  20+ million monthly unique visitors  They tried to convert TIFF images to PDFs  TIFF images(405,000),  Articles(3.3 million) in SGML PNG images(810,000)  XML files(405,000) mapping articles to TIFFs JavaScript files(405,000) “I had was this: upload 4TB of source data into S3, write some code that would run on numerous EC2 instances to read the source data, create PDFs, and store the results back into S3. S3 would then be used to serve the PDFs to the general public.” “I got access to a few more machines and churned through all 11 million articles in just under 24 hours using 100 EC2 instances, and generated another 1.5TB of data to store in S3. It just costs $3000.” 9
  • 10. 64,865,381,400
  • 11. Cloud Skepticism
  • 12. The Cloud is Falling Amazon’s cloud outages receive a lot of exposure … April 21 ~ 22, 2011 A networking glitch made its storage volumes automatically create back-ups of themselves, filling up storage capacity and causing connectivity issues, lasts two days Amazon’s customers include start-ups like the social networking site Foursquare but also big companies like Pfizer, Netflix and Nasdaq dkagh Affected web sites included Quora.com, Reddit.com, GroupMe.com and Scvngr.com July 20, 2008 Failure due to stranded zombies, lasts 5 hours Feb 15, 2008 Authentication overload leads to two-hour service outage October 2007 Service failure lasts two days October 2006 Security breach where users could see other users data … and their current SLAs don’t match those(99.99%) of enterprises Amazon EC2 99.95% Amazon S3 99.9%
  • 13. Cloud Is NOT A Brand-New Technology Utility Computing Google App Engine Amazon EC2 (April 2008) (August 2006) Microsoft Azure (Oct 2008) Amazon S3 (March 2006) GFS BigTable MapReduce Hadoop
  • 14. Cloud is just Buzz, and Marketing Hype Campaign • Cloud computing is simply a buzzword used to repackage grid computing and utility computing, both of which have existed for decades - Definition of Cloud Computing, whatis.com • What is it? What is it? ... Is it - Oh, I am going to access data on a server on the Internet. That is cloud computing? • The interesting thing about cloud computing is that we’ve redefined cloud computing to include everything that we already do - During Oracle’s Analyst Day, Larry Ellison • .. cloud computing was simply a trap aimed at forcing more people to buy into locked, proprietary systems that would cost them more and more over time • Its stupidity. Its worse than stupidity: its a marketing hype campaign - GNU founder, Richard Stallman • Server revenue for public cloud computing will grow from $582 million in 2009 to $718 million in 2014 • Server revenue for the much larger private cloud market will grow from $7.3 billion to $11.8 billion in the same time period - Worldwide Enterprise Server Cloud Computing 2010-2014 Forecast, IDC
  • 15. Cloud Wars and Strategies
  • 16. The Cloud Wars JBoss Xen 420M KVM Qumranet SPICE 107M RedHat NetScaler XenSource iSilon GreenPlum 300M OpenShift Citrix EMC CloudFoundry OpenStack 650M Rackspace VMware VMForce Oracle 450M BtrFSGemStoneRabbitMQ SpringSource Force.com Ceph Hyperic Sun ZFS Heroku 212M SalesForce.com Java NexentaStor MySQL
  • 17. Infra is getting more Programmable rPath rBuilder Quest vControl 3Tera Applogic
  • 18. Cloud Disruptors • RightScale & enStratus
  • 19. Cloud Disruptors (cont’d) • Cloud Mgmt. Functionality in enStratus
  • 20. Cloudburst and Hybrid Cloud • CloudSwitch
  • 21. Who Moved My Cheese? Disrupting or Disrupted??!
  • 22. Virtualization
  • 23. Virtualization on x86 Architecture • VMM(Virtual Machine Monitor) or Hypervisor – Since VMM must perform in the privileged level(0) , OS is moved to non-privileged level(1 or 3) app app app app app app Operating System Operating System Operating System #1 #2 #3 (Win-XP) (Mac-OS) (Linux) Virtual Machine Virtual Machine Virtual Machine Virtual Machine Manager CPU Memory NIC Disk • Problems on x86 Architecture – Privileged Instruction • Trap when called from CPU user mode, and Emulate its effect by VMM – Sensitive Non-privileged Instruction • Cause physical state of CPU to leak – smsw %eax # reads CR0 into EAX – mov %cr0, %edx # reads CR0 into EDX – sub %eax, %edx # what’s the difference? No Trap, No Emulation – jnz emulation_flaw # it ought to be zero!! => VMM is finally crashed
  • 24. CPU Virtualization on x86 Architecture • How to handle nonvirtualizable instructions – Full virtualization using binary translation – Paravirtualization using hypercalls – Hardware assisted virtualization using root/non-root mode • VT-x : Virtualization Technology for 32bit CPU • VT-i : Virtualization Technology for 64bit CPU • VT-d : Virtualization Technology for Directed I/O • VT-c : Virtualization Technology for Connectivity
  • 25. Virtualization on x86 Architecture
  • 26. Hurdles in Server Virtualization • Storage Allocation & Interfacing – On-demand, Pre-allocation – NAS, iSCSI, Local Storage • VM Management – Snapshot, Fast Cloning, Thin Provisioning, Live Migration, DRS • Virtual Network – L2/L3 Network Design, Directed, Bridged, NAT, VLAN, Load-Balance, Firewall • Resource Sharing – Resource Pool, High Availability, Scheduling, Workload Mgmt. • Migration – P2V, V2V • Hardware-Assisted Support – Privileged instruction virtualization • De-privileging or ring compression to handle privileged instructuions – Memory virtualization • Memory partitioning and allocation of physical memory – Device and I/O virtualization • Routing I/O requests between virtual devices and physical hardware
  • 27. Storage
