OBJECTIVES: After the discussion the students should be able to:1. Distinguished the different complications of the circulatory system.2. Explain the occurrence of the diseases and how it is treated.3. Be aware on the different disorders in order to prevent it.
1. Varicose Veins Varicose Vein, dilated (enlarged) and often twisted vein just below the skin that develops when the valves in the vein no longer function properly or when blood volume in the vein increases. Varicose veins develop most commonly in the legs, but also occur in the anus (hemorrhoids), esophagus, and testes in males (varicocele).
SYMPTOMS • Aching, heavy legs (often worse at night and after exercise) • Ankle swelling • A brownish-blue shiny skin discoloration around the veins • Skin over the vein may become dry, itchy and thin, leading to eczema (venous eczema) • The skin may darken (stasis dermatitis), because of the waste products building up in the legs • Minor injuries to the area may bleed more than normal and/or take a long time to heal
Rarely, there is a large amount of bleeding from a ruptured vein • In some people the skin above the ankle may shrink (lipodermatosclerosis) because the fat underneath the skin becomes hard. • Restless Leg Syndrome. Restless Leg Syndrome appears to be a common overlapping clinical syndrome in patients with varicose veins and other chronic venous insufficiency
CAUSES To remain standing for the whole day or longer time (may be part of profession) Going on walking, who have not to sit at all, the veins of such people get little dilated than necessary because of the higher pressure of blood in these veins. In the case of ladies, irregular menses, pregnancy or repeated delivery as well as very quick deliveries, and miscarriages, including the menopause time, it is very much possible that the varicose veins may result.
TREATMENT Varicose vein surgeryThis involves removing the affected superficial veins.The most common is called ligation and stripping. Non-surgical treatment for varicose veinsElevating the legs provides relief in varicose veins.
Yoga treatment for Varicose Veins In all these situations the best exercise to prevent varicose veins is walking ( but not too much walking). Walking results in creating muscle pressure and relax-ation of the muscles, thereby the blood circulation and control is well maintained. Yogasanas help to seize the further deterioration.
2. HYPERTENSION/HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE Hypertension or High Blood Pressure, medical condition in which constricted arterial blood vessels increase the resistance to blood flow, causing an increase in blood pressure against vessel walls. The heart must work harder to pump blood through the narrowed arteries. If the condition persists, damage to the heart and blood vessels is likely, increasing the risk for stroke, heart attack, and kidney or heart failure. Often called the ―silent killer,‖ hypertension usually causes no symptoms until it reaches a life-threatening stage.
Pressure is a measure of how hard the blood pushes against the walls of your arteries as it moves through your body. Arteries are vessels that carry blood from the pumping heart to all the tissues and organs of the body. High blood pressure does not mean excessive emotional tension, although emotional tension and stress can temporarily increase blood pressure. Normal blood pressure is below 120/80.
TYPES OF HYPERTENSION1. Primary Hypertension This type is also called essential hypertension, and it is by far the most common type of hypertension, and is diagnosed in about 95% of cases. Essential hypertension has no obvious or yet identifiable cause.2. Secondary hypertension; These is kind of hypertension that cause by renal disease, hormone problem or other systemic disease.
CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO 3 STAGES Stage 1, a measure of blood pressure between 130/80 and 140/90 mmHg. This condition called as prehypertension, some of people with these level they dont feel anything. But its possible for the other groups of people this level is too high for them. If your blood pressure falls into the prehypertension category and you do not have any other risk factors, lifestyle changes are the recommended treatment at this stage.
Stage 2, blood pressure recorded around 160/100 mmHg to 179/109 mmHg. Usually if you dont have any accompanying conditions such as heart disease, diabetes, kidney disease, or a history of stroke, at this level the doctors will start to offered lifestyle modifications and a single medication to lower it.
