Food Safety is for Everyone, Module 4: Temperature Matters
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Food Safety is for Everyone, Module 4: Temperature Matters

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This module is intended for community educators to use to teach their clients about time temperature abuse. It is appropriate for anyone who cooks for groups including those with religous ...

This module is intended for community educators to use to teach their clients about time temperature abuse. It is appropriate for anyone who cooks for groups including those with religous institutions. It is also beneficial for general consumers. It is meant for commercial food service.

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  • Now, let’s get ready for Temperature Matters. Yes, temperature matters. Improper cooling or temperature abuse is one of the most frequent mistakes in all foodborne illness outbreaks. Foods must be kept out of the “Danger Zone” which is between 40° F and 140° F.This module will address issues concerning “temperature abuse” and how you can keep yourself and your family, and sometimes the rest of the community, safe from foodborne illness.Source: http://www.ag.ndsu.edu/pubs/yf/foods/fn492.pdfDanger zone graphic, united States department of Agriculture, Food Safety and inspection Service
  • Why use a food thermometer?In order to confirm the internal temperature of foods, it is necessary to use a food thermometer. Using a thermometer is the only dependable way to be sure the bacteria has been destroyed and that the food has not been undercooked or overcooked. It is also important to use a thermometer for hot holding and cold holding of foods. After cooking and before serving, hot foods should be held at 140° F or above; after preparation, cold foods should be held at 40° F or below.Source: http://www.fsis.usda.gov/Fact_Sheets/Kitchen_Thermometers/index.asp
  • By using the “Food Safety Inspection Service/USDA Recommended Safe Minimum Internal Temperature Guide”, you can be assured that the food is cooked to a safe temperature to kill harmful bacteria. In addition, the temperature will also help you not to overcook the food. No one likes dried out, bland, overcooked food. You can refer back to this slide as we go through the varying minimal safe internal temperatures for: Meats, poultry and leftoversGround beef, lamb, veal, pork and egg dishes Refrigerator and freezer temperaturesHot holdingCold holding Source: http://www.fsis.usda.gov/Fact_Sheets/Kitchen_Thermometers/index.aspImageSource: www.fsis.usda.gov/news_&_events/cooking_for_groups_image_library/Index/aspwww.fsis.usda.gov/news_&_events/cooking_for_groups_image_library/Index/asp
  • In order to kill harmful bacteria , the “Food Safety Inspection Service/USDA Recommended Safe Minimum Internal Temperatures” guide has recommended safe minimum internal cooking temperatures for each of these foods. A food thermometer should always be used to check the internal temperature of foods and to keep the food at a safe temperature before serving. The temperature that destroys different microorganisms in foods, and the “doneness” temperature, changes for different meats and poultry.Source: http://www.fsis.usda.gov/Fact_Sheets/Kitchen_Thermometers/index.asphttp://www.fsis.usda.gov/is_it_done_yet/News_Videos_Photos_Images/index.aspSource of the “Thermy”graphic: “Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA.”
  • Let’s take a look at this slide. Which burger is safe to eat? The one on your left, or the one on your right?Image Source:http://www.fsis.usda.gov/PDF/Thermometers_Are_Key_FactSheet.pdf 
  • The burger on your left is a safely cooked hamburger. Even though the meat is pink inside, the internal temperature is 160°F. Even though the burger on the right is brown inside, it is undercooked because the internal temperature is only 135°F. As stated in the picture, research has shown that some ground beef may look done when it turns brown, but it is actually undercooked. All hamburgers should be cooked to a safe minimum temperature of 160°F to kill harmful bacteria. At this temperature, the hamburger will be medium done. If you want a well done burger, seek an internal temperature of at least 170° F.Image Source: www.IsitDoneYet.gov Food Safety and Inspection Service/USDA
  • Temperature matters.As stated on the slide, one out of every four hamburgers looks done before it reaches a safe internal temperature of 160°F. The only safe way to know the internal temperature, is to use a food thermometer. Source:http://www.fsis.usda.gov/PDF/Thermometers_Are_Key_FactSheet.pdf http://www.fsis.usda.gov/is_it_done_yet/News_Videos_Photos_Images/index.asp
  • Now, let’s talk about how to use a food thermometer to check the internal temperature of foods. Proper cooking is one of the four key steps to fighting bacteria found in food. There are different kinds of food thermometers. Always follow the directions that come with the thermometer. In general:To be sure of even heating, place the thermometer in several places in the food.Compare the reading with the “Food Safety Inspection Service/USDA Recommended Safe Minimum Internal Temperatures”guide for that food item.To avoid cross-contamination from one food to another, always clean your thermometer with hot soapy water before and after each use! Never use a mercury thermometer for food.Near the end of the cooking time, but before the food is expected to be “done”, place the thermometer in the thickest part of the meat away from the bone, gristle or fat. Source: http://www.fsis.usda.gov/food_safety_education/Types_of_ Food_Thermometers/index.asp http://www.fsis.usda.gov/Fact_Sheets/Use_a_Food_Thermometer/index.asp
  • Now, let’s look at some of the different kinds of food thermometers. Some thermometers can be left in the food for the duration of the cook time. Some are disposable and some are best for thicker foods and not thin foods. Still, some are meant to be used in a specific food only.Dial oven safe (Bimetal) thermometers can be placed in the food and used for the length of the cooking time.Digital instant-read or thermistor can be used in thin or thick food. It is not designed to stay in food while cooking.Dial instant-read (Bimetal) can be used in roast, soups or casseroles. It can only measure thin foods if placed in the food sideways. Disposable temperature indicators (single use) thermometers are the latest development in food thermometers and are designed for specific foods and temperature ranges; read the label carefully. Use it once then throw it out. The thermometer will change color when the proper temperature is reached. This thermometer is good for thin foods like hamburger and pork chops. It is also ideal for cooking foods outdoors because you do not have to worry about clean-up—just toss it out after each use.Pop-Up thermometers are accurate and are designed only to be used with the specific food it comes with. You may have seen these thermometers in some turkeys or roasting chickens. For uniform cooking, use another thermometer to check the temperature of other parts of the food item.Source: http://www.fsis.usda.gov/food_safety_education/Types_of_ Food_Thermometers/index.asp http://www.fsis.usda.gov/Fact_Sheets/Use_a_Food_Thermometer/index.asp
  • Safe temperature.
