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  2. 2. I. TOPIC OUTLINE A) Chemistry In Everyday Life D) Atomic Structure A.1 History of Chemistry D.1 Atomic theory of Matter A.2 Branches of Chemistry D.2 Discovering the structure A.3 Importance of Chemistry of the Atom B) Math in Chemistry D.3 Character and Behaviour B.1 Significant Figures of Matter B.2 Scientific Notation B.3 Uncertainty Measurement D.4 X-RAYS and Radio Activity B.4 Metric system and SI units D.5 Subatomic Particles B.5 Mass and weight D.6 Ions and Isotopes B.6 Density D.7 Electrons B.7 Specific Gravity E) Periodic Table B.8 Temperature Measurement F) Laboratory Apparatus B.9 Heat C) Probing Matter C.1 States of Matter C.2 Properties of Matter C.3 Mixtures C.4 Solutions and Substances C.5 Changes in Matter C.6 Energy Changes
  4. 4. CHEMISTRY is a branch of science concerned with the study of matter, its properties, composition and structure, the changes it undergoes, and the principles that explain these changes. HOM E
  5. 5. MATTER is anything that has both mass and volume. HOM E
  6. 6. Organic Chemistry This specific type of chemistry is concerned with elements containing carbon. Carbon is only the fourteenth most common element on earth, yet it creates the largest number of different compounds. This type of chemistry is important to the petrochemical, pharmaceutical, and textile industries. All living organisms contain at least some amount of carbon in their body. Inorganic Chemistry This branch of chemistry deals with substances not containing carbon and that are not organic. Examples of such substances are minerals found in the earth's crust and non-living matter. There are many branches of inorganic chemistry. They include bioinorganic chemistry, nuclear science and energy, geochemistry, and synthetic inorganic chemistry, just to name a few. Physical Chemistry This type of chemistry deals with the discovery and description of the theoretical basis of the behavior of chemical substances. This means also that it provides a basis for every bit of chemistry including organic, inorganic, and analytical. This chemistry is defined as dealing with the relations between the physical properties of substances and their chemical formations along with their changes. Biochemistry Biochemistry is a science that is concerned with the composition and changes in the formation of living species. This type of chemistry utilizes the concepts of organic and physical chemistry to make the world of living organisms seem much clearer. Some people also consider biochemsitry as physiological chemistry and biological chemistry. The scientists that study biochemistry are called biochemists. They study such things as the properties of biological molecules, including proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids. Other topics they focus on are the chemical regulation of metabolism, the chemistry of vitamins, and biological oxidation. Analytical Chemistry This kind of chemistry deals mostly with the composition of substances. HOM E
  7. 7. BLACK MAGIC (Prehistoric time- Beginning of the Christian era) Democritus proclaimed atoms as the simplest form. Aristotle gave the four elements: (earth, wind, fire, & water) HOM E
  8. 8. ALCHEMIST PD (Christian era- end of 17 th century) • Philosopher's stone is a legendary alchemical tool, supposedly capable of turning base metals into gold. • Elixir of Life is a legendary potion, or drink, that grants the drinker eternal life or eternal youth. Abu Musa Jābir ibn Hayyān (“Geber”) “Father of chemistry” Paracelsus was the first systematic botanist. Robert Grosseteste (English statesman) the real founder of traditional chemistry. HOM E
  9. 9. TRADITIONAL CHEMISTRY(end of 17 th century- mid 19th century) Sir Francis Bacon made the Scientific method. Robert Boyle ( “The Sceptical Chemist”) one of the co- founders of modern chemistry through his use of proper experimentation, which further separated chemistry from alchemy. HOM E
  10. 10. Joseph Priestley credited with the discovery of oxygen, having isolated it in its gaseous state. Antoine Lavoisier “Father of Modern Chemistry” HOM E
  11. 11. MODERN CHEMISTRY (mid 19th century- present) William Prout was an English chemist, physician, and natural theologian. He is remembered today mainly for what is called Prout's hypothesis. John Dalton was an English chemist, meteorologist and physicist. He is best known for his pioneering work in the development of modern atomic theory, and his research into colour blindness. HOM E
  12. 12. John Newlands first to arrange the periodic table. Sir William Crookes was a pioneer of vacuum tubes, inventing the Crookes tube. HOM E
