GROUP 2 PROJECT
MAAN WONG, ANYA SORIANO,
ARIANE VELASQUEZ, NIKKA
TORRES, FERDINAND MANSIBANG, AND
I. TOPIC OUTLINE
A) Chemistry In Everyday Life D) Atomic Structure
A.1 History of Chemistry D.1 Atomic theory of Matter
A.2 Branches of Chemistry D.2 Discovering the structure
A.3 Importance of Chemistry of the Atom
B) Math in Chemistry D.3 Character and Behaviour
B.1 Significant Figures
B.2 Scientific Notation
B.3 Uncertainty Measurement D.4 X-RAYS and Radio Activity
B.4 Metric system and SI units D.5 Subatomic Particles
B.5 Mass and weight D.6 Ions and Isotopes
B.6 Density D.7 Electrons
B.7 Specific Gravity E) Periodic Table
B.8 Temperature Measurement
F) Laboratory Apparatus
C) Probing Matter
C.1 States of Matter
C.2 Properties of Matter
C.4 Solutions and Substances
C.5 Changes in Matter
C.6 Energy Changes
II. CONCEPT MAP
PROPERTI ATOMS SUBSTANC
CHEMISTRY is a branch of science
concerned with the study of matter, its
properties, composition and structure, the
changes it undergoes, and the principles
that explain these changes.
MATTER is anything that has both mass and
This specific type of chemistry is concerned with elements containing carbon. Carbon is only the
fourteenth most common element on earth, yet it creates the largest number of different compounds.
This type of chemistry is important to the petrochemical, pharmaceutical, and textile industries. All
living organisms contain at least some amount of carbon in their body.
This branch of chemistry deals with substances not containing carbon and that are not organic.
Examples of such substances are minerals found in the earth's crust and non-living matter. There are
many branches of inorganic chemistry. They include bioinorganic chemistry, nuclear science and
energy, geochemistry, and synthetic inorganic chemistry, just to name a few.
This type of chemistry deals with the discovery and description of the theoretical basis of the behavior
of chemical substances. This means also that it provides a basis for every bit of chemistry including
organic, inorganic, and analytical. This chemistry is defined as dealing with the relations between the
physical properties of substances and their chemical formations along with their changes.
Biochemistry is a science that is concerned with the composition and changes in the formation of
living species. This type of chemistry utilizes the concepts of organic and physical chemistry to make
the world of living organisms seem much clearer. Some people also consider biochemsitry as
physiological chemistry and biological chemistry. The scientists that study biochemistry are called
biochemists. They study such things as the properties of biological molecules, including
proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids. Other topics they focus on are the chemical
regulation of metabolism, the chemistry of vitamins, and biological oxidation.
This kind of chemistry deals mostly with the composition of substances. HOM
BLACK MAGIC (Prehistoric time- Beginning of the Christian
Democritus proclaimed atoms as the simplest
Aristotle gave the four elements:
(earth, wind, fire, & water)
ALCHEMIST PD (Christian era- end of 17 th century)
• Philosopher's stone is a legendary alchemical tool, supposedly capable of turning base
metals into gold.
• Elixir of Life is a legendary potion, or drink, that grants the drinker eternal life or eternal
Abu Musa Jābir ibn Hayyān (“Geber”)
“Father of chemistry”
Paracelsus was the first systematic
Robert Grosseteste (English statesman)
the real founder of traditional chemistry.
TRADITIONAL CHEMISTRY(end of 17 th century- mid
Sir Francis Bacon made the Scientific method.
Robert Boyle ( “The Sceptical Chemist”) one of the co-
founders of modern chemistry through his use
of proper experimentation, which further
separated chemistry from alchemy.
Joseph Priestley credited with the discovery of
oxygen, having isolated it in its gaseous state.
Antoine Lavoisier “Father of Modern Chemistry”
MODERN CHEMISTRY (mid 19th century-
William Prout was an English
chemist, physician, and natural
theologian. He is remembered today
mainly for what is called Prout's hypothesis.
John Dalton was an English
chemist, meteorologist and physicist. He is
best known for his pioneering work in the
development of modern atomic theory, and his
research into colour blindness.
John Newlands first to arrange the
Sir William Crookes was a pioneer of vacuum
tubes, inventing the Crookes tube.
Sir Joseph John “J. J.” Thomson was a British
physicist and Nobel laureate, credited for
the discovery of the electron and of
isotopes, and the invention of the mass
Sir James Chadwick, was an English physicist
and Nobel laureate in physics awarded for
his discovery of the neutron.
Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen was a German
physicist, who produced and detected
electromagnetic radiation in a wavelength range
today known as x- rays or Roentgen rays, an
achievement that earned him the first Nobel Prize
in Physics in 1901.