  • Temperature matters.Beef, veal, lamb steaks and roasts: a minimum of 145°F.Fish: a minimum of 145°F.The USDA does not recommend eating these foods rare. Gone are the days of the bloody raw steaks and chops some of us enjoyed some time ago. Restaurants will inform you that rare meats are unsafe, and often put a disclaimer on their menu if you choose to order your meat rare. Source: http://www.fsis.usda.gov/is_it_done_yet/News_Videos_Photos_Images/index.asphttp://www.fsis.usda.gov/is_it_done_yet/News_Videos_Photos_Images/index.asp
  • Temperature matters.Turkey, chicken and duck whole, pieces and ground: a minimum of 165°.Source: http://www.fsis.usda.gov/is_it_done_yet/News_Videos_Photos_Images/index.asp
  • Fully cooked ham.Heat raw ham to an internal temperature of 160°F.Source: www.fsis.usda.gov/news_&_events/cooking_for_groups_image_library/Index/asphttp://www.foodsafety.gov/keep/charts/mintemp.html
  • Fully cooked ham.Reheat fully cooked ham to an internal temperature of 140°F.Source: www.fsis.usda.gov/news_&_events/cooking_for_groups_image_library/Index/asphttp://www.foodsafety.gov/keep/charts/mintemp.html
  • Temperature matters.All egg dishes and leftovers should be cooked to a minimum temperature of 165°. When cooking eggs, always cook the yolk and white of the egg until firm. Back in the day, some of us used to eat our eggs sunny-side-up or over easy. For safety sake, flip that egg over and cook the yolk and white of the egg until it is firm.Eggs:Cook fried eggs for 2 to 3 minutes on each side, 4 minutes in a covered pan.Cook scrambled eggs until all of the egg is firm.Boil eggs for 7 minutes.Do not eat egg recipes wherein eggs remain raw or only partially cooked.Meringue-topping on pies; bake about 15 minutes at 350 °F.Source: www.fda.gov/Food/ResourcesForYou/HealthEducators/ucm083057.htm http://www.fsis.usda.gov/is_it_done_yet/News_Videos_Photos_Images/index.asp
  • “Safety” versus “doneness”.“Safety” refers to cooking food to a safe minimum temperature to kill harmful microorganisms to prevent foodborne illness.“Doneness” refers to the way you like it. The food is cooked to please you—texture, appearance, color, juicyness etc. These are all subjective because “doneness” can vary from person-to-person according to their taste. For example, chicken is food safe at 165°F, but some people may prefer 170°F. Source: http://www.fsis.usda.gov/Fact_Sheets/Kitchen_Thermometers/index.asp
  • Refrigerator/freezer temperatures:Prehistoric men and women used caves and packed snow to keep food fresher longer. Without taking the time to talk about the history of refrigeration, we have come a long way since the cave days. Refrigerators slow the growth of bacteria.Again, keep refrigerator temperatures at 40° F or slightly below. Keep freezer temperatures at 0° F or below. Refrigerator and freezer thermometers are available in your local food markets, variety, and kitchen stores for less than $10.00. These thermometers can be kept in the refrigerator and the freezer. Later, you will discover just how critical these appliance thermometers can be in a power outage.Source: http://www.fsis.usda.gov/Fact_Sheets/Refrigeration_&_Food_Safety/index.asp
  • Myoglobin in meat.Myoblobyn is a protein found in the muscle fibers of meat, poultry and seafood.Myoglobin in meat can cause meat to change colors when it is exposed to oxygen. So keep in mind, color changes are normal for meat, poultry, and seafood when properly stored in the refrigerator or freezer storage. The food should be checked for any odor or slime before discarding.Source:http://origin-www.fsis.usda.gov/PDF/Color_of_Meat_and_Poultry.pdf http://origin-www.fsis.usda.gov/Fact_Sheets/Color_of_Meat_&_Poultry/index.asp
  • Let’s move on to thawing food safely.When was the last time you thawed food?What method did you use?