  13. 13. Sir Joseph John “J. J.” Thomson was a British physicist and Nobel laureate, credited for the discovery of the electron and of isotopes, and the invention of the mass spectrometer. Sir James Chadwick, was an English physicist and Nobel laureate in physics awarded for his discovery of the neutron. HOM E
  14. 14. Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen was a German physicist, who produced and detected electromagnetic radiation in a wavelength range today known as x- rays or Roentgen rays, an achievement that earned him the first Nobel Prize in Physics in 1901. Gilbert Newton Lewis was an American physical chemist known for the discovery of the covalent bond. In 1926, Lewis coined the term "photon" for the smallest unit of radiant energy. He was a brother of Alpha Chi Sigma, the professional chemistry fraternity. HOM E
  15. 15.  MIXTURE two or more different substances are mixed together but not combined chemically. Kinds: A. HETEROGENEOUS MIXTURES are mixtures made up of more than one phase or of different parts and can be separated physically. B. HOMOGENEOUS MIXTURES have only one phase, or have a uniform appearance throughout , and any portion of the sample has the same properties and composition. Ways of separating mixtures: A. Decantation is a process for the separation of mixtures, carefully pouring a solution from a container in order to leave the precipitate (sediments) in the bottom of the original container. B. Crystallization is the (natural or artificial) process of formation of solid crystals precipitating from a solution, melt or more rarely deposited directly from a gas. C. Distillation is a method of separating mixtures based on differences in their volatilities in a boiling liquid mixture. D. Evaporation is the slow vaporization of a liquid and the reverse of condensation. E. Filtration is a mechanical or physical operation which is used for the separation of HOM solids from fluids (liquids or gases) by interposing a medium through which the fluid can pass, but the solids (or at least part of the solids) in the fluid are retained. E
  16. 16.  PROPERTIES are the distinguishing characteristics that we use to identify different samples of matter. Kinds: A. PHYSICAL PROPERTY properties that do not change the chemical nature of matter. Examples of physical properties are: colour, smell, freezing point, boiling point, melting point, infra-red spectrum, attraction (paramagnetic) or repulsion (diamagnetic) to magnets, opacity, viscosity and density. There are many more examples. Note that measuring each of these properties will not alter the basic nature of the substance. B. CHEMICAL PROPERTY properties that do change the chemical nature of matter. Examples of chemical properties are: heat of combustion, reactivity with water, PH, and electromotive force. HOM E
  17. 17.  SOLUTION is a homogeneous mixture composed of two or more substances.  Solvent is a liquid or gas that dissolves a solid, liquid, or gaseous solute, resulting in a solution. (Water is the universal solvent)  Solute is a substance that is dissolved by the solvent.  COLLOID is a type of chemical mixture where one substance is dispersed evenly throughout another. The particles of the dispersed substance are only suspended in the mixture, unlike a solution, where they are completely dissolved within. This occurs because the particles in a colloid are larger than in a solution - small enough to be dispersed evenly and maintain a homogenous appearance, but large enough to scatter light and not dissolve. Because of this dispersal, some colloids have the appearance of solutions.  SUSPENSION is a heterogeneous fluid containing solid particles that are sufficiently large for sedimentation. HOM E
  18. 18. SOLID The particles (ions, atoms or molecules) are packed closely together. The forces between particles are strong enough so that the particles cannot move freely but can only vibrate. As a result, a solid has a stable, definite shape, and a definite volume. Solids can only change their shape by force, as when broken or cut. LIQUID The volume is definite if the temperature and pressure are constant. The highest temperature at which a given liquid can exist is its critical temperature. GAS A gas has no definite shape or volume, but occupies the entire container in which it is confined. PLASMA Plasma is a fourth state of matter consisting of an overall charge-neutral mix of electrons, ions and neutral atoms. BOSE- EINSTEIN CONDESATE is a liquid-like super fluid that occurs in at low temperatures in which all atoms occupy the same quantum state. HOM E
  19. 19.  PURE SUBSTANCES is a kind of substance that contains only one kind of matter; elements and compounds are pure substances. Classification: 1. ELEMENTS are substances that are made up of only one type of atom. They cannot be further separated into simpler substances. 2. COMPOUNDS are substances formed when two or more elements are chemically joined. Water, salt, and sugar are examples of compounds. HOM E
