Woodstock Vet Clinic-Hookworms


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Woodstock Vet Clinic slide presentation on Hookworm solution.

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  • Notice how long this list is! Chances are all of us fall in one or more categories of at-risk people!
  • Southest pervalence = 38.5% for hookworms and 17.7% for roundworms Trichuris vulpis is the whipworm and it’s prevalence is high but we will not discuss it today because it does not pose a significant zoonotic risk.
  • Eggs passed in feces and hatch on ground in 16-20 hours  in 2-8 days the motile infective larvae may live in soil or plants  larvae are either ingested or penetrate through the skin  dam may pass larvae to nursing puppies (through milk) or through placental blood supply  in 2-3 weeks the larvae have matured and can produce eggs (when ingested) and in a month the larvae can produce eggs if penetrated by skin Eggs thrive better in moist, well-aerated soil with indirect sun light. Ancylostoma eggs are setroyed by freezing, whereas Uncinaria eggs are more resistant to cold.
  • Nursing puppies or through placental blood supply
  • Blood loss – they have powerful hooks that allow them to latch to the intestinal wall and suck blood; large worm loads can suck enough blood to lead to anemia
  • These are diagrams published by the CDC concerning hookworm infections in humans . This goes to show the zoonotic importance of this disease and the need to raise awareness.
  • Cutaneous larva migrans infections can be very itchy in humans
  • Monthly = every 30 days! Feel free to ask your veterinarian what fecal test technique he/she uses to diagnose intestinal parasites and let him/her know that you know that centrifugal flotation technique is the gold standard
  • Woodstock Vet Clinic-Hookworms

    1. 2. <ul><li>Heartworm prevention medications prevent and control some of the most common parasites transmitted from our dogs or cat every month in addition to preventing heartworm disease. </li></ul><ul><li>Learn how serious Hookworms could be to our family and pets from this presentation. </li></ul>
    2. 3. <ul><li>1. Define Zoonosis </li></ul><ul><li>2. Discuss guidelines from Companion Animal Parasites Council (CAPC) </li></ul><ul><li>3. Discuss Hookworms - transmission, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment, control and prevention, public health concern </li></ul><ul><li>4. Discuss-control, prevention and zoonosis </li></ul><ul><li>5. Learn what we need to do as pet owners </li></ul>
    3. 4. <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>a disease communicable from animals to humans under natural conditions </li></ul>
    4. 5. <ul><li>Hookworms </li></ul><ul><li>Roundworms </li></ul><ul><li>Fleas </li></ul><ul><li>Tapeworms </li></ul><ul><li>Ticks </li></ul>Giardia ? Cryptosporidium Scabies Toxoplasmosis
    5. 6. <ul><li>-Independent organization </li></ul><ul><li>-Veterinarians and Health Care Professionals </li></ul><ul><li>-The mission is to foster animal and human health, while preserving the human-animal bond, through recommendations for the diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control of parasitic infections.
 </li></ul><ul><li>www.petsandparasites.org </li></ul>
    6. 7. <ul><li>Everybody, especially children and immune compromised people </li></ul><ul><li>Pet owners, people working with animals (veterinarians, veterinary technicians, shelter workers, etc.), electricians, plumbers, exterminators, farmers, gardeners, sunbathers and children who play in contaminated areas are at high risk </li></ul>
    7. 8. <ul><li>Intestinal parasites are virtually everywhere in the environment, and can survive in the soil for years in cold or warm climates. </li></ul><ul><li>In a recent study, 10-30% of public soil samples were contaminated with intestinal parasite eggs. </li></ul><ul><li>A national survey of shelters revealed that almost 36% of dogs nationwide and 52% of dogs from the southeastern states harbored parasites capable of causing human diseases. </li></ul>
    8. 9. <ul><li>In the U.S. alone, an estimated 10,000 cases of roundworm infections occur each year. </li></ul><ul><li>Hookworms are the second most common worm infections in humans (after roundworms). </li></ul><ul><li>Fleas can cause diseases in humans. </li></ul>Roundworms Hookworms Fleas
    9. 11. <ul><li>Ingestion or penetration through skin of infective larvae </li></ul><ul><li>2-3 WEEKS FOR INFECTION TO PASS EGGS IN FECES </li></ul><ul><li>Can be transmitted from nursing mother to puppies or through placenta (does not occur in cats) </li></ul><ul><li>Ingestion of other mammals and insects </li></ul>
    10. 12. <ul><li>INGESTION OF LARVAE FROM CONTAMINATED SOIL </li></ul><ul><li>PENETRATION THROUGH THE SKIN </li></ul><ul><li>NURSING PUPPIES </li></ul><ul><li>INGESTION OF OTHER ANIMALS </li></ul>
    11. 13. <ul><li>DEHYDRATION </li></ul><ul><li>WEIGHT LOSS </li></ul><ul><li>BLOOD LOSS (ANEMIA) </li></ul><ul><li>BLOODY DIARRHEA </li></ul><ul><li>SKIN PROBLEMS </li></ul><ul><li>DEATH </li></ul>
    12. 14. <ul><li>Very difficult to see </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnosis with routine fecal examination by your veterinarian </li></ul>
    13. 15. Intestinal Hookworm Infection Cutaneous Larval Migrans
    14. 16. <ul><li>A recent national survey showed that 19% of dogs were infected with hookworms. </li></ul><ul><li>The southeastern states have the highest rates of infection of cutaneous larva migrans. </li></ul><ul><li>Electrician, plumbers, exterminators, farmers, gardeners, sunbathers and children who play in contaminated areas are </li></ul><ul><li>at high risk </li></ul>
    15. 18. <ul><li>Companion Animal Parasites Council(CAPC) principles include: </li></ul><ul><li>Giving heartworm prevention monthly </li></ul><ul><li>Deworming monthly (hookworms/roundworms) </li></ul><ul><li>Appling flea and/or tick control monthly </li></ul><ul><li>Performing fecal examinations*: </li></ul><ul><li> a. 2 to 4 times during the first year of life </li></ul><ul><li>b. 1 to 2 times a year in adult pets </li></ul><ul><li>* Centrifugal flotation technique </li></ul>