Gilbert Newton Lewis was an American
physical chemist known for the discovery of the
covalent bond. In 1926, Lewis coined the term
"photon" for the smallest unit of radiant energy.
He was a brother of Alpha Chi Sigma, the
professional chemistry fraternity.
MIXTURE two or more different substances are mixed
together but not combined chemically.
A. HETEROGENEOUS MIXTURES are mixtures made up of more than one
phase or of different parts and can be separated physically.
B. HOMOGENEOUS MIXTURES have only one phase, or have a uniform
appearance throughout , and any portion of the sample has the same properties and
Ways of separating mixtures:
A. Decantation is a process for the separation of mixtures, carefully pouring a
solution from a container in order to leave the precipitate (sediments) in the bottom of
the original container.
B. Crystallization is the (natural or artificial) process of formation of solid crystals
precipitating from a solution, melt or more rarely deposited directly from a gas.
C. Distillation is a method of separating mixtures based on differences in their
volatilities in a boiling liquid mixture.
D. Evaporation is the slow vaporization of a liquid and the reverse of condensation.
E. Filtration is a mechanical or physical operation which is used for the separation of
solids from fluids (liquids or gases) by interposing a medium through which the fluid
can pass, but the solids (or at least part of the solids) in the fluid are retained. E
PROPERTIES are the distinguishing characteristics that we
use to identify different samples of matter.
A. PHYSICAL PROPERTY properties that do not change the chemical nature of
Examples of physical properties are: colour, smell, freezing point, boiling
point, melting point, infra-red spectrum, attraction (paramagnetic) or repulsion
(diamagnetic) to magnets, opacity, viscosity and density. There are many more
examples. Note that measuring each of these properties will not alter the basic
nature of the substance.
B. CHEMICAL PROPERTY properties that do change the chemical nature of
Examples of chemical properties are: heat of combustion, reactivity with
water, PH, and electromotive force.
SOLUTION is a homogeneous mixture composed of two or more
Solvent is a liquid or gas that dissolves a solid, liquid, or gaseous solute,
resulting in a solution. (Water is the universal solvent)
Solute is a substance that is dissolved by the solvent.
COLLOID is a type of chemical mixture where one substance is
dispersed evenly throughout another. The particles of the dispersed
substance are only suspended in the mixture, unlike a solution, where
they are completely dissolved within. This occurs because the
particles in a colloid are larger than in a solution - small enough to be
dispersed evenly and maintain a homogenous appearance, but large
enough to scatter light and not dissolve. Because of this dispersal,
some colloids have the appearance of solutions.
SUSPENSION is a heterogeneous fluid containing solid particles
that are sufficiently large for sedimentation.
The particles (ions, atoms or molecules) are packed closely together. The forces
between particles are strong enough so that the particles cannot move freely but can
only vibrate. As a result, a solid has a stable, definite shape, and a definite volume.
Solids can only change their shape by force, as when broken or cut.
The volume is definite if the temperature and pressure are constant. The highest
temperature at which a given liquid can exist is its critical temperature.
A gas has no definite shape or volume, but occupies the entire container in which it is
Plasma is a fourth state of matter consisting of an overall charge-neutral mix of
electrons, ions and neutral atoms.
BOSE- EINSTEIN CONDESATE
is a liquid-like super fluid that occurs in at low temperatures in which all atoms occupy
the same quantum state. HOM
PURE SUBSTANCES is a kind of substance that contains only
one kind of matter; elements and compounds are pure substances.
1. ELEMENTS are substances that are made up of only one type of atom. They
cannot be further separated into simpler substances.
2. COMPOUNDS are substances formed when two or more elements are
chemically joined. Water, salt, and sugar are examples of compounds.
PHYSICAL CHANGE is one that involves no change in the fixed
composition of the substance in question.
CHEMICAL CHANGE occurs when the composition of a substance is
changed into a substance or substance having physical and chemical
properties completely different from the original.
ENERGY is the capacity or the ability to do work.
1. Endothermic reaction a process or reaction that absorbs energy in the form
• Depressurising a pressure can
• A chemical cold pack consisting primarily of ammonium nitrate and water.
• Melting of ice
• Vaporisation of water & booger
2. Exothermic reaction a process or reaction that releases energy usually in the
form of heat, but also in form of light, electricity, or sound.
• Condensation of rain from water vapour
• Combustion of fuels such as wood, coal and oil HOM
• Mixing water and strong acids E
ATOMS is a basic unit of matter
consisting of a dense, central
nucleus surrounded by a cloud of
negatively charged electrons.