  • There are three safe ways to thaw food safely.Refrigerator:Move the food item from the freezer to the bottom shelf of the refrigerator to avoid any meat juices from spilling on to other foods.Microwave: Place the frozen food item in the microwave. Follow the manufacturer’s instructions for thawing.In a tub of water: Place the frozen food in a tub or pan of room temperature water. Place the tub or pan in the sink. Do not put the frozen food in a sink filled with water. To keep bacteria at a safer level, contain the food in a tub or pan filled with water. Thaw the food within two hours. Remember, raw and cooked food should never stay out of refrigeration longer than two hours; one hour if it is 90°F or higher outside.Source: http://www.fsis.usda.gov/is_it_done_yet/News_Videos_Photos_Images/index.asphttp://www.fsis.usda.gov/Fact_Sheets/Big_Thaw/index.asp
  • Gee, I think I changed my mind. I don’t want to eat the food I just thawed out. An important note about thawing food. If the food is thawed outside of the refrigerator—meaning in a pan of room temperature water or the microwave, you cannot refreeze because it was thawed outside of refrigeration and could have developed bacteria by going through the danger zone. In addition, microwave thawing can partially cook the food and bring the temperature above 40°F. If the food is thawed in the refrigerator, and you do not want to cook it, it can be put back into the freezer and thawed at a later date. This can be done because the food never went into the danger zone between 40°F—140°F. The food stayed in the refrigerator never going above 40°F.Source: http://www.fsis.usda.gov/Fact_Sheets/Big_Thaw/index.asp
  • Keep cold foods cold! If food will be left out for two hours or more, use ice or cold packs to keep it refrigerated at a temperature of 40°f or below. Source: www.fsis.usda.gov/Fact_Sheets/Focus_On_Holiday_or_Party_Buffets/index.asp
  • Hot holding: Keep hot foods hot.After food is cooked to a proper internal temperature, it must be held at a temperature of 140°F or above before serving to avoid bacteria growth. Keep hot foods hot! We often cook wonderful meals especially around holidays and family gatherings. We set a beautiful table for everyone to see. The problem is, not everyone comes on time and the food is sometimes left out beyond the 2 hour rule. Never leave food out of refrigeration more than 2 hours, and not more than 1 hour if it is 90°F outside. If food will be left out for more than 2 hours, invest in chaffing dishes or food warmers that will keep the food at an internal temperature of 140°F or above.Source: www.fsis.usda.gov/Fact_Sheets/Big_Thaw/index.asp
  • Reheating foods safely.The microwave, stove top or the oven is the quickest way to safely reheat foods as quickly as possible. Food must be reheated within the 2 hour rule so as not to linger in the temperature danger zone of 40°F - 140°F.When using the oven to reheat, set the oven no lower than 325°F. The food must reach a safe internal temperature of at least, 165°F.Slow cookers are safe to cook with, but never use a slow cooker to reheat. The slow cooking temperature would keep the food in the danger zone for too long. Source: Cooking for Groups: A Volunteer’s Guide to Food Safety. United States Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service.
  • Microwave cooking.Microwave ovens can be so convenient that we wonder how we ever got along without one. As convenient as microwave cooking is, we must take special care to avoid foodborne illness. Microwave ovens do not always provide uniform heating. These “cold spots” can leave areas where harmful bacteria can thrive.So here are a few tips to follow:Stir or rotate food part way through the cooking or heating.Use a cooking thermometer to ensure proper internal cooking temperature of the food item.Break down large cuts of meat into smaller parts to ensure the heat reaches the center of the meat.Do not cook whole stuffed food in the microwave. The oven may not heat the stuffing thoroughly.After defrosting in a microwave, always cook foods immediately.For more information on microwave cooking, log onto:Source: www.fsis.usda.gov/Fact_Sheets/Cooking_Safely_in_the Microwave/index.asp
  • Cooling foods down.Never put a large pot of hot food in the refrigerator. Break larger quantities of food down to smaller quantities in shallow containers. This allows food to cool at a faster rate. Slice large pieces of meat and turkey and place them in shallow containers. This allows food to pass through the “danger zone” faster.Do not overfill the refrigerator; cool air must be allowed to circulate for proper refrigeration.Source: Cooking for Groups: A Volunteer’s Guide to Food Safety. United States Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service.
  • Let’s go shopping again.Always purchase non-perishable items first. This may sound like a no brainer, but how many people do you see at the store with perishable foods in the cart before non-perishable foods. Sometimes we are rushing through the grocery store and we just do not pay attention. Shopping for cold and frozen foods last, will ensure the foods will still be cold by check-out time. As stated earlier, there have been problems with contaminated water used to wash fresh produce after harvesting. Before you prepare the produce, make sure you wash the produce with potable water for at least 30 seconds. This can help reduce harmful bacteria, fertilizers and pesticides. This includes produce with skins and rinds that are not eaten. Consider using a brush while rinsing. When you cut into the food item, bacteria can enter the food as you slice. Do not use soap to wash produce.Source: “Kitchen Companion”. Your Safe Food Handbook. United States Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service.www.fsis.usda.gov/factsheets/Be_Smart_Keep_Foods_Apart/index.asphttp://www.fda.gov/ForConsumers/ConsumerUpdates/ucm204328.htm
  • Frozen foods.Always purchase frozen food items afternon-perishable food items. This may sound like a no-brainer; however, when we are in a hurry we do not always adhere to this rule.Source: “Kitchen Companion”. Your Safe Food Handbook. United States Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service.
