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Step by step search process for Research Ethics Step by step search process for Research Ethics Presentation Transcript

  • EG1413 Critical Thinking and Writing Project: Research Ethics (RE) - How to search for information Karen Yap Engineering/Computer Science Resource Team, NUS Central Library September 2010
  • What is Research Ethics (RE)
    • Norms for conduct that distinguish between acceptable and unacceptable behaviour
      • During research: responsible conduct of research
      • After research: use of any outcomes resulting from research
  • What is Research Ethics (RE)
    • Examples of RE issues
      • Medical
        • Safety of human subjects
          • Guidelines relating to radiation
      • Scientific
        • Comfort and safety of animals
          • Suffering of unsuccessfully cloned animals
      • Commercial
        • Market research
          • Confidentiality of data of potential customers
  • Your Research Project
    • You need to:
    • Research on a RE problem relevant to Singapore
      • Background …what happened, when it happened, who are involved, etc.
      • Find what has been done so far to solve it
    • Come up with your own solutions
      • Backed by research that shows your solutions are good
      • Need to modify in Singapore context
        • Why they are still workable
  • Outline
    • Sources for finding info on RE in Singapore
    • How to construct a search statement
    • Find newspapers articles for selected topic
      • Factiva
      • LexisNexis Academic
    • Find journal articles for selected topic
      • Expanded Academic ASAP
      • Business Source Premier
    • Managing your list of references: EndNote
    • Subject Guide
    • Getting Help
      • Books
        • Keyword search in LINC
      • Newspapers Databases
        • Factiva
        • LexisNexis
      • Academic Journals Databases
        • Expanded Academic ASAP
        • Business Source Premier
    Sources for Finding Info on RE in Singapore DEMO on LINC
  • Sources for RE in Singapore: (a) Books
    • Check LINC under keywords: Research and ethics and Singapore
    2) Change from Title to Keyword 1) Click the LINC tab
  • Sources for RE in Singapore: (a) Books 15 hits
    • Full-text
    • Worldwide coverage
    • Option to choose newspapers from specific regions or countries like Singapore
    Sources for RE in Singapore: Newspapers Database (i) Factiva (ii) LexisNexis
  • Outline
    • Sources for finding info on RE in Singapore
    • How to construct a search statement
    • Find newspapers articles for selected topic
      • Factiva
      • LexisNexis Academic
    • Find journal articles for selected topic
      • Expanded Academic ASAP
      • Business Source Premier
    • Managing your list of references: EndNote
    • Subject Guide
    • Getting Help
    • How to Construct a Search Statement
        • Identify concepts
        • Identify alternative/related terms for concepts
        • Group these terms under each concept
        • Use of Boolean Operator OR to connect these terms
        • Put brackets round each group of terms
        • Use of Boolean Operator AND to connect these bracketed groups of terms
        • Use of
        • Use of
        • Need to know how to do above before you use
        • database sources
    * “ ”
  • How to Construct a Search Statement
    • Your topic is on researcher Simon Shorvon altering patients’ medication without consent when in Singapore in 2002
    • You need to find to:
      • Find more about the case
      • Find similar cases
    • Search statements for some topics are easier to construct than others
      • E.g. Find more about Simon Shorvan’s case in Singapore
      • Search statement would simply be:
      • "Simon Shorvon" and Singapore
    • Search statement for finding similar cases is more complex
    How to Construct a Search Statement
  • Identify Concepts of Case
    • Your topic is on researchers altering patients’ medication without consent
    • Five concepts
      • ethics
      • researcher
      • alter
      • Medication
      • Consent
  • Some Alternative/Related Terms for Concepts Chances are more alternative terms will be revealed as you do your search Ethics Researcher Alter Medication Consent Principle Doctor Change Medicine Knowledge Moral Research Drugs Agree Experiment Treatment Study
  • Boolean Operators OR represents a union of sets. The resulting set gets bigger. Set A: Fruits Durian OR Mango OR Lettuc e OR Tomato Durian Mango Set B: Vegetables Lettuce Tomato Set A OR Set B:
  • Boolean Operators AND represents an intersection of sets. The resulting set gets smaller. Tomato Fruits AND Vegetables (Durian Mango Lettuce Tomato ) Set A AND Set B
  • What does do?