DISCOVERING THE STRUCTURE OF THE
JOHN DALTON an English school teacher who is
considered to be the “Father of Atomic theory”
Five main points of Dalton's Atomic Theory:
Elements are made of tiny particles called atoms.
All atoms of a given element are identical.
The atoms of a given element are different from those of any other element;
the atoms of different elements can be distinguished from one another by
their respective relative weights.
Atoms of one element can combine with atoms of other elements to form
chemical compounds; a given compound always has the same relative
numbers of types of atoms.
Atoms cannot be created, divided into smaller particles, nor destroyed in
the chemical process; a chemical reaction simply changes the way atoms
are grouped together.
The plum pudding model of the atom by J. J. Thomson, who
discovered the electron in 1897, was proposed in 1904 before the
discovery of the atomic nucleus.
In this model, the atom is composed of electrons , surrounded
by a soup of positive charge to balance the electron's negative
charge, like negatively-charged "plums" surrounded by positively-
charged "pudding". The electrons (as we know them today) were
thought to be positioned throughout the atom, but with many
structures possible for positioning multiple electrons, particularly
rotating rings of electrons. Instead of a soup, the atom was also
sometimes said to have had a cloud of positive charge.
Rutherford model or planetary model is a model of the atom devised by
Ernest Rutherford. Rutherford directed the famous Geiger-Marsden experiment in
1909, which suggested to Rutherford's analysis (1911) that the Plum pudding
model of J. J. Thomson of the atom was incorrect. Rutherford's new model for the
atom, based on the experimental results, had a number of essential modern
features, including a relatively high central charge concentrated into a very small
volume in comparison to the rest of the atom and containing the bulk of the
atomic mass (the nucleus of the atom), and a number of tiny electrons circling
around the nucleus like planets around the sun.
The electron clouds of the atom do not influence alpha particle scattering.
A large number of the atom's charges, up to a number equal to about half the
atomic mass in hydrogen units, are concentrated in very small volume at the
centre of the atom. These are responsible for deflecting both alpha and beta
The mass of heavy atoms such as gold is mostly concentrated in the central
charge region, since calculations show it is not deflected or moved by the high
speed alpha particles, which have very high momentum in comparison to HOM
electrons, but not with regard to a heavy atom as a whole. E
Bohr model, devised by Niels Bohr, depicts the atom as a
small, positively charged nucleus surrounded by electrons that travel
in circular orbits around the nucleus—similar in structure to the solar
system, but with electrostatic forces providing attraction, rather than
The Bohr model is a primitive model of the hydrogen atom. As a
theory, it can be derived as a first-order approximation of the
hydrogen atom using the broader and much more accurate quantum
mechanics, and thus may be considered to be an obsolete scientific
theory. However, because of its simplicity, and its correct results for
selected systems (see below for application), the Bohr model is still
commonly taught to introduce students to quantum mechanics, before
moving on to the more accurate but more complex valence shell
CHARACTER AND BEHAVIOR OF
In the 1830s, Michael Faraday and Humphry Davy
demonstrated the electrical nature of matter.
Michael Faraday Humphry Davy
They found that when electric current was passed through molten
compounds or water containing dissolved salts, decomposition took
place and concluded that the electric current must be carried through
these molten compounds and solutions by charged atoms called
In the mid- 1800s, the cathode- ray
tube, experiment proved the electrical character of
CATHODE- RAY TUBE is a vacuum tube containing an
electron gun (a source of electrons) and a fluorescent screen, with
internal or external means to accelerate and deflect the electron
beam, used to create images in the form of light emitted from the
Since the radiation comes from the cathode it was
called a cathode ray. The tube is called a cathode
ray tube. In 1897 using the cathode ray tube J. J
Thomson showed that in an electric field, a beam of
cathode rays bends toward the positively charged
plate. Also when a magnetic field was applied the
cathode rays were deflected. Thomson found thatE
X- RAYS AND RADIOACTIVITY
Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen was a German
physicist, who, on 8 November 1895, produced and detected
electromagnetic radiation in a wavelength range today known as
x-rays or Roentgen rays.
Marie Curie was a pioneer in the field of radioactivity
and was the first woman to win a Nobel prize and the first
person to win two Nobel Prizes.
Ernest Rutherford was a New Zealand born British
chemist and physicist who became known as the
Father of nuclear physics. He discovered that
atoms have a small charged nucleus. He also
discovered the ALPHA RAYS, consist of two protons and two
neutrons bound together into a particle identical to a helium nucleus,
and BETA RAYS, are high-energy, high-speed electrons or
positrons emitted by certain types of radioactive
nuclei such as potassium.