  20. 20.  PHYSICAL CHANGE is one that involves no change in the fixed composition of the substance in question.  CHEMICAL CHANGE occurs when the composition of a substance is changed into a substance or substance having physical and chemical properties completely different from the original. ENERGY CHANGES:  ENERGY is the capacity or the ability to do work. Kinds: 1. Endothermic reaction a process or reaction that absorbs energy in the form of heat. • Depressurising a pressure can • A chemical cold pack consisting primarily of ammonium nitrate and water. • Melting of ice • Vaporisation of water & booger 2. Exothermic reaction a process or reaction that releases energy usually in the form of heat, but also in form of light, electricity, or sound. • Condensation of rain from water vapour • Combustion of fuels such as wood, coal and oil HOM • Mixing water and strong acids E
  21. 21. ATOMS is a basic unit of matter consisting of a dense, central nucleus surrounded by a cloud of negatively charged electrons. HOM E
  22. 22. DISCOVERING THE STRUCTURE OF THE ATOM  JOHN DALTON an English school teacher who is considered to be the “Father of Atomic theory” Five main points of Dalton's Atomic Theory:  Elements are made of tiny particles called atoms.  All atoms of a given element are identical.  The atoms of a given element are different from those of any other element; the atoms of different elements can be distinguished from one another by their respective relative weights.  Atoms of one element can combine with atoms of other elements to form chemical compounds; a given compound always has the same relative numbers of types of atoms.  Atoms cannot be created, divided into smaller particles, nor destroyed in the chemical process; a chemical reaction simply changes the way atoms are grouped together. HOM E
  23. 23.  J.J. THOMSON The plum pudding model of the atom by J. J. Thomson, who discovered the electron in 1897, was proposed in 1904 before the discovery of the atomic nucleus. In this model, the atom is composed of electrons , surrounded by a soup of positive charge to balance the electron's negative charge, like negatively-charged "plums" surrounded by positively- charged "pudding". The electrons (as we know them today) were thought to be positioned throughout the atom, but with many structures possible for positioning multiple electrons, particularly rotating rings of electrons. Instead of a soup, the atom was also sometimes said to have had a cloud of positive charge. HOM E
  24. 24.  ERNEST RUTHERFORD Rutherford model or planetary model is a model of the atom devised by Ernest Rutherford. Rutherford directed the famous Geiger-Marsden experiment in 1909, which suggested to Rutherford's analysis (1911) that the Plum pudding model of J. J. Thomson of the atom was incorrect. Rutherford's new model for the atom, based on the experimental results, had a number of essential modern features, including a relatively high central charge concentrated into a very small volume in comparison to the rest of the atom and containing the bulk of the atomic mass (the nucleus of the atom), and a number of tiny electrons circling around the nucleus like planets around the sun.  The electron clouds of the atom do not influence alpha particle scattering.  A large number of the atom's charges, up to a number equal to about half the atomic mass in hydrogen units, are concentrated in very small volume at the centre of the atom. These are responsible for deflecting both alpha and beta particles.  The mass of heavy atoms such as gold is mostly concentrated in the central charge region, since calculations show it is not deflected or moved by the high speed alpha particles, which have very high momentum in comparison to HOM electrons, but not with regard to a heavy atom as a whole. E
  25. 25.  NIELS BOHR Bohr model, devised by Niels Bohr, depicts the atom as a small, positively charged nucleus surrounded by electrons that travel in circular orbits around the nucleus—similar in structure to the solar system, but with electrostatic forces providing attraction, rather than gravity. The Bohr model is a primitive model of the hydrogen atom. As a theory, it can be derived as a first-order approximation of the hydrogen atom using the broader and much more accurate quantum mechanics, and thus may be considered to be an obsolete scientific theory. However, because of its simplicity, and its correct results for selected systems (see below for application), the Bohr model is still commonly taught to introduce students to quantum mechanics, before moving on to the more accurate but more complex valence shell HOM atom. E