    • Truncation symbol * would retrieve articles with keywords that have a particular the root, e.g. treat.
    • Thus, searching for treat * means you are searching for:
    treat s treat ed treat ing treat ment *
  • What does “ ” do?
    • Use “ ” for terms to be searched as phrase
      • “ ethics committee ”
  • Constructing a Complex Search Statement
    • Group alternative/related terms for each concept, connect with OR
    • Put brackets round the terms
    • Concept of:
    • Ethics : ( ethic* OR principle* OR moral* )
    You need to find similar cases where researchers altered patients’ medication without consent
    • Researcher : ( researcher* OR doctor* OR experiment* OR study OR studies )
  • Constructing a Complex Search Statement
    • Medication : ( Medication OR medicine OR drug* OR treatment OR )
    • Consent : ( consent* OR acknowledge OR agree* )
    • Alter : ( alter* OR change* )
  • Connect concepts with AND (researcher* OR doctor* OR experiment* OR study OR studies) ( alter* OR change* ) ( consent* OR acknowledge OR agree * ) ( Medication OR medicine OR drug* OR treatment ) (ethic* OR principle* OR moral * ) AND AND AND AND
  • Practice on Constructing Complex Search Statements
    • Topic: How to choose wife
    (Choose select) (wife spouse “ life partner ” ) OR AND Note: brackets around each group of words OR OR
  • Practice on Constructing Complex Search Statements
    • Topic: How to do well in exam
    ( “ do well ” score excel) (exam examination * test tests) AND OR OR OR Note: brackets around each group of words OR OR
  • Outline
    • Sources for finding info on RE in Singapore
    • How to construct a search statement
    • Find newspapers articles for selected topic
      • Factiva
      • LexisNexis Academic
    • Find journal articles for selected topic
      • Expanded Academic ASAP
      • Business Source Premier
    • Managing your list of references: EndNote
    • Subject Guide
    • Getting Help
    DEMO
  • NUS Libraries portal http://www.lib.nus.edu.sg Factiva
  • Otherwise, enter: Student Domain NUSNET userid NUSNET Password Click here if in campus
  • Click Important to note: .. academic research … not for commercial purposes
  • If this screen appears, type in student domain and backslash nusstu a_______
  • Click on Search tab Click on Search Builder tab
  • 1) Type in “Research ethics” and Singapore* 3) Change date to required dates. The end date could be a near-future date 2) Change to Enter date range 4) Click Run Search
  • 5) Change sorting to by Relevance 7) Scroll down for more categories like Industries, Keywords, Subjects 6) If Identify Duplicates in Off, change it to Similar so that it becomes On Avoid clicking here because it will close the Discovery Pane
  • Sections in Discovery Pane 8) Click on Ethical Issues to retrieve 13 very relevant articles on ethical issues Other headings in the Discover Pane include Sources . You can opt to narrow down to Straits Times . In this example, we are not narrowing it to Straits Times yet
  • 9) Scroll down 10) Note term integrity used. Look out for such words to broaden your search 11) Click Modify Search to get back to first screen
  • 11) Search terms changed to Research* and (ethic* or integrity ) and Singapore*
  • 414 hits obtained after revising search to: Research* and (ethic* or integrity ) and Singapore* Scroll down to see Keywords , etc Possible topics for your position paper: stem cell, therapeutic cloning Possible new keywords to broaden search if necessary: breaches
    • It matters at which stage you key in the revised search statement.
    • 18, 654 not 414 hits would be obtained after revising search to: Research* and (ethic* or integrity) and Singapore* if you had not clicked at Ethical Issues at Discovery Pane first
    • This screen was obtained by keying in Research* and (ethic* or integrity) and Singapore* at step (1), followed by steps (2) & (3) rather than after steps (1) to (11). Step (8) is where you clicked Ethical Issues at Discovery Pane
    18, 654 hits
  • If you need more alternative terms, double click on selected term (in this case integrity ) in search statement, then on Concept Explorer [Beta] … adhere Impropriety Accountable Violate..
