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Liberal Studies M2 summary

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  • 1. Liberal Studies – Summary Notes (M2) Prepared by Timothy Wong Liberal Studies – Summary Notes Module 2: Hong Kong Today (as at 2013/12/06) How to make use of this notes?  This notes can help you familiarizing the concepts of the modules, YOU NEED TO KNOW THEM.  In the best scenario, you should get used to know all the logic flows within the notes. If not, at least knowing the meaning with SHADING would do so.  Mind maps are attached with this document to facilitate your revision.  DISCLAIMER: You need to get used to know the current issues and answering techniques on a roll, in order to ensure best results in exams. Themes in Module 2:  Quality of Life  Socio-Political Participation and Rule of Law  Identity ① Quality of Life  Refers to individuals’ level of satisfaction in different perspectives of their lives.  Can be measured in: - Political Perspective: Human rights, Rule of Law, Freedom of Press, Government Performance - Economic Perspective: Unemployment Rate, Per Capita GDP, Rich-poor disparity - Social Perspective: Level of medical care, Education Level, Literacy Rate - Cultural Perspective: (Cultural) Diversity, Heritage, Inheritance - Environmental Perspective: Air Pollution Level, Development of Environment conservation AND ALSO……. - Short Term, Long Term: According to interests of individuals, social groups or government - Material Level: Satisfaction of physical needs (i.e. food, housing, transportation, SEE M1) - Non-material Level: Pursuit of psychological needs (i.e. happiness, education)  Is prioritized by: - Resources: Abundance vs scarcity - Citizens’ expression of views: Vocal vs silent / Active vs Passive - Costs and Benefits - Majority vs Minority - Urgency (i.e. Consideration of personal, group and public interests)  Hurdles / Obstacles with respect to maintaining and improving: - Different perspectives of stakeholders (What is poor? What is rich?) - Mobilization of resources (Does the government have resources on certain perspectives?) - Technological level (While developing new technology, there would be conservative obstacles?) - Social cohesion (Different from time to time, issue to issue?) - Regional and international factors (Economic recession, food safety, pollution?) Page 1 of 5
  • 2. Liberal Studies – Summary Notes (M2) Prepared by Timothy Wong ② Socio-political participation and Rule of Law 2.1 Socio-political participation:  Refers to: Institutionalized Rules and Practices * Examples: Joining Government Committees, Responding to consultation papers Non-Institutionalized Cases * Examples: Protests, Marathon, and Discussions in public forums - Importance of Socio-political participation: - The implementation of government policies - Protect individual’s rights - Collective interest of social groups  Factors to initiate a socio-political participation: - Political factors: Legitimacy of a government / Ensured by Basic Law - Social structures: Social Cohesion / Sense of Belonging / Identity / Ethnicity - Media factors: Timeliness / Coverage / Reliability / (Presentation) Urgency - Education: Education Level - Expected cost and probable outcome  Can be categorized into: - Political Groups (7.1 Rally, LGBT Equal Rights) - Non-Governmental Organizations (i.e. Caritas Bazaar, Standard Chartered Marathon) - Classes (middle class, grassroots)  Initiates government’s responses, while responses are prioritized by: - Urgency of problems - Public Opinion - Dynamic Balance between stakeholders - Financial situations  Affects: - Governance - Civic participation - Rule of Law 2.2 Rule of Law:  Aims to: - Maintain a free / open / stable society - Promote social justice - Protect rights of minority and general citizens, by: * Maintaining a dynamic balance between stakeholders * Maintaining freedom of speech, of press, of publication, of assembly, of association, of protest, of joining trade unions and of strike * Ensuring right to a fair and open trial, right to appeal, right to seek justice without restraint by financial capabilities - Restraint on arbitrary power Page 2 of 5
