According to the results of 2008 Address Based Census,
the population of Turkey is 71 517 100
0-29 age group constitutes 52.8 % of the country
The population in compulsory education age group (6-
14 ages) is 11 527 000.
Administrative legislation and supervision related to formal
and non-formal education (except for higher education) is
performed by Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı – MEB (Ministry of
National Education – MONE).
Educational activities in the provinces are organised by the İl
Milli Eğitim Müdürü (Provincial Director of Education)
They are organised in disricts by the İlçe Milli Eğitim Müdürü
(District Director of Education)
Formal education services at all educational levels are
provided substantially (more than 90 %) by the public
education institutions. Private education institutions
Supervision of educational institutions is carried out at
both central and regional (local or provincial) level.
Higher education institutions are autonomous for
purposes of education and research. However, they have
to submit annual reports to Yükseköğretim Kurulu – YÖK
(Higher Education Council).
In the 2008/09 school year, the enrolment rate in pre-primary education is 33
%. All public pre-primary institutions are free of charge.
Grade Ages schooling
İlköğretim 1–8 6 – 14 96.5
Post-compulsory education/ secondary level
Secondary education is provided in general, vocational
and technical education institutions offering at four
years of education for those who have completed
primary education. In 2008/09 academic year, net
schooling rate in secondary education is 58.5.%
Types of education School types Ages
1-Genel Lise (General High School)
2-Anadolu Lisesi (Anatolian High School)
3-Fen Lisesi (Science High School)
4-Sosyal Bilimler Lisesi (Social Science High School)
General Secondary Education 5-Güzel Sanatlar ve Spor Lisesi (Fine Art and Sports High School) 14-17
6- Anadolu Öğretmen Lisesi (Anatolian Teacher High School)
7-Çok Programlı Liseler (Multi-Programmed High Schools)
1-Teknik Lise ve Endüstri Meslek Lisesi
(Technical and Industrial Vocational Schools)
2-Kız Teknik ve Meslek Lisesi
(Technical and Industrial Vocational Schools for Girls)
3-Otelcilik ve Turizm Meslek Lisesi
(Hotel and Tourism Vocational High School)
Vocational and Technical 4-Ticaret Meslek Lisesi 14-17
Secondary Education (Business High School)
5-Sağlık Meslek Lisesi
(Health Vocational High School) and the others
6-Özel Eğitim Meslek Lisesi
(Special Education Vocational Schools)
7- İmam Hatip Lisesi
(The Imam and Preachers High Schools) 8
Guidance and Research Centers (Rehberlik ve Araştırma Merkezleri)
seek to identify children in need of special education, and
provide them with the best possible counseling facilities.
There are 205 Guidance and Research Centers
throughout the country.
MEB (MONE) has carried out innovative efforts to increase standards of
Turkish education system to that of OECD and EU countries. In this context,
some developments in 2009 and basic goals toward 2010 can be summarized as:
1. Schooling rate in pre-primary education has been increased to 33 % in 2008/09.
2010 goal is to reach 100 % for 32 provinces where a pilot project was started, and
40 % across the country.
2. Overall schooling rate has been increased to 96.5 % in 2008/09 and gender
equality has been enhanced. These developments have been accelerated by
some campaigns conducted cooperatively by MEB (MONE), NGOs and media
(Haydi Kizlar Okula, Baba Beni Okula Gönder) and direct economical support
to deprived families (Şartlı Nakit Transferi).
3. The project to supply no charge textbook for primary education students
started in 2002 included secondary education in 2006, special education
students (books in Braille) in 2009 and is growing up gradually.
4. In the higher education, accord with EU standards,
quality assurance systems, European Credit Transfer
System (ECTS), diploma supplement practices have been
widened to a great extent. The efforts related with the
'qualifications framework' have been going on.
5. To widespread information technologies in the schools,
ADSL or satellite connection has provided to all schools
(41.000 schools). According to this effort, 95 % of the
students in primary and all students in secondary schools
can access internet connected computer.
Second Opportunity Education
a- Non-formal education covers education for those
- who have never had education
- who left without achieving a qualification and education
- who are still attending formal education for in particular subjects
b- Non-formal education activities are offered out-of-school in order
- to teach adults how to read and write,
- to provide them basic knowledge,
- to develop knowledge and skills already acquired, and
- to create new opportunities for improving individuals’ standard of living.
Non-formal education is carried out through
1- public education,
2- apprenticeship training
3- distance education.
General, vocational and technical non-formal education institutions are
1- public education centers,
2- vocational training centers,
3- practical art schools for girls,
4- industrial practical art schools,
5- technical training centers for adults,
6- hotel and tourism education centers for adults,
7- private courses,
8- special education and application schools,
9- special education vocational schools,
10- special education vocational training centers,
11- special education science and art centers,
12- open primary school, high school, vocational - technical high school and university programs
13- evening high school
Number of Institutions & Participants
The number of Female Male Total
13 013 2. 515. 530 3. 249. 638 5. 765. 168
1- Public Education
Educational activities take place mainly in Public Education
Centers throughout the country. Literacy courses, vocational
courses, socio-cultural courses and socio-cultural practices are
offered to citizens of all ages and education levels in these
Education activities organized outside the formal education
are carried out in 966 public education centers . In the
2008/2009 academic year, 176 119 courses were opened and
attended by 3 616 944 people.
2- Apprenticeship Training Centers
Apprenticeship Training is a dual training system in which
theoretical training is given in vocational training centers and
the practical issues addressed in the workplace.
The training of apprentices covers the education of the
children and young people at the age of secondary education
who have not been able to continue their education after
primary education or who have been left out of formal
education for various reasons.
Children who are at least primary education graduates and
have reached the age of 14 can follow apprenticeship training.
The period of apprenticeship training lasts 2-4 years depending on
the nature of the profession. Theoretical education takes place at
vocational training centers, vocational and technical education
centers or education centers for one day a week, and practical
training takes place at workplaces in real production environment
for five days a week.
Those who have completed the apprenticeship training can take the
foremanship examination directly. Those holding the certificate of
foremanship can continue on to mastership training for 1-3 years,
and gain the right to take the mastership examinations.
At the end of mastership training, individuals can receive the
mastery certificate foreseen for competency level. Only those who
have a mastership certificate have the right to open a workplace of
3- Distance (Open) Education
Distance education is provided to ensure equal
opportunities for all Turkish citizens, and to support the
primary and secondary education system. Distance
education includes open primary schools , open high
schools and vocational and technical open high schools.
In the 2008/2009 academic year, a total of 1 784 629
students received education through distance education,
684 629 in open primary, secondary and vocational
technical high schools and
1.100.000 in open higher education.
4- Also, local resources such as municipalities organize
occupational and training courses. Such activities are
popular especially in metropolis of Turkey like İstanbul,
Ankara and İzmir.
The examples are BELTEK and BELMEK projects by Greater
Municipality of Ankara.
4.1. Technical Training Courses of the Municipality (BELTEK)
The objective of the BELTEK is
- to equip the city-dwellers with knowledge and skills,
- to ensure urban integration,
- to educate human power suitable for professional standards
required by small and medium scaled enterprises
- to plan and implement activities at various types and levels.
BELTEK Technical Training Courses are given in 3-month periods
and due to the intensive demand, Courses on Computer
Operation, Computer Hardware, Care and Maintenance and
Web Page Design are realized as 2-month accelerated courses.