Stage 3, Systolic pressure greater than 180 mmHg or diastolic pressure greater than 110 mmHg. This level is definitely high, The patient should be treat with medication to lower it as soon as possible. Otherwise, Persistent hypertension can make serious medical problem such as strokes, heart attacks, heart failure and arterial aneurysm, and also became one of leading cause of chronic renal failures.
Pulmonary Hypertension Pulmonary hypertension is high blood pressure in the arteries leading from the heart to the lungs. Pulmonary hypertension is a different condition than ordinary high blood pressure (hypertension).
SYMPTOMS shortness of breath with exertion. chest pain fatigue lethargy passing out suddenly swelling of the legs (edema)
CAUSES Congestive heart failure Venous thromboembolic disease (blood clots in the lungs) Human immunodeficiency virus infection Illegal drug use (cocaine, methamphetamine) Cirrhosis of the liver Appetite suppressant medications (fenfluramine, dexfenfluramine, diethylpropion), which are no longer
Autoimmune diseases (lupus, scleroderma, and rheumatoid arthritis) Heart shunts (abnormal blood flow between heart chambers) Chronic lung disease (emphysema, chronic bronchitis, or pulmonary fibrosis) Obstructive sleep apnea
3. HYPOTENSION/LOW BLOOD PRESSURE Low blood pressure (hypotension) is pressure so low it causes symptoms or signs due to the low flow of blood through the arteries and veins. When the flow of blood is too low to deliver enough oxygen and nutrients to vital organs such as the brain, heart, and kidney, the organs do not function normally and may be temporarily or permanently damaged.
SYMPTOMS lightheaded dizziness faintness Development of orthostatic hypotension
CAUSESCONDITIONS THAT REDUCES THE VOLUME OF BLOOD Dehydration Moderate or severe bleeding Severe inflammation of organs inside the body
CAUSES DUE TO HEARTDISEASE Weakened heart muscle can cause the heart to fail and reduce the amount of blood it pumps. Pericarditis is an inflammation of the pericardium (the sac surrounding the heart) Pulmonary embolism is a condition in which a blood clot in a vein (deep vein thrombosis) breaks off and travels to the heart and eventually the lung. A slow heart rate (bradycardia) can decrease the amount of blood pumped by the heart. The resting heart rate for a healthy adult is between 60 and 100 beats/minute.
An abnormally fast heart rate (tachycardia) also can cause low blood pressure. Medications that cause low blood pressurecalcium channel blockers beta blockersWater pills (diuretics)Alcohol and narcotics also can cause low blood pressure.
4. ATHEROSCLEROSIS Atherosclerosis, a form of arteriosclerosis, is the reduction in blood flow through the arteries caused by greasy deposits called plaque that form on the insides of arteries and partially restrict the flow of blood. Plaque deposits are associated with high concentrations of cholesterol in the blood. Recent studies have also shown an association between inflammation and plaque deposits.
SYMPTOMS The specific signs and symptoms depend on which arteries are affected. Heart arteries. Obstruction of the arteries to your heart (coronary arteries) may cause symptoms of heart attack, such as chest pain.
Arteries supplying the brain. Obstruction of the carotid arteries in your neck may cause symptoms of stroke, such as sudden numbness, weakness or dizziness. Arteries in the arms and legs. Obstruction of the arteries supplying blood to your arms and legs may cause symptoms of peripheral arterial disease, such as leg pain when walking (intermittent claudication). Sometimes hardening of the arteries causes erectile dysfunction in men.
CAUSES Damage in endothelium. low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol Plaque formation. Your white blood cells stream in to digest the LDL cholesterol. Over years, the accumulating mess of cholesterol and cells becomes a plaque in the wall of the artery.
TREATMENT Lifestyle changes Medication Angiography and stenting Bypass surgery
5. SHOCK Shock refers to the life-threatening state that disturbs when the body is unable to get enough blood flow. This situation can harm the multiple organs. Shock is one of the most severe health problems that need immediate medical treatment.