  • Dented cans.Some of us may remember going to dented can sales. But when purchasing canned items, make sure there are no dents, bulging lids or cracks of any kind. Small cracks and dents can allow bacteria and other harmful pathogens to enter the can or seep out onto other foods. Be sure to clean the lid thoroughly with hot soapy water before opening the can. Not cleaning the lid before opening the can may allow bacteria to enter the food. Source: http://origin-www.fsis.usda.gov/Fact_Sheets/Basics_For_Handling_Food_Safely/index.asp
  • Packaging.Source: http://origin-www.fsis.usda.gov/Fact_Sheets/Basics_For_Handling_Food_Safely/index.asp
  • What types of foods are dated?Dating is found mostly on perishable foods such as: meat, poultry, eggs, Dairy productsSource:“Kitchen Companion”. Your Safe Food Handbook. United States Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service.
  • Federal law and dating requirements are only required on infant formula and some baby food. Under current law, when an infant formula is formulated, the manufacturer of the product must guarantee the nutritional quality of that formulation before marketing can begin. The FDA requires the manufacturer to disclose the following information:Proof of nutrient content of the infant formula—by disclosing all quality control procedures, requirements for particular labeling, and the manufacturer’s records and reports on the formula. Source: www.fda.gov/Food/FoodSafety/Product-SpecificInformation/InfantFormula/default.htm
  • Types of food dating:“Sell-By”“Best if used By”“Use-By” “Closed or coded dates”Source:“Kitchen Companion”. Your Safe Food Handbook. United States Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service.
  • “Sell-By”:Informs the store how long to display the product for saleSource:“Kitchen Companion”. Your Safe Food Handbook. United States Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service.
  • Best if Used By”.This date is recommended for the best flavor or quality of a product. It is not a purchase or safety date.Source:“Kitchen Companion”. Your Safe Food Handbook. United States Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service.
  • “Use-By”:This date is the last date recommended for the use of the product while at peak quality.The manufacturer determines this date.Source:“Kitchen Companion”. Your Safe Food Handbook. United States Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service.
  • “Closed” or “coded” dates are sometimes used by manufacturers for “shelf-stable” products. An example would be cans and boxes of food. Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service. “Food Safety for Older Adults”.
  • Expiration Dates:If the date expires during home storage, a product should be safe and of good quality if it is handled properly and stored at 40° F or belowBut always adhere to the “Use-By” dateSource:“Kitchen Companion”. Your Safe Food Handbook. United States Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service.
  • Cleaning the refrigerator.If you want to keep your food safe, it is very important to keep your refrigerator clean:Follow the manufacturer’s instructions on the use of cleaners for the refrigerator so as not to damage the surface.Wipe up spills right away.Clean refrigerator surfaces with hot, soapy water; then rinse with clear water.Do not use strong smelling cleaners; this odor can transfer to your food or ice cubes.At least once a week throw away foods that should no longer be eaten.Source: http://www.fsis.usda.gov/factsheets/refrigeration_&_food_safety/index.asp
  • Cleaning the refrigerator.Do not keep raw poultry and ground meats in the refrigerator longer than 2 days.Do not keep cooked leftovers in the refrigerator longer than 4 days.For a fresh smelling refrigerator, keep an open box of baking soda on the refrigerator shelf to absorb odors. For refrigerator efficiency, use a brush or vacuum cleaner to clean the refrigerator coil 3 or 4 times a year.Source: http://www.fsis.usda.gov/factsheets/refrigeration_&_food_safety/index.asp
  • Refrigerator odors.Some odors are hard to get rid of. If odors persist, try these techniques:Use a solution of equal parts vinegar and water. The acidity of vinegar destroys mildew. Repeat this process until the odor is gone or;Wash the unit with a solution of baking soda and water. Be sure to wash every part of the refrigerator or;Stuff the unit with paper towels, keep the door closed for several days. Then wash the unit with vinegar and water.Source: http://www.fsis.usda.gov/factsheets/refrigeration_&_food_safety/index.asp
  • Refriferator odors.In an open container, place baking soda or fresh coffee grounds. Allow it to sit in the refrigerator, or shake the coffee grounds or baking soda, directly on the bottom shelf of the unit.Soak a cotton swab in vanilla and allow it to sit in the freezer for 24 hours.Try a commercial product and following the manufacturer’s directions.Source: http://www.fsis.usda.gov/factsheets/refrigeration_&_food_safety/index.asp
  • Yes, foodborne illnesses do increase during the summer months. As stated earlier, bacteria occur naturally in our environment– in our soil, air, water, and in the bodies of animals and people. Most foodborne bacteria replicate fastest at 90 to 110°F, and hot humid weather, provides moisture for more bacterial growth. In addition, “people” often cause the rise in foodborne illness during summer months. More people are outdoors cooking and camping, and preparing food in uncontrolled environments. Our kitchens, refrigerators and washing areas are most often not available to us. We often forget to keep hot foods hot and cold foods cold! Source: http://origin-www.fsis.usda.gov/Fact_Sheets/Foodborne_Illness_Peaks_in_Summer/index.asp
  • What can we do during summer months?To avoid foodborne illness during the summer months we must remain deligent and adhere to the Fight-Bac rules:Clean: Wash hands and surfaces often.Separate: Don’t Cross-Contaminate.Cook: Cookfoods to proper temperatures.Chill: Refrigerate foods promptly.Source: http://origin-www.fsis.usda.gov/Fact_Sheets/Foodborne_Illness_Peaks_in_Summer/index.asp
  • Egg storage.Source: http://www.foodsafety.gov/keep/charts/eggstorage.html
  • Egg storage.Source: http://www.foodsafety.gov/keep/charts/eggstorage.html
  • Egg substitutes.Source: http://www.foodsafety.gov/keep/charts/eggstorage.html
  • Hard Cooked eggs.Source: http://www.foodsafety.gov/keep/charts/eggstorage.html
  • Once a perishable food item is frozen, before the date expires, it does not matter if the date expires while the food is frozen. Foods kept frozen continuously are safe indefinitely. However, there will be a change in the taste or quality of the food item if it has been kept frozen beyond the recommended time period.Source: “Kitchen Companion”. Your Safe Food Handbook. United States Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service.