    • 414 hits from slide 37 are too many to browse
    • Click on Straits Times under heading Sources
    • 66 hits left
    • Just scanning the headlines can yield information
    Find out more about Bioethics Advisory Committee and the 13 recommendations
  • More articles form the 66 hits that can yield information on what has been done so far to solve RE problems in Singapore Title: Move to plug loopholes in medical research Text: .. followed up with its recommendations … Title: 22 guidelines set for genetic research
  • -Scanning Full Text of Relevant Article for More Leads -How to download full text of article i) Change to Full Article ii) One of the leads: World Conference on Research Integrity. Check availability of proceedings of in Library or internet iv) Click Return to Headlines after viewing full text of article iii) For downloading full text, choose RTF , then Article format
  • One of the hits after Goggling on World Conference on Research Integrity : https://www.wcri2010.org/ -Check relevant links like one highlighted below Click on World Conference on Research Integrity (Lisbon 2007)
  • After clicking on World Conference on Research Integrity (Lisbon 2007) One of items further down this panel is : Invited Papers & Biographies
  • After clicking on Invited Papers & Biographies Current Policies and Policy Development
  • Some items shown after clicking on: Current Policies and Policy Development (PDF - 393 KB) Statistics: 20-30 cases per year…etc E.g. of foreign committee: Special Committee on Research Misconduct 2006 Other examples of RE: Conflict of Interest/non-disclosure E.g. of foreign code: UK ethics code for scientists
    • Another example of good article. It shows :
    • NUS has this centre: Centre for Biomedical Ethics which teaches teaching bioethics
    • At least two other such centers exist in: New Zealand's Otago Medical School and Britain's University of Bristol .
    • In 2001, there was much debate on use of embryonic stem cells for research
    • Etc.
    Biomedical ethics centre set up in NUS
    • Example of good article for Shrovan’s case. It shows three bodies in Singapore that hold inquiries on RE:
    • Ministry of Health
    • National Neuroscience Institute on the direction of the National Healthcare Group
    • Singapore Medical Council
    3 separate panels found serious breaches
  • How to Limit to Searching only Singapore Sources
    • Type in Singapore
    • Names of selected sources should appear here in pink
    • Click All Publications to de-select it
    b. Select sources: Note Channel NewsAsia is one of them c. Click button
  • Note: After limiting to Singapore sources, only 19 (c.t. 79 hits) are retrieved for same search “Research ethics” and Singapore 19
  • To Limit to Singapore Newspapers or Not
    • Do not Limit :
      • If you are trying to find major cases of RE that get reported in foreign newspapers as well as local newspapers
        • Use Singapore* as one of keywords in your search statements
    • Limit
      • When you have chosen a specific topic to research on
        • Omit Singapore* in your search statements because context is already Singapore
      • When there are too many hits when you did not limit to Singapore papers
  • Another Way of Narrowing Search 18, 656 hits: far too many
  • Scroll down a little, click More Options
  • Click here to change field from Full Article to Headline and Lead Paragraph Click Run Search
  • Only 196 out of 18, 656 left
  • Remember to click Logout when you have finished
  • Outline
    • Sources for finding info on RE in Singapore
    • How to construct a search statement
    • Find newspapers articles for selected topic
      • Factiva
      • LexisNexis Academic
    • Find journal articles for selected topic
      • Expanded Academic ASAP
      • Business Source Premier
    • Managing your list of references: EndNote
    • Subject Guide
    • Getting Help
  • How to use LexisNexis Academic: http://www.lib.nus.edu.sg/lion/hlb/lexisnexis.pdf Comparing Newspapers Databases Factiva Lexisnexis Academic Advantages -Covers more titles including Channel NewsAsia -Unlimited no. of concurrent users Disadvantages -Limited no. (10) of concurrent users -More difficult to access Singapore newspapers
  • Outline
    • Sources for finding info on RE in Singapore
    • How to construct a search statement
    • Find newspapers articles for selected topic
      • Factiva
      • LexisNexis Academic
    • Find journal articles for selected topic
      • Expanded Academic ASAP (aka EAI)
      • Business Source Premier
    • Managing your list of references: EndNote
    • Subject Guide
    • Getting Help
  • NUS Libraries portal http://www.lib.nus.edu.sg Expanded Academic ASAP
  • EAI Leave Select the products you want to search as default Click Continue The default databases are: Expanded Academic ASAP LegalTrac which are both relevant
    • EAI (1980-)
      • 19,093,324 articles
      • Arts, humanities to social sciences, science and technology
      • Scholarly journals, news magazines, and newspapers
    • LegalTrac (1980-)
      • 1,610,638 articles
      • Includes major law reviews, legal newspapers, bar association journals and international legal journals.