  • 28. File System with Shared Storage Cluster File Systems • GFS2 – DLM, scaling to 100 • GlusterFS – fuse, poor performance • Lustre - dfs
  • 29. Unified Storage using Virtual Block Pool • NexentaStor based on ZFS
  • 30. Cluster File System using Virtual Block Pool • GlusterFS
  • 31. A Feasible SAN File System • IBM TotalStorage SAN File System • GlusterFS • ZFS Pooled Storage • Openfiler • iSCSI+GNBD+DRBD
  • 32. Network
  • 33. Basic Virtual NetworkTap vs. Tun • Tap – simulate an Ethernet device and operate with layer 2 packets such as Ethernet frames • Tun(nel) - simulate a network layer device and operate with layer 3 packets such as IP packets • TAP is used to create a network bridge, while TUN is used with routing.IPTables vs. Bridging • IPTables - let the host forward packets between each tap on its own subnets • Bridging – let all the taps connect into a specific bridge to put them on the same subnetVDE(Virtual Distributed Ethernet) and VDE Switch
  • 34. OpenStack Nova Network Virtualization ① Flat Mode Physical Machine eth VM • manual config. of bridge • get fixed public IP from the pool S/W NIC bridge public IP eth VM (br100) manual config eth VM ② Flat DHCP Mode Physical Machine eth VM dhcpdiscover • auto config. of bridge • get fixed public IP auto eth0 S/W NIC bridge public IP (br100) eth VM dhcpdiscover dnsmasq eth VM dhcpdiscover ③ VLAN DHCP Mode (default) Physical Machine supports private IP eth VM dhcpdiscover • auto config. of bridge, VLAN bridge from dnsmasq • auto config. of VLAN: range tagging (br100) of private IPs for project VLAN-1 S/W NIC VPN eth VM VLAN dhcpdiscover VM dnsmasq • get fixed private IP: iptables + NAT (private/public) Nova bridge • VLAN: cloudpipe (=openVPN eth VM dhcpdiscover users (br101) VM template  TAP/TUN)
  • 35. CloudStack Network VirtualizationVirtual Private Network for Each Account
  • 36. CloudStack Network VirtualizationDetail Virtual Private Network in Node A and Node B
  • 37. Hurdles in Network Virtualization • L2 Network – Problem: Scalability, Performance, Security – Solution: VLAN(for Scalability and Security), RBridge(for Scalability and STP Limitation), L2 over L3 • Multi-tier Networking Design vs. Migration Limitation – Limitation of Spanning Tree Protocol • Keep Layer 2 networks relatively small and join them together via Layer 3 segments • But VM migration cannot be live across the multi-tier networks – Port Consistency • Map the settings such as VLAN, ACL, QoS, and security profiles to all the network ports • But some VMs are not able to meet required service levels • L2(Switching) and L3(Routing) Networking Design – Scalability and Efficiency on the service provider side • Amazon EC2 using L3 – 500,000 VM on 60,000 PM – Legacy Support on the service consumer side • Amazon VPC, 3Tera AppLogic – Define virtual network topology – Select IP address range – Create public subnets and private subnets – Configure route table and network gateway
  • 38. Cloud Platform
  • 39. Cloud TechnologiesAnatomy of Cloud Tehcnologies
  • 40. OpenStack Nova Architecture Volume Controller • provide fast and permanent block-level storage for the compute servers Network Controller • provide virtual networks to enable compute servers to interact with each other and with the public network Scheduler • select the most suitable compute controller to host an instance Compute Controller • compute server resources API Server Object Store • act as the Web services front end for • provide storage services the cloud controller Auth Manager Cloud Controller • provide authentication and authorization services • represent the global state and interact with all other components
  • 41. CloudStack Architecture Load Balancer Host A Host B Mgmt. Mgmt. Server VM Server Management Servers Computing Nodes Host X Host Y Host Z dynamically adding Pod Computing Nodes Guest VM Guest VM Guest VM Guest VM Computing Nodes should be Host X Host Y Host Z in the same subnet, Templates and have no limit to attach live migration Guest VM number of nodes copy, Guest VM Guest VM Guest VM ISO create,, images Max(6*Volumes) boot, Volumes VM Image Cluster perattach VM Guest live migration attach Max(16*Computing Nodes) per Cluster Primary Shared Storage VM VM Max(6*Volumes) VM Volumes per Guest VM Computing Nodes should be Image Image Image snapshot in the same subnet, and homogeneous Secondary Primary Shared Storage Shared Storage Zone
  • 42. Conclusion
  • 43. Top 10 Cloud Obstacles and Opportunities• A View of Cloud Computing, ACM, April, 2010
  • 44. 2011 Predictions of IaaS, PaaS, and NoSQL• IaaS Prediction • Hybrid is the way to go: The public-private cloud discussion isn’t relevant anymore • Openstack will dominate the open IaaS offering• PaaS Prediction • 2011 is the year of PaaS • CloudFoundry – Vmware • OpenShift - Redhat • A new PaaS category will emerge – Building your own PaaS • CEAP(Cloud Enabled Application Platform) is being specifically designed to handle multi-tenancy, scalability, and on-demand provisioning, but not higher degree of flexibility and control • Application servers will change their name to PaaS – But won’t change their stripes • VMForce will fail to deliver on its promise => Already open Cloud• NoSQL (+Big Data) predictions • NoSQL will become compatible with SQL • More applications will run entirely In-Memory • Real-time /Stream-based analytics big will replace majority of the MapReduce batch processing • i.e., Yahoo S4, Google’s Percolator written by Nati Shalom at Gigaspaces http://natishalom.typepad.com/nati_shaloms_blog/2010/12/2011-cloud-paas-nosql-predictions.html
  • 45. Thank you.