THE COMPROMISE YEARS 1820-1854 The Missouri Compromise of 1820 In 1819, Missouri wanted to enter the Union. However, there were already 11 free states and 11 Slave states. Why did Missouri create a problem?
THE COMPROMISE YEARS 1820-1854 The Missouri Compromise of 1820 Problem #1: If Missouri joined the Union as a slave state, the South would have 24 senators and the North would only have only 22 senators. 12 southern states=___ senators 11 northern states =___ senators (Each state has two senators)
THE COMPROMISE YEARS 1820-1854 The Missouri Compromise of 1820 Solution #1 : Senator Henry Clay suggested drawing a line at the 36º latitude 30‘ N. Slavery would be banned everywhere North of this line. Missouri would join as a slave state , Maine as a free state.
Problem #2: After the war with Mexico, (1848) what would we do with lands west of the Rocky Mountains? The Missouri Compromise only applied to lands east of the Rockies. THE COMPROMISE YEARS 1820-1854 The Missouri Compromise of 1820
THE COMPROMISE YEARS 1820-1854 Problem #2 – What to do with lands won from Mexico
Solution #2: Senator Wilmot from PA wanted to provide that slavery be bannes in ANY area won from Mexico. The House passed the Proviso in 1846, but the Senate defeated it. THE COMPROMISE YEARS 1820-1854 Wilmot Proviso RESULT: NO SOLUTION to #2 Problem (what to do with lands west of Rockies)= Increased tensions of sectionalism
THE COMPROMISE YEARS 1820-1854 Wilmot Proviso – 1846 – No solution
THE COMPROMISE YEARS 1820-1854 Popular Sovereignty – 1848 New #2 Solution: Voters in a new territory would decide for themselves whether or not to allow slavery in a territory.
THE COMPROMISE YEARS 1820-1854 Popular Sovereignty - 1848 Result: The idea of Popular Sovereignty led to a new political party, the “Free Soil” Party. It included both Democrats and Whigs who wanted to keep slavery out of the western territories, and a few who wanted to abolish all slavery in the U.S.
THE COMPROMISE YEARS 1820-1854 Popular Sovereignty - 1848 Problem #3: California wanted to enter the Union as a free state in 1850. Once again, this would upset the balance of power in the Senate. Some southern states threatened to leave the Union if California was admitted as a free state.
THE COMPROMISE YEARS 1820-1854 Result: Increased tensions. Senator Benton of Missouri denounced Sen. Foote from Miss. for opposing California’s entry. Sen. Foote aimed a pistol at Benton in the Senate. P________ #3: Should California be admitted to the Union? roblem
THE COMPROMISE YEARS 1820-1854 S_______ #3: The Compromise of 1850 Sen. Henry Clay (who was sick) suggested the Compromise of 1850. Senator Calhoun vigorously opposed it. Calhoun later died in 1850, but other southerners kept up the opposition. olution
THE COMPROMISE YEARS 1820-1854 Solution #3: The Compromise of 1850
Clay suggested five things:
California enter as a free state.
2. Divide the Mexican Cession into two territories
3. End slave trade in Washington D.C.
4. Have a strict Fugitive Slave Law.
5. End a border dispute between Texas and New Mexico.
THE COMPROMISE YEARS 1820-1854 Solution #3: The _____________________ – Which ideas would northerners favor? Which ideas would southerners favor? _____ 1. California enter as a free state. _____ 2. Divide the Mexican Cession into two territories. _____ 3. End slave trade in Washington D.C. _____ 4. Have a strict Fugitive Slave Law. _____ 5. End a border dispute between Texas and New Mexico. Compromise of 1850 N N N&S N&S S
THE COMPROMISE YEARS 1820-1854 Compromise Results Did both sides get what they wanted? NOPE! The “pot” of sectional tension was still boiling. The compromises simply turned down the heat a little. The kettle was still on the fire, just waiting for something to fan the flames, causing it to boil over.
Compromise of 1850
Kansas Nebraska Act splits the unorganized territory into the territories of Nebraska and Kansas.
The territories are given the choice whether or not to adopt legal slavery.
This would allow slavery North of the 36 o 30’ line created by the Missouri Compromise of 1820
Kansas Nebraska Act
Act was signed by president Franklin Pierce in 1854.
The allowance of slavery above the line in turn repeals the Missouri Compromise of 1820.
Repeal: The removal or reversal of a law
Increases the ever growing sectional tensions in congress.
Kansas Nebraska Act
Another New Party is formed. This party was created by northerners and westerners who want to stop the spread of slavery.
The new party is the Republican party.
Major Republican Party member is Abraham Lincoln.
Battle between anti-slavery “Free Staters” and pro-slavery “border Ruffians.”
Basically seen as a “pre-game” for the Civil War.
The Gold Rush
California Gold Rush
"Many, very many, that come here meet with bad success & thousands will leave their bones here. Others will lose their health, contract diseases that they will carry to their graves with them. Some will have to beg their way home, & probably one half that come here will never make enough to carry them back. But this does not alter the fact about the gold being plenty here, but shows what a poor frail being man is, how liable to disappointments, disease & death.
There is a good deal of sin & wickedness going on here, Stealing, lying, Swearing, Drinking, Gambling & murdering. There is a great deal of gambling carried on here. Almost every public House is a place for Gambling, & this appears to be the greatest evil that prevails here. Men make & lose thousands in a night, & frequently small boys will go up & bet $5 or 10 (Equivalent to $115-$225 today) -- & if they lose all, go the next day & dig more. We are trying to get laws here to regulate things but it will be very difficult to get them executed."
Mr. Shufelt's letter is part of the collection of the Library of Congress A letter from a gold miner, Placerville, California, March, 1850 ; Holliday, J.S. Rush for Riches: Gold Fever and the Making of California (1999).