SYMPTOMS A fast, weak pulse Low blood pressure Feeling faint, fatigue or nauseous Dizziness Cold, clammy skin Blue lips Rapid, shallow breathing
TYPES There are FIVE types of shock psychological shock (or mental) and physiological (or circulatory) shock. Psychological shock can be disturbed after the emotionally and physically shocking experience but it affects your state of mind. The symptoms of this kind of shock are palpitations and feeling faint, it does not normally lead to severe physical collapse.
The main causes of disturbing this type of shock are hearing of shocking news like death of your close relative or loved one. Involved in a traumatic event like accident and also can be caused due to the victim of any crime.
Physiological shock: This can cause by serious bleeding, poisoning, spinal injury, severe vomiting, diarrhea and pulmonary embolus. There are also different types of physiological shock with certain symptom
Cardiogenic shock: Cardiogenic shock disturbs when the heart is rigorously damaged – by heart attack, for example the body unable to pump blood properly and also causes low blood pressure. This can cause heart attack. It is also very difficult to cure but medicines may be available to make the heartbeat strong. But cardiogenic shock is serious in as many as eight out of ten cases there are new treatments to revascularise or to regain the flow of
Septic shock Septic shock is caused due to the overflow of bacterial infection that causes blood pressure. This type of shock can be treated in hospital only where the accurate drugs can be given. There is another type of septic shock is toxic shock syndrome – an uncommon but rigorous illness caused by certain injures of the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus.
Anaphylactic shock: Anaphylactic shock is a serious allergic reaction. Common cause includes bee and wasp stings, nuts, shellfish, eggs, latex and definite medications, including penicillin. The main signs of causing anaphylactic shock are anxiety, watery eyes, nausea, red and itchy skin, sneezing, difficulty breathing and burning and swelling of the lips and tongue. It is very important to carry anaphylaxis treatment kit.
TREATMENT Airway assessment of whether the patient is awake enough to try to take their own breaths and/or if there is there anything blocking the mouth or nose. Breathing: assessment of the adequacy of breathing and whether it may need to be assisted with mouth-to-mouth resuscitation or more aggressive interventions like a bag and mask or intubation with an endotracheal tube. Circulation: assessment of the adequacy of the blood pressure adequate and determination of whether intravenous lines are needed for delivery of fluid or medications to
6. HEART ATTACK A heart attack, also known as a myocardial infarction, usually occurs when a blood clot forms inside a coronary artery at the site of an atherosclerotic plaque. The blood clot severely limits or completely cuts off blood flow to part of the heart.
SYMPTOMS Pain, fullness, and/or squeezing sensation of the chest Jaw pain, toothache, headache Shortness of breath Nausea, vomiting, and/or general epigastric (upper middle abdomen) discomfort Sweating Heartburn and/or indigestion Arm pain (more commonly the left arm, but may be either arm)
Upper back pain General malaise (vague feeling of illness) No symptoms (Approximately one quarter of all heart attacks are silent, without chest pain or new symptoms. Silent heart attacks are especially common among patients with diabetes mellitus.)
7. STROKE Stroke, brain damage caused by a lack of blood flow to part of the brain. Brain cell function requires a constant delivery of oxygen and glucose from the bloodstream. A stroke, or cerebrovascular accident (CVA), occurs when blood supply to part of the brain is disrupted, causing brain cells to die. Blood flow can be compromised by a variety of mechanisms.