  26. 26. CHARACTER AND BEHAVIOR OF MATTER  In the 1830s, Michael Faraday and Humphry Davy demonstrated the electrical nature of matter. Michael Faraday Humphry Davy  They found that when electric current was passed through molten compounds or water containing dissolved salts, decomposition took place and concluded that the electric current must be carried through these molten compounds and solutions by charged atoms called HOM ions. E
  27. 27.  In the mid- 1800s, the cathode- ray tube, experiment proved the electrical character of the atom. CATHODE- RAY TUBE is a vacuum tube containing an electron gun (a source of electrons) and a fluorescent screen, with internal or external means to accelerate and deflect the electron beam, used to create images in the form of light emitted from the fluorescent screen.  Since the radiation comes from the cathode it was called a cathode ray. The tube is called a cathode ray tube. In 1897 using the cathode ray tube J. J Thomson showed that in an electric field, a beam of cathode rays bends toward the positively charged plate. Also when a magnetic field was applied the HOM cathode rays were deflected. Thomson found thatE
  28. 28. X- RAYS AND RADIOACTIVITY Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen was a German physicist, who, on 8 November 1895, produced and detected electromagnetic radiation in a wavelength range today known as x-rays or Roentgen rays. Marie Curie was a pioneer in the field of radioactivity and was the first woman to win a Nobel prize and the first person to win two Nobel Prizes. HOM E
  29. 29. Ernest Rutherford was a New Zealand born British chemist and physicist who became known as the Father of nuclear physics. He discovered that atoms have a small charged nucleus. He also discovered the ALPHA RAYS, consist of two protons and two neutrons bound together into a particle identical to a helium nucleus, and BETA RAYS, are high-energy, high-speed electrons or positrons emitted by certain types of radioactive nuclei such as potassium. Paul Villiard discovered GAMMA RAYS, are electromagnetic radiation of high energy, in 1900 while studying the radiation from radium. HOM E
  30. 30. Henry Moseley developed the concept of atomic numbers. HOM E
  31. 31. SUBATOMIC PARTICLES  ELECTRON is a subatomic particle that carries a negative electric charge. It has no known substructure and is believed to be a point particle. And was discovered by Sir John Joseph Thomson and his team of British physicists.  NEUTRON is a subatomic particle with no net electric charge and a mass slightly larger than that of a proton.  PROTON is a subatomic particle with an electric charge of +1 elementary charge. Eugene Goldstein a German physicist. He was an early investigator of discharge tubes, the discoverer of anode rays, and is sometimes credited with the discovery of the proton. HOM E
  32. 32. IONS AND ISOTOPES  ISOTOPES two atoms with the same atomic numbers but different numbers of neutrons.  ION is an atom or molecule where the total number of electrons is not equal to the total number of protons, giving it a net positive or negative electrical charge.  Since protons are positively charged and electrons are negatively charged, if there are more electrons than protons, the atom or molecule will be negatively charged. This is called an ANION.  If there are more protons than electrons, the atom or molecule will be positively charged. This is called a CATION. Kinds: 1. Monatomic ion an ion consisting of a single atom . 2. Polyatomic ion an ion consisting of two or more atoms. 3. Radical ion If an ion contains unpaired electrons. HOM E
  33. 33. ELECTRON CONFIGURATION  ELECTRON CONFIGURATION is the arrangement of electrons of an atom, a molecule, or other physical structure. It concerns the way electrons can be distributed in the orbitals of the given system.  ORBITAL the region space where there is a significant probability of finding a particular electron. HOM E
  34. 34. Electron subshells (or energy sublevels)  An electron subshell is an energy sublevel within an electron shell in which the elctrons all have the same energy.  The number of subshells within a shell is equal to the shell number (n) (I.e., Shell one contains one subshell while shell three contains three subshells).  The subshells are identified by a number and a letter. The number indicates the shell to which the subshell belongs. The letters are s, p, d, and f (all lowercase).  The energy and maximum number of electrons in a subshell within a given shell depends on the type of subshell.  Each s sublevel has a single orbital. Each p sublevel has 3 orbitals, each d sublevel has 5 orbitals, and each f sublevel has 7 HOM E orbitals.