  • Freezer facts. Preventing freezer burn.Those dried out, white, patchy, freezer burns on meat and poultry will not make you sick. But it sure will make the meat and poultry tough and bland. The food will be considered ”poor quality.”Use heavy freezer paper, freezer bags, plastic wrap or foil to wrap freezer items.Use a permanent marker and date the food packages. Use FIFO—first in first out. Use the oldest food first and place the newer food items toward the back.Source: “Kitchen Companion”. Your Safe Food Handbook. United States Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service.
  • Thunderstorms.How long can I keep the food after my power has been out??? When the power goes out—keep the refrigerator and the freezer doors closed whenever possible.Refrigerator:Now, this situation is when a refrigerator thermometer can really come in handy. If the power is out longer than four hours, throw the food out—unless the food is 40°F or lower.If no food thermometer was kept in the refrigerator or freezer, you must check each food item. In order to refrigerate the food safely the food must be 40° or below. If not, toss it out!Freezer:When the power is restored, if you have kept an appliance thermometer in the freezer, check the temperature reading. If the temperature reading is 40°F or below, you may safely refreeze the food items.A half full freezer will keep for 24 hours without power.A full freezer will keep for 48 hours without power.If ice crystals are still on the food, or the food is at 40° or less, you can safely refreeze the food. Otherwise, toss it out.Source: www.fda.gov/Food/ResourcesForYou/Consumers/ucm076993.htm
  • Mercury and methylmercury:Mercury occurs naturally in the environment, but it can also be released into the air by industrial pollution. Mercury can fall from the air and pollute rivers, streams and our oceans. Once the mercury accumulates in water, it becomes methylmercury. Fish and shellfish feed in these waters and the methylmercury is absorbed, and builds in their bodies. Eating a variety of fish and shellfish are a nutritious part of a healthy diet providing nutrients such as high quality protein, low fat and omega-3 fatty acids. These nutrients are essential to healthy growth and development.Although for most of the population, eating fish containing mercury is not considered a health problem, methylmercury is harmful to unborn babies and young children. Almost all fish and shellfish have trace amounts of methylmercury. When we eat the fish or shellfish, it accumulates in the bloodstream and is passed on to the unborn baby.“Therefore The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) advise women who may become pregnant, pregnant women, nursing mothers, and young children, to avoid some types of fish and eat fish and shellfish that are lower in mercury” (www.epa.gov/waterscience/fish/files/MethylmercuryBroschure.pdf).Source: www.epa.gov
  • Do not eat: Swordfish, Shark, tilefish, or king mackerelThe risk of methylmercury depends on:The amount of fish and shellfish eaten and How much methylmercury is contained in the fish.Due to the high levels of methylmercury, the FDA and EPA advise us not to eat swordfish, shark, tilefish, or king mackerel. Remember larger fish live longer, and absorb more mercury than smaller fish. For further information about the risk of mercury in fish and shellfish in your area: Call 1-888-safefood or visit the following websites: www.cfsan.fda.gov/seafood1.htmlwww.epa.gov/ost/fishSource: For further information about the risk of mercury in fish and shellfish in your area: Call 1-888-safefood or visit the following websites: www.cfsan.fda.gov/seafood1.htmlwww.epa.gov/ost/fish
  • Fish lower in methylmercury…The following fish are lower in methylmercury and are most commonly eaten– shrimp, canned light tuna, salmon, pollock and catfish. For safety, each week eat two fish meals or two 6oz. servings of fish or shellfish that is lower in methylmercury. Albacore (white) light tuna has more mercury than canned light tuna. Source: www.cfsan.fda.gov/seafood1.htmlwww.epa.gov/ost/fish
  • More possible effects of BPA:(Found in animal studies only)MiscarriageObesity Altered brain development and behavior in childrenAltered immune systemProstate/breast cancerEarly onset of pubertyLowered sperm countHyperactivitySource: www.enviroblog.org/2008/04/cheatsheet-bisphenol-a-bpa.htmhttp://www.chej.org/documents/BabysToxicBottleFinal.pdf
  • To minimize exposure to BPA’sUse powdered formulas in non-steel cans that are not lined with BPA’s. Heat foods in ceramic or glass containers to avoid BPA chemicals from leaching into the food.Source: www.enviroblog.org/2008/04/cheatsheet-bisphenol-a-bpa.htmhttp://www.enviroblog.org/2009/05/ewgs-tips-to-avoid-bpa-exposure.html
  • On the internet, search for BPA free plastic containers. A number of outlets will pop-up for you to explore.