      • Also has law-related articles from business and general interest titles
    EAI & LegalTrac
  • EAI & LegalTrac Default is Keyword search Key in search terms Research and ethics and Singapore here ( “Research ethics” and Singapore yields no hits)
  • EAI & LegalTrac 1) Click on good title Minors and biomedical research in Singapore under the Magazines tab Click to look through 22 items, but they are not very good hits 3 hit under Magazines, 22 under Academic Journals, 2 under News
  • EAI & LegalTrac 2) Click on relevant links like Human Medical Experimentation -Ethical Aspects (527) -Research Ethics (999) Related Subjects
  • EAI & LegalTrac: 3) Click on Academic Journals tab Topic: Ethical aspects of human medical experimentation
  • EAI & LegalTrac: Those with Icons for Full Text : 4) Click to sort by Relevance 5) Click on icon to get full text
  • EAI & LegalTrac: Full Text of Article with Full Text Icon
  • EAI & LegalTrac: How to get Full-Text When There is No Icon for Full-Text a) Copy title of journal Journal of Medical Ethics b) Note details: 35.7 (July 2009): p. 450(6) 35 means vol 35 .7 means issue 7 (Jul 2009) means Oct 2009 issue of journal p. 450 means page 450 (6) means the article is 6 pages long
  • EAI & LegalTrac: How to get Full-Text When There is No Icon for Full-Text e) Change to Journals Collection c) Click LINC tab d) Paste title Journal of Medical Ethics here
  • EAI & LegalTrac: How to get Full-Text When There is No Icon for Full-Text f) We have hard copies from vol. 8, 1982 to vol. 35, 2009
  • EAI & LegalTrac: How to get Full-Text When There is No Icon for Full-Text g) Key in 2009 here h) Click here
  • EAI & LegalTrac: How to get Full-Text When There is No Icon for Full-Text i) Pg 450 is in this bound volume j) CL Bound Journals is in 5 th floor Central Library
  • More on Search Statement
    • If your search statement retrieves no records
    • E.g. you need articles on the ethics of using human lungs , but you cannot find hits
      • Use progressively broader concept/term :
        • “ medical ethic *”
        • “ biomedical ethic* ”
        • “ bioethic* ”
        • instead of specifically “ human lungs* ”
      • Look through references listed at the end of such articles
  • Outline
    • Sources for finding info on RE in Singapore
    • How to construct a search statement
    • Find newspapers articles for selected topic
      • Factiva
      • LexisNexis Academic
    • Find journal articles for selected topic
      • Expanded Academic ASAP (aka EAI)
      • Business Source Premier
    • Managing your list of references: EndNote
    • Subject Guide
    • Getting Help
  • Business Source Premier
    • Business-related topics
    • Covers over 2,300 titles, including non-scholarly ones
    • Especially useful if you researching on commercial ethics
  • EG1413 Hands-On Sessions Date Time Venue 22 Sep (Wed) 10.00am - 11.30am Training Room, 6 th floor Central Library 23 Sep (Thur) 10.00am – 11.30pm 3.00pm – 4.30pm
  • EG1413 Hands-On Sessions
    • 25 per class
    • Requires online registration
    • Register for only one class
    • 22 Sep 2010, Wed, 10am-11.30am
    • https://aces01.nus.edu.sg:443/CoE/UserRegistration?actionParam=USERREG&eventID=27769
    •  
    • 23 Sep 2010, Thur, 10am-1130am
    • https://aces01.nus.edu.sg:443/CoE/UserRegistration?actionParam=USERREG&eventID=27771
    •  
    • 23 Sep 2010, Thur, 3–4.30pm
    • https://aces01.nus.edu.sg:443/CoE/UserRegistration?actionParam=USERREG&eventID=27770
  • Outline
    • Sources for finding info on RE in Singapore
    • How to construct a search statement
    • Find newspapers articles for selected topic
      • Factiva
      • LexisNexis Academic
    • Find journal articles for selected topic
      • Expanded Academic ASAP (aka EAI)
      • Business Source Premier
    • Managing your list of references: EndNote
    • Subject Guide
    • Getting Help
  • Example of list of Reference
    • A numbered list
    • Title of journal/law report in italics
    • Etc.