SYMPTOMS Sudden numbness or weakness of the face, arm or leg, especially on one side of the body. The loss of voluntary movement and/or sensation may be complete or partial. There may an associated tingling sensation in the affected area. Sudden confusion or trouble speaking or understanding. Sometimes weakness in the muscles of the face can cause
Sudden trouble seeing in one or both eyes Sudden trouble walking, dizziness, loss of balance or coordination Sudden, severe headache with no known cause
CAUSES Blockage of an artery The part of the brain that is supplied by the clotted blood vessel is then deprived of blood and oxygen. As a result of the deprived blood and oxygen, the cells of that part of the brain die and the part of the body that it controls stops working. Typically, a cholesterol plaque in a small blood vessel within the brain that has gradually caused blood vessel narrowing ruptures and starts the
Rupture of an artery (hemorrhage) Cerebral hemorrhage (bleeding within the brain substance). The most common reason to have bleeding within the brain is uncontrolled high blood pressure. Other situations include aneurysms that leak or rupture or arteriovenous malformations (AVM) in which there is an abnormal collection of blood vessels that are fragile and can bleed.
An ischemic stroke can also be causedby a traveling clot, or embolus . In thiscase, the clot develops at some otherlocation in the circulation, usually in oneof the heart’s chambers. The clot thentravels through the bloodstream until itencounters a vessel too small to let itpass through—often a vessel narrowedby atherosclerosis.
A transient ischemic attack (TIA) sometimes precedes an ischemic stroke. In a TIA, also known as a ministroke, strokelike symptoms develop but disappear within five minutes to 24 hours.
Hemorrhagic strokes account for the remaining 20 percent of all strokes. They occur when weakened blood vessels within the brain rupture and bleed into the surrounding tissue. The escaped blood can compress or pinch nearby blood vessels, cutting off blood flow and depriving the surrounding tissue of oxygen.
8. ANEURYSYM Aneurysm, bulge or sac formed by the ballooning of the wall of an artery or a vein. It may become the site of a blood clot that breaks away and lodges in the tissues of such vital organs as the heart and the brain, causing serious, even mortal, heart failure or brain damage. A ruptured aneurysm may lead to a fatal loss of blood from the circulatory system into body cavities.
An abnormal bulge or ballooning (dilation) in the wall of an artery caused by the pressure of blood flowing through a weakened area. The weakening may be the result of disease, injury, or a congenital defect of the arterial wall.
An aneurysm that occurs in the aorta in the chest is called a thoracic aortic aneurysm. An aneurysm that occurs in the aorta in the abdomen is called an abdominal aortic aneurysm. Aneurysms also can occur in arteries in the brain, heart, intestine, neck, spleen, back of the knees and thighs, and in other parts of the body. If an aneurysm
Cerebral aneurysm Aneurysms that occur in an artery in the brain are called cerebral aneurysms. They are sometimes called berry aneurysms because they are often the size of a small berry. Most cerebral aneurysms produce no symptoms until they become large, begin to leak blood, or rupture. This causes stroke.
Peripheral aneurysm Aneurysms that occur in arteries other than the aorta (and not in the brain) are called peripheral aneurysms. Common locations for peripheral aneurysms include the artery that runs down the back of the thigh behind the knee ,the main artery in the groin and the main artery in the neck.
Peripheral aneurysms are not as likely to rupture as aortic aneurysms, but blood clots can form in peripheral aneurysms. If a blood clot breaks away from the aneurysm, it can block blood flow through the artery. If a peripheral aneurysm is large, it can press on a nearby nerve or vein and cause pain, numbness, or swelling.
SYMPTOMS Symptoms depend on the location of the aneurysm, whether it breaks open, and what part of the brain it is pushing on, but may include: Double vision Loss of vision Headaches Eye pain Neck pain Stiff neck
A sudden, severe headache is one symptom of an aneurysm that has ruptured. Other symptoms of an aneurysm rupture may include: Confusion, lethargy, sleepiness, or stupor Eyelid drooping Headaches with nausea or vomiting Muscle weakness or difficulty moving any part of the body Numbness or decreased sensation in any part of the body Seizures Speech impairment Stiff neck (occasionally) Vision changes (double vision, loss of vision)
CAUSES Congenital Atherosclerosis trauma and infection, which can injure the blood vessel wall
TREATMENT Clipping is the most common way to repair an aneurysm. this is done during open brain surgery. Endovascular repair, most often using a "coil" or coiling, is a less invasive way to treat some aneurysms.