  • FDA Assessment of BPA:Interim Public Health Recommendations:“Over the past year manufacturers have stopped selling new infant feeding bottles and infant feeding cups in the United States”.“At this interim stage, FDA supports reasonable steps to reduce exposure of infants to BPA in the food supply.  In addition, FDA will work with industry to support and evaluate manufacturing practices and alternative substances that could reduce exposure to other populations.Given that these are preliminary steps being taken as a precaution, it is important that no harmful changes be made in food packaging or consumption, whether by industry or consumers, that could jeopardize either food safety or reduce access to and intake of food needed to provide good nutrition, particularly for infants. Infants.  Infants are a potentially sensitive population for BPA because (1) their neurological and endocrine systems are developing; and (2) their hepatic system for detoxification and elimination of such substances as BPA is immature.FDA is supporting the industry’s actions to stop producing BPA-containing bottles and infant feeding cups for the U.S. market. FDA understands that over the past year, the major manufacturers of these products have stopped selling new BPA-containing bottles and infant feeding cups for the U.S. market. Glass and polypropylene bottles and plastic disposable “bag” liners have long been alternatives to polycarbonate nursing bottles.  FDA is facilitating the development of alternatives to BPA for the linings of infant formula cans.  FDA has already noted increased interest on the part of infant formula manufacturers to explore alternatives to BPA-containing can linings, and has received notifications for alternative packaging.” The Food and Drug Administration Science Advisory Board Committee will continue to assess the research findings on any potential adverse human health effects of Bisphenal A.”For more information:Source: http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/PublicHealthFocus/ucm197739.htm
  • There has been no new food safety policy changes in seventy years until July of 2009. Recent food-related illnesses and deaths have prompted the Obama administration to support new Food Safety Policy. The new legislation, if passed by the Senate, would raise the bar significantly for the food industry and give the FDA more authority. Presently, the new bill includes:Mandatory on-farm food safety practices for fruits and vegetables.More frequent inspections of processing plants that the Food and Drug Administration deems high risk (every six to twelve months). Lower risk processing plants would be inspected every three years. Presently, some plants go as long as a decade or more without inspection.Processing plants would have to pay a yearly fee to finance the cost of inspections.The Food and Drug Administration would have authority to recall tainted food items. Presently, the FDA can only request companies to recall their product.Creation of a system of tracing food products and ingredients, to reach the source of the problem sooner. Heightened inspections on imported foods.To read more about this new legislation log onto http://www.govtrack.us/congress/billtext.xpd?bill=h111-875Source: www.pewtrusts.org/mews_room_detail.aspx?id_54382http://www.govtrack.us/congress/billtext.xpd?bill=h111-875
  • And remember: Fight Bac!!

Food Safety is for Everyone, Module 4: Temperature Matters Food Safety is for Everyone, Module 4: Temperature Matters Presentation Transcript

  • Food Safety is for EveryoneModule Four
    Written and developed by:
    Lorraine Harley, Assistant Professor
    University of Maryland Extension
    Calvert/Charles/St Mary’s Counties
    Equal Access Programs
    Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley,
    Assistant Professor,
    University of Maryland Extension
  • Module 4
    Temperature Matters
    Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley,
    Assistant Professor,
    University of Maryland Extension
  • Temperature matters:
    Proper:
    Thermometer use
    Cooking
    Cooling
    Thawing
    Reheating
    Hot holding
    140°
    40°
    Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley,
    Assistant Professor,
    University of Maryland Extension
  • Why use a food thermometer?
    To confirm safe minimum internal food temperatures to prevent foodborne illness
    Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley,
    Assistant Professor,
    University of Maryland Extension
  • Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley,
    Assistant Professor,
    University of Maryland Extension
  • “It’s Safe to Bite When the Temperature is Right”
    Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley,
    Assistant Professor,
    University of Maryland Extension
  • Which burger is safe to eat?
    Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley,
    Assistant Professor,
    University of Maryland Extension
  • Which burger did you pick?
    Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, Asssitant Professor, University of Maryland Extension
  • Temperature matters!
    Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, Asssitant Professor, University of Maryland Extension
  • How to use a food thermometer
    Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, Asssitant Professor, University of Maryland Extension
  • Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley,
    Assistant Professor,
    University of Maryland Extension
  • Ground beef, veal & lamb
    160 °F
    Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, Asssitant Professor, University of Maryland Extension
  • Temperature Matters!
    Fish
    145 °F
    Beef, Veal, Lamb Steaks and Roasts
    145 °F
    Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, Asssitant Professor, University of Maryland Extension
  • Temperature Matters!
    Turkey, Chicken & Duck Whole, (pieces & ground)
    165 °F
    Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, Asssitant Professor, University of Maryland Extension
  • Fresh ham
    Raw
    160°F
    Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley,
    Assistant Professor,
    University of Maryland Extension
  • Fully cooked ham
    To reheat:
    140°F
    Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley,
    Assistant Professor,
    University of Maryland Extension
  • Temperature Matters!
    All egg dishes and leftovers:
    165 °F
    Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley,
    Assistant Professor,
    University of Maryland Extension
  • Safety
    Versus
    Doneness
    Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley,
    Assistant Professor,
    University of Maryland Extension
  • Refrigerator/freezer temperatures
    Refrigerator 40° or slightly below
    Freezer 0° F
    Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley,
    Assistant Professor,
    University of Maryland Extension
  • Myoglobin in meat
    Is a protein found in the muscle fibers of meat, poultry and seafood.