    • You need to use APA style
    • APA means American Psychological Association
    • Commonly used in the social sciences
    • Publication manual of the American Psychological
      • xviii, 272 p.: 18+272 = 290 pages!
  • EndNote
    • Lets you choose from many citation styles
    • Easy to change from one style to another
    • Easy to insert or delete citation: no need to amend list: done automatically for you
    • Can detect duplicates from different sources like EAI, BSP
    • Etc.
  • EndNote
    • EndNote Lectures
    • Registration required
    Please email [email_address] to register. Title of email: EndNote Lecture for Engineering Students Date Time Venue 13 Sep (Mon) 10am - 11.30am LT15, SoC 15 Sep (Wed) 10.30am - 12pm LT7A, FoE
  • Outline
    • Sources for finding info on RE in Singapore
    • How to construct a search statement
    • Find newspapers articles for selected topic
      • Factiva
      • LexisNexis Academic
    • Find journal articles for selected topic
      • Expanded Academic ASAP (aka EAI)
      • Business Source Premier
    • Managing your list of references: EndNote
    • Subject Guide
    • Getting Help
  • There is a lot of information in Subject Guides Click on Subject Guides to see more databases relevant to a particular subject DEMO
  • Subject Guides Click Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering
  • Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering Subject Guide How to use EndNote /Databases like Scopus and Engineering Village 2
  • Outline
    • Sources for finding info on RE in Singapore
    • How to construct a search statement
    • Find newspapers articles for selected topic
      • Factiva
      • LexisNexis Academic
    • Find journal articles for selected topic
      • Expanded Academic ASAP (aka EAI)
      • Business Source Premier
    • Managing your list of references: EndNote
    • Subject Guide
    • Getting Help
  • DEMO
  • 6. How to search databases 9. How to use EndNote/EndNote Web/WizFolio
  • Useful Material tab: E.g. Importing References-EN After Clicking on 9. How to use EndNote/EndNote Web/WizFolio
  • After Clicking on Importing References-EN Databases Listing Factiva and EAI are in this list
  • Instructions for Factiva
  • Instructions for EAI
    • If you have any questions, please:
    • Email us at [email_address]
    • Call us at 6516 2028
    • Come and see us at the Information Desk, 5 th floor, Central Library
  • To Remember Databases that Cover Newspapers Journals/Magazines
    • Factiva
    • Lexisnexis
      • Search WORLD-WIDE newpapers if you are looking for major cases or RE
      • Include Singapore* as keyword
      • Limit to Singapore newspapers once you have identified a specific research topic
      • Omit Singapore* in your search statements
    • Exanded Academic Index
    • Business Source Premier
    Software that Manages List of References: EndNote
  • Constructing Search Statements
    • Topic: How to plan a wedding
    (plan organi s e organi z e) (wedding “ big day ” ) “ ” words next to each other OR AND OR OR
    • Thank you!
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