Paul Villiard discovered GAMMA RAYS, are
electromagnetic radiation of high energy, in 1900 while
studying the radiation from radium.
Henry Moseley developed the concept of
ELECTRON is a subatomic particle that carries a negative electric
charge. It has no known substructure and is believed to be a point particle.
And was discovered by Sir John Joseph Thomson and his team of
NEUTRON is a subatomic particle with no net electric charge and a mass
slightly larger than that of a proton.
PROTON is a subatomic particle with an electric charge of +1 elementary
Eugene Goldstein a German physicist. He was an
early investigator of discharge tubes, the discoverer of anode
rays, and is sometimes credited with the discovery of the
IONS AND ISOTOPES
ISOTOPES two atoms with the same atomic numbers but
different numbers of neutrons.
ION is an atom or molecule where the total number of electrons is
not equal to the total number of protons, giving it a net positive or
negative electrical charge.
Since protons are positively charged and electrons are negatively
charged, if there are more electrons than protons, the atom or
molecule will be negatively charged. This is called an ANION.
If there are more protons than electrons, the atom or molecule will be
positively charged. This is called a CATION.
1. Monatomic ion an ion consisting of a single atom .
2. Polyatomic ion an ion consisting of two or more atoms.
3. Radical ion If an ion contains unpaired electrons.
ELECTRON CONFIGURATION is the arrangement of
electrons of an atom, a molecule, or other physical structure. It concerns
the way electrons can be distributed in the orbitals of the given system.
ORBITAL the region space where there is a significant probability of finding a
Electron subshells (or energy
An electron subshell is an energy sublevel within an electron shell in
which the elctrons all have the same energy.
The number of subshells within a shell is equal to the shell number (n)
(I.e., Shell one contains one subshell while shell three contains three
The subshells are identified by a number and a letter. The number
indicates the shell to which the subshell belongs. The letters are
s, p, d, and f (all lowercase).
The energy and maximum number of electrons in a subshell within a
given shell depends on the type of subshell.
Each s sublevel has a single orbital. Each p sublevel has 3
orbitals, each d sublevel has 5 orbitals, and each f sublevel has 7
PAULI’S EXCLUSION PRINCIPLE is a quantum mechanical
principle formulated by Wolfgang Pauli in 1925. (s,p,d,f orbitals)
*Two electrons cannot share the same set of quantum numbers within
the same system. Therefore, there is room for only two electrons in each
*Not all principal energy levels contain each type
of sublevel. The following are rules to
determine what types of sublevels occur in
any given energy level and the maximum number of
electrons possible in that energy level.
(1) No more than two electrons can occupy one orbital.
(2) Electrons occupy the lowest possible energy sublevels;
enter a higher sublevel only when the lower
sublevels are filled.
(3) Orbitals in a given sublevel of equal energy are each
occupied by a single electron before a second electron
• HUND’S RULE tells us that when electrons have
more than one equivalent orbital available, they will half-
fill each of the equivalent orbitals before filling the second
half of each
AUFBAU PRINCIPLE according to the principle, electrons fill orbitals
starting at the lowest available (possible) energy states before filling higher
SIGNIFICANT FIGURES also called Significant digits all the
digits that are part of a measurement.
Rules for identifying significant figures:
All non-zero digits are considered significant.
Example: 123.45 has five significant figures: 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5.
Zeros appearing anywhere between two non-zero digits are significant.
Example: 101.12 has five significant figures: 1, 0, 1, 1 and 2.
Leading zeros are not significant.
Example: 0.00012 has two significant figures: 1 and 2.
Trailing zeros in a number containing a decimal point are significant.
Example: 12.2300 has six significant figures: 1, 2, 2, 3, 0 and 0.
0.000122300 still has only six significant figures (the zeros before the 1 are not
120.00 has five significant figures
3 COMPONENTS PARTS OF A MEASURED VALUE:
1.) Numerical Quantity
3.) Name of the substance
3 KINDS OF NUMBERS:
1.) Counted items are expressed as exact whole numbers and never a
2.) Defined relations also involve exact numbers but are not always whole
3.) Measured numbers come from reading measuring devices which are
SCIENTIFIC NOTATION also known as Exponential notation, is a way of
writing numbers that accommodates values too large or small to be conveniently written
in standard decimal notation.
Standard Form Scientific notation
1.) MULTIPLICATION the numerical part are simply multiplied and the exponents are
Example: (3×102 ) (4×103 ) = (3)(2) (102+3 ) = 6X105
2.) DIVISION the numbers are divided and the exponents are subtracted algebraically.