    Are color changes in meat normal?
    Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley,
    Assistant Professor,
    University of Maryland Extension
  • Thawing food safely
    When was the last time you thawed food?
    What method did you use
    Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley,
    Assistant Professor,
    University of Maryland Extension
  • Thawing food safely cxontinued…
    There are 3safe ways to thaw food safely:
    In the refrigerator
    In the microwave or
    In a tub or pot of cold water
    Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley,
    Assistant Professor,
    University of Maryland Extension
  • Thawing food safely Continued…
    Gee, I think I changed my mind. I don’t want to eat the food I just thawed out.
    Can I re-freeze the food??
    Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley,
    Assistant Professor,
    University of Maryland Extension
  • Keep cold foods cold
    40°F or below
    Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley,
    Assistant Professor,
    University of Maryland Extension
  • Hot holding: keep hot foods hot
    Remember the
    2 hour rule
    140° or above
    Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley,
    Assistant Professor,
    University of Maryland Extension
  • Reheating foods safely
    Microwave
    Stove top
    Oven
    Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley,
    Assistant Professor,
    University of Maryland Extension
  • Microwave cooking
    Microwave cooking does not always provide even heating.
    After defrosting in a microwave, always cook foods immediately
    Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley,
    Assistant Professor,
    University of Maryland Extension
  • Cooling foods down
    Do not overfill the refrigerator
    Break large pots into shallow containers
    Break down large pieces of meat and turkey
    Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley,
    Assistant Professor,
    University of Maryland Extension
  • Let’s go shopping…again
    Always purchase non-perishable items first
    Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley,
    Assistant Professor,
    University of Maryland Extension
  • Frozen foods
    Always purchase frozen items afternon-perishable items
    Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley,
    Assistant Professor,
    University of Maryland Extension
  • Dented cans
    Never buy dented cans!
    Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley,
    Assistant Professor,
    University of Maryland Extension
  • Packaging
    Never buy meat, poultry or other foods in torn packaging.
    Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley,
    Assistant Professor,
    University of Maryland Extension
  • What types of foods are dated?
    Dates are found mostly on perishable foods such as:
    Meat
    Poultry
    Eggs
    Dairy products
    Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley,
    Assistant Professor,
    University of Maryland Extension
  • Federal law and dating requirements:
    Only required on infant formula and some baby food.
    Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley,
    Assistant Professor,
    University of Maryland Extension
  • Types of food dating:
    “Sell-By”
    “Best if used By”
    “Use-By”
    “Closed or coded dates”
    Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley,
    Assistant Professor,
    University of Maryland Extension
  • “Sell-by”
    Informs the store how long to display the product for sale
    Always buy the item before the “Sell-By” date
    Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley,
    Assistant Professor,
    University of Maryland Extension
  • “Best if used by”
    This date is recommended for the best flavor or quality of a product
    It is not a purchase or safety date
    Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley,
    Assistant Professor,
    University of Maryland Extension
  • “Use-by”
    This date is the last date recommended for the use of the product while at peak quality
    The manufacturer determines this date
    Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley,
    Assistant Professor,
    University of Maryland Extension
  • “Closed or coded dates”
    This date refers to packing numbers for use by the manufacturer
    For example: cans and boxes of food
    Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley,
    Assistant Professor,
    University of Maryland Extension
  • Expiration dates
    If the date expires during home storage, a product should be safe and of good quality if it is handled properly and stored at 40° F or below
    Butalways adhere to the “Use-By” date
    Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley,
    Assistant Professor,
    University of Maryland Extension
  • Cleaning the refrigerator
    Follow the manufacturer’s
    instructions
    Wipe up spills
    Chose cleaners carefully
    Weekly toss out
    Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley,
    Assistant Professor,
    University of Maryland Extension
  • Cleaning the refrigerator coontinued…
    Cooked leftovers—4 days
    Raw poultry; ground meats—2 days
    Keep odors down-baking soda
    Clean refrigerator coils
    When in doubt toss it out!!
    Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley,
    Assistant Professor,
    University of Maryland Extension
  • Refrigerator odors
    Equal vinegar and water
    Solution of baking soda and water. Air dry
    Paper towels—then vinegar and water
    Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley,
    Assistant Professor,
    University of Maryland Extension
  • Refrigerator odors Continued…
    Coffee grounds—baking soda
    Freezer—cotton swab—vanilla—24 hours
    Commercial product
    Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley,
    Assistant Professor,
    University of Maryland Extension
  • Summer time
    Does foodborne illness peak in the Summer?
    Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley,
    Assistant Professor,
    University of Maryland Extension
  • What can we do during summer months?
    Clean
    Separate
    Cook
    Chill
    Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley,
    Assistant Professor,
    University of Maryland Extension
  • Egg storage
    Raw eggs in shell:
    • Refrigerate: 3 to 5 weeks
    • Freeze: after beating white and yolk together.
    Raw egg white:
    • Refrigerate: 2 to 4 days
    • Freeze: 12 months
    Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley,
    Assistant Professor,
    University of Maryland Extension
  • Egg storage
    Raw egg yolks:
    • Refrigerate: 2 to 4 days
    • Freeze: Yolks do not freeze well.