9. CARDIOMYOPATHY Cardiomyopathy encompasses any condition that damages and weakens the heart muscle. Scientists believe that viral infections cause many cases of cardiomyopathy.
There are three main types of cardiomyopathy — dilated, hypertrophic and restrictive — all of which affect your heart muscle. Cardiomyopathy makes it harder for your heart to pump blood and deliver it to the rest of your body. There are many causes of cardiomyopathy, including coronary artery disease and valvular heart disease. Cardiomyopathy can lead to heart failure.
SYMPTOMS Breathlessness with exertion or even at rest Swelling of the legs, ankles and feet Bloating of the abdomen due to fluid buildup Fatigue Irregular heartbeats that feel rapid, pounding or fluttering Dizziness, lightheadedness and fainting
CAUSES Long-term high blood pressure Heart valve problems Heart tissue damage from a previous heart attack Chronic rapid heart rate Metabolic disorders, such as thyroid disease or diabetes Nutritional deficiencies of essential vitamins or minerals, such as thiamin (vitamin B-1), selenium, calcium and magnesium Pregnancy
Excessive use of alcohol over many years Abuse of cocaine or antidepressant medications, such as tricyclic antidepressants Use of some chemotherapy drugs to treat cancer Certain viral infections, which may injure the heart and trigger cardiomyopathy Iron buildup in your heart muscle (hemochromatosis)
CAUSES vitamin B deficiency rheumatic fever, underactivity of the thyroid gland genetic disease called hemochromatosis in which iron builds up in the heart muscle cells.
TYPES Dilated cardiomyopathy. This is the most common type of cardiomyopathy. In this disorder, your hearts main pumping chamber — the left ventricle — becomes enlarged (dilated), its pumping ability becomes less forceful, and blood doesnt flow as easily through the heart. Although this type can affect people of all ages, it occurs most often in middle-aged people and is more likely to affect men. Some people with dilated cardiomyopathy have a
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy This type involves abnormal growth or thickening of your heart muscle, particularly affecting the muscle of your hearts main pumping chamber. As thickening occurs, the heart tends to stiffen and the size of the pumping chamber may shrink, interfering with your hearts ability to deliver blood to your body.
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy can develop at any age, but the condition tends to be more severe if it becomes apparent during childhood. Most affected people have a family history of the disease, and some genetic mutations have been linked to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
Restrictive cardiomyopathy• The heart muscle in people with restrictive cardiomyopathy becomes rigid and less elastic, meaning the heart cant properly expand and fill with blood between heartbeats. While restrictive cardiomyopathy can occur at any age, it most often tends to affect older people. Its the least common type of cardiomyopathy and can occur for no known reason (idiopathic). The condition may also be caused by diseases elsewhere in the body that affect the heart.
TREATMENT Taking medicines Making important changes in your lifestyle (dieting, exercising, stopping smoking, stopping alcohol use or using it only in moderation, and stopping the use of other substances such as illegal drugs) Knowing your body and the symptoms of heart failure
Wearing a pacemaker to treat a slow heart rate or to help both sides of your heart beat at the same time Wearing a defibrillator that sends an electrical pulse to stop life-threatening, abnormal heart rhythms
10. CONGENITAL HEARTDISEASE Congenital heart disease refers to a problem with the hearts structure and function due to abnormal heart development before birth. Congenital means present at birth.
TYPES CYANOTIC (blue discoloration caused by a relative lack of oxygen) NON-CYANOTIC
SYMPTOMS Rapid breathing Cyanosis (a bluish tint to the skin, lips, and fingernails) Fatigue (tiredness) Poor blood circulation Heart murmur Fatigue with exercise Shortness of breath A buildup of blood and fluid in the lungs A buildup of fluid in the feet, ankles, and leg