Example: divide 6X104 by 2X102 = (6/2) (104-2 ) = 3X102
3.) ADDITION & SUBTRACTION the exponents must be the same and then just add or
Example: (2.6×102 ) + (1.30×103 ) = (2.6×102 ) + (13.0×102 ) = 1.56X103 E
3 2 2 2 3
ACCURACY is the degree of closeness of a measured or
calculated quantity to its actual (true) value.
PRECISION the degree to which further measurements or
calculations show the same or similar results.
Precision is sometimes stratified into:
Repeatability the variation arising when all efforts are made to keep conditions
constant by using the same instrument and operator, and repeating during a short time
Reproducibility the variation arising using the same measurement process among
different instruments and operators, and over longer time periods.
CHANGING UNITS OF
METRIC SYSTEM is the common system of reference units used
SI UNITS International System of Units
Type of measure Standard Symbol
length meter m
mass (weight) kilogram kg
temperature degree Kelvin K
time second s
electric current ampere A
amount of substance mole mol
luminous intensity candela cd
1585 A decimal system for weights and measures is proposed (by Simon Stevin, in his book "The
1670 Gabriel Mouton, Vicar of St. Paul's Church in Lyons and an astronomer, proposes a metric system.
Authorities credit him as the originator of what was to become the metric system.
1790 Thomas Jefferson proposed a decimal based measurement system for the USA. A subsequent vote in
the USA congress to replace the current UK-based system by a metric system was lost by only one
1790s Investigations conducted into reforming French weights and measures, which result in development
and adoption of the metric system. Credit for authorising this is variously assigned (depending on
which document one reads) to Louis XVI, Napoleon and the National Assembly of France.
1795 The metric system becomes the official system of measurement in France
1840 Metric system compulsory in France since this date.
1800s International support for metric system grows. International scientific community switches to metric
1900s By 1900, 39 countries had officially switched to the metric system. By the end of the century virtually
all countries, with the USA being the only notable exception, had switched to the metric system.
1959 UK and USA redefine the inch to be 2.54 cm. In 1963 the UK redefines the pound to be exactly
0.45359237 kilograms. In 1985 the UK redefines the gallon to be exactly 3.785411764 liters. The USA
took similar steps, although the USA gallon is smaller and consequently has been redefined as
1960 The metric system officially renamed to "Système International d'Unités" (International System of
Units), and given the official symbol SI.
Curren The metric system has been adapted by virtually every country, with the only notable exception being
the USA (the other non-metric countries are Liberia and Burma). Some countries (such as the UK) are
still in transition to the metric system. E
Quantity In metric Imperial or USA
Freezing point of water 0°C 32°F
Boiling point of water 100°C 212°F
Healthy temperature of a 37°C 98.6°F
Density of water 1 kg/l 10 pounds/Imperial gallon
8.35 pounds/USA gallon
Speed of light 300 000 km/s 186 000 miles/s
Speed of sound 330 m/s 1090 feet/s
Circumference of Earth 40 000 km 25 000 miles
Distance between earth 150 000 000 km 93 000 000 miles
Distance between earth 385 000 km 240 000 miles
Altitude of geostationary 35 800 km 22 300 miles
Earth's gravity 10 m/s2 32 feet/s2
ENGLISH SYSTEM is system of measurement
that is still used in U.S.
12 inches = 1 foot = 1 square foot
3 feet = 1 yard 9 square feet = 1 square yard
220 yards = 1 furlong = 1 acre
8 furlongs = 1 mile 640 acres = 1 square mile
5,280 feet = 1 mile 1 square mile = 1 section
1,760 yards = 1 mile
MASS is the amount of matter in a body. The mass of an object is FIXED
and UNVARYING QUANTITY that is independent of the object’s location.
WEIGHT is the measure of the earth’s gravitational attraction . The
weight of an object varies in relation to the position of an object on or its
distance from the earth.
DENSITY of a material is defined as its mass per unit volume. The symbol
of density is ρ (the Greek letter rho).
Formula: ρ is the density
m is the mass
V is the volume.
SPECIFIC GRAVITY is defined as the ratio of the density of a given
solid or liquid substance to the density of water at a specific temperature and
TEMPERATURE is a physical property of a system that underlies the
common notions of hot and cold.
Temperature formulas temperature formulas:
Convert Fahrenheit To Celsius: 5/9 (Fahrenheit - 32)
Celsius To Fahrenheit: ((9/5) * Celsius) + 32
Celsius To Kelvin: Celsius+ 273
Kelvin To Celsius: Kelvin - 273
Fahrenheit To Kelvin: (5/9 * (Fahrenheit - 32) + 273 )
Kelvin To Fahrenheit: ((Kelvin - 273) * 9/5 ) + 32