    Raw egg frozen accidentally in shell:
    • Refrigerate: use immediately when thawed.
    • Freeze: when ready to use, refrigerate to thaw.
    Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley,
    Assistant Professor,
    University of Maryland Extension
  • Egg substitutes
    Liquid egg substitutes (unopened):
    • Refrigerate: 10 days
    • Freeze: 12 months
    Liquid Egg Substitutes (opened)
    • Refrigerate 3 days
    • Never freeze
    Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley,
    Assistant Professor,
    University of Maryland Extension
  • Hard cooked eggs
    Hard cooked eggs:
    • Refrigerate: 7 days
    • Never freeze
    Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley, Asssitant Professor, University of Maryland Extension
  • Freezer storage:
    Once a perishable food item is frozen, before the date expires, it does not matter if the date expires while the food is frozen; foods kept frozen continuously are safe indefinitely
    Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley,
    Assistant Professor,
    University of Maryland Extension
  • Freezer facts: wrap-date-FIFO
    Preventing freezer burn
    Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley,
    Assistant Professor,
    University of Maryland Extension
  • Special topics
    Thunderstorms
    Mercury and Methylmercury
    Bisphenal A (BPA’s)
    Keeping baby safe
    Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley,
    Assistant Professor,
    University of Maryland Extension
  • Thunderstorms
    The refrigerator
    The freezer
    Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley,
    Assistant Professor,
    University of Maryland Extension
  • Fish, Shellfish and…
    Mercury
    Methylmercury
    Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley,
    Assistant Professor,
    University of Maryland Extension
  • Do Not Eat:
    Swordfish
    Shark
    Tilefish
    King mackerel
    Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley,
    Assistant Professor,
    University of Maryland Extension
  • Fish lowerin methylmercury and…
    Most commonly eaten are:
    Shrimp
    Canned light tuna
    Salmon
    Pollock
    Catfish
    Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley,
    Assistant Professor,
    University of Maryland Extension
  • Bisphenal A (BPAs)
    Bisphenal is a plastic chemical used to make polycarbonate plastic products:
    Water bottles
    Baby bottles
    Canned foods (lining of metal food cans)
    Food storage and heating containers
    Some children’s toys
    Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley,
    Assistant Professor,
    University of Maryland Extension
  • Possible effects of BPA:(Found in animal studies only)
    Miscarriage
    Obesity
    Altered brain development and behavior
    Altered immune system
    Prostate/breast cancer
    Early onset of puberty
    Lowered sperm count
    Hyperactivity
    Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley,
    Assistant Professor,
    University of Maryland Extension
  • To minimize exposure to BPA’s
    Limit your intake of canned foods
    Avoid polycarbonate plastic (usually #7)
    Use glass baby bottles or:
    Polypropylene
    Polyethylene
    Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley,
    Assistant Professor,
    University of Maryland Extension
  • To minimize exposure to BPA’s
    Use powdered baby formulas (non-steel cans)
    Heat foods in ceramic or glass containers.
    Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley,
    Assistant Professor,
    University of Maryland Extension
  • BPA’s…
    Look for BPA free plastic containers
    Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley,
    Assistant Professor,
    University of Maryland Extension
  • FDA assessment of BPA
    As of January 2010:
    The FDA supports the industry’s actions to stop producing BPA-containing bottles and infant feeding cups for the U. S. market.
    Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley,
    Assistant Professor,
    University of Maryland Extension
  • Keeping Baby Safe
    Food Safety
    Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley,
    Assistant Professor,
    University of Maryland Extension
  • What can I do to keep my baby safe?
    Follow the manufacture’s recommendations …
    Observe the “use-by” dates
    Check commercial baby food jar lids
    Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley,
    Assistant Professor,
    University of Maryland Extension
  • What can I do to keep my baby safe? Continued…
    Transport bottles and food in an insulated cooler when traveling with the baby.
    Place the ice chest in the passenger compartment of the car. It’s cooler than the trunk.
    Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley,
    Assistant Professor,
    University of Maryland Extension
  • DO Not
    Make more formula than you need
    Put a bottle back into the refrigerator if the baby does not finish it
    Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley,
    Assistant Professor,
    University of Maryland Extension
  • Do Not
    Feed a baby from a jar of baby food and then put it back in the refrigerator.
    Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley,
    Assistant Professor,
    University of Maryland Extension
  • Do Not
    serve raw or unpasteurized milk, fruit or vegetable juice to infants or young children.
    leave formula out at room temperature for more than 1 hour.
    place dirty diapers in the same bag with bottles or food
    Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley,
    Assistant Professor,
    University of Maryland Extension
  • Two ways to heat breast milk or formula
    In hot tap water (1 -2 minutes)
    On the stove; heat water in a pan. Remove the pan from the heat and set the bottle in it until warm
    Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley,
    Assistant Professor,
    University of Maryland Extension
  • Food safety policy
    House proposes new
    food safety laws
    Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley,
    Assistant Professor,
    University of Maryland Extension
  • FIGHT BAC!
    • CLEAN
    Wash hands and surfaces often
    • SEPARATE
    Don’t cross contaminate
    • COOK
    Cook to proper temperatures
    • CHILL
    Refrigerate promptly
    Copyright 2010 by Lorraine Harley,
    Assistant Professor,
    University of Maryland Extension