  • 3. Liberal Studies – Summary Notes (M2) Prepared by Timothy Wong 2.2 Rule of Law (cont.):  BY…... - Taking notes with the Levels of Rule of Law: 1. Justice Through Law 2. Regulation by Law 3. Observance of Law 4. Existence of Law - Importance: Respect and safeguard interests / Safeguard social justice - RULE OF LAW differs from RULE BY LAW!!!!!!  HOW TO SAFEGUARD AND MAINTAIN THE ABOVE FLOW?? - Checks and Balances within the government structure - General and equal elections - Government structure: * Executive * Legislature * Judiciary - THE HONG KONG CASE (refer to the given notes for further details): o Executive (2012) >>>  Head: Chief Executive (elected every 5 years), leading the 3 Secretaries of Departments and 12 policy bureaux ALONG WITH the Executive Council  ELECTION METHOD: Candidates winning a half of votes in the Election Committee, formed by 1200 election committees  Role: Administrate Hong Kong with bureax of departments o Legislature (2012) >>>  Compromised by Legislators (elected every 4 years)  STRUCTURE: 35 Geographical Constituencies members, 30 Functional Constituencies members and 5 ‘Super’ District Council Functional Constituencies members = 70 members  Role: Enact and Pass Laws from the executives, monitor the governance o Judiciary >>>  Compromised by the Chief Justice and different levels of courts  Role: maintain an independent and effective judicial system which upholds the rule of law, safeguards the rights and freedoms of the individual, and commands confidence within and outside Hong Kong Page 3 of 5
  • 4. Liberal Studies – Summary Notes (M2) Prepared by Timothy Wong 2.2 Rule of Law (cont.): o WAYS OF CHECKS AND BALANCES >>>  Indicators to evaluate Effectiveness of Checks and Balances - Election Method: whether the NOMINATION, RIGHT TO ELECT and RIGHT TO BE ELECTED are justified to be UNIVERSAL and EQUAL in ELECTIONS - Level of RULE OF LAW - JUDICIAL INDEPENDENCE - Whether Executive / Legislature maintains arbitrary of powers - Levels of civic engagement in Socio-Political Participations  References to Rule of Law in Constitution: - Common Law - Rule of Equity - Statute - Customary Law - Basic Law, with regard to:  One Country Two Systems, High degree of autonomy, Rights / Freedom / Responsibility of HKSAR (executive / legislature and independent judicial power) / Hong Kong’s Relationship with the Central Government (national law / foreign and defense affairs)  Based on the Constitution of the People’s Republic of China  Recent disputes and controversies:  The definition of Universal Suffrage (1997 to present)  The right of abode of domestic workers (2013)  Manila Hostage Crisis, disputes with the Philippines Government (2010 to present)  Opening of Borders for ‘Guangdong Green Belts’ (2010)  The border issue of the Guangzhou Hong Kong Express Rail Link (2009 to present)  Article 23 (2003) Page 4 of 5
  • 5. Liberal Studies – Summary Notes (M2) Prepared by Timothy Wong ③ Identity     Is categorized by: Local Identity National Identity Global Identity  Multiplicity of identities:  Local and National: Hong Kong People? Chinese people? Hong Kong Chinese? Chinese Hong Kong?  Influenced by: * Socialization: The way in which a person is nurtured * Historical Development: Remembrance of British colony? Present HKSAR era? * Political Incident: Manila Hostage Crisis? Sino-Japanese Relations? 6.4 incident? * Economic Development: Rapid Economic Growth in the 1950s in Hong Kong? CEPA? * Exposure to Culture: Korean K-POP? Canton-pop? Local culture? (Similar perspectives: Political, Economic, Social, Cultural and possibly Environmental)  Can be observed by:  Feelings towards historical and major events (Nanjing Massacre? Beijing Olympics? Future WTO conference in Hong Kong?)  Local and national symbols (Flag, anthem, national anthem?)  Participation and contribution (You join the event? You observe the event?)  Responses and reflections on polls and surveys (HKU POP??) ④ Possible perspectives in essay writing     Political, Economic, Social, Cultural, Environmental Long term / Short Term Material / Non-material Stakeholders (i.e. government, public, students, business sectors, political parties, NGOs, etc.) ⑤ References Mind Maps and Notes from St. Joseph’s College Liberal Studies Team (2012), with syntheses and modifications. END OF M2 SUMMARY NOTES Page 5 of 5