  35. 35. PRINCIPLES:  PAULI’S EXCLUSION PRINCIPLE is a quantum mechanical principle formulated by Wolfgang Pauli in 1925. (s,p,d,f orbitals) *Two electrons cannot share the same set of quantum numbers within the same system. Therefore, there is room for only two electrons in each spatial orbital. *Not all principal energy levels contain each type of sublevel. The following are rules to determine what types of sublevels occur in any given energy level and the maximum number of electrons possible in that energy level. (1) No more than two electrons can occupy one orbital. (2) Electrons occupy the lowest possible energy sublevels; enter a higher sublevel only when the lower sublevels are filled. (3) Orbitals in a given sublevel of equal energy are each occupied by a single electron before a second electron enters them. HOM E
  36. 36. • HUND’S RULE tells us that when electrons have more than one equivalent orbital available, they will half- fill each of the equivalent orbitals before filling the second half of each Friedrich Hund  AUFBAU PRINCIPLE according to the principle, electrons fill orbitals starting at the lowest available (possible) energy states before filling higher state. HOM E
  37. 37.  SIGNIFICANT FIGURES also called Significant digits all the digits that are part of a measurement. Rules for identifying significant figures:  All non-zero digits are considered significant. Example: 123.45 has five significant figures: 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5.  Zeros appearing anywhere between two non-zero digits are significant. Example: 101.12 has five significant figures: 1, 0, 1, 1 and 2.  Leading zeros are not significant. Example: 0.00012 has two significant figures: 1 and 2.  Trailing zeros in a number containing a decimal point are significant. Example: 12.2300 has six significant figures: 1, 2, 2, 3, 0 and 0. 0.000122300 still has only six significant figures (the zeros before the 1 are not significant) 120.00 has five significant figures HOM E
  38. 38. 3 COMPONENTS PARTS OF A MEASURED VALUE: 1.) Numerical Quantity 2.) Unit 3.) Name of the substance 3 KINDS OF NUMBERS: 1.) Counted items are expressed as exact whole numbers and never a fraction. 2.) Defined relations also involve exact numbers but are not always whole numbers. 3.) Measured numbers come from reading measuring devices which are never exact. HOM E
  39. 39.  SCIENTIFIC NOTATION also known as Exponential notation, is a way of writing numbers that accommodates values too large or small to be conveniently written in standard decimal notation. Standard Form Scientific notation 300 3×102 4,000 4×103 5,720,000,000 5.72×109 −0.0000000061 −6.1×10−9 OPERATIONS: 1.) MULTIPLICATION the numerical part are simply multiplied and the exponents are added. Example: (3×102 ) (4×103 ) = (3)(2) (102+3 ) = 6X105 2.) DIVISION the numbers are divided and the exponents are subtracted algebraically. Example: divide 6X104 by 2X102 = (6/2) (104-2 ) = 3X102 3.) ADDITION & SUBTRACTION the exponents must be the same and then just add or subtract. HOM Example: (2.6×102 ) + (1.30×103 ) = (2.6×102 ) + (13.0×102 ) = 1.56X103 E 3 2 2 2 3
  40. 40.  ACCURACY is the degree of closeness of a measured or calculated quantity to its actual (true) value.  PRECISION the degree to which further measurements or calculations show the same or similar results. Precision is sometimes stratified into: Repeatability the variation arising when all efforts are made to keep conditions constant by using the same instrument and operator, and repeating during a short time period. Reproducibility the variation arising using the same measurement process among different instruments and operators, and over longer time periods. HOM E
  41. 41. CHANGING UNITS OF MEASUREMENT  METRIC SYSTEM is the common system of reference units used in science.  SI UNITS International System of Units Type of measure Standard Symbol Unit length meter m mass (weight) kilogram kg temperature degree Kelvin K time second s electric current ampere A amount of substance mole mol luminous intensity candela cd HOM E
  42. 42. System 1585 A decimal system for weights and measures is proposed (by Simon Stevin, in his book "The tenth"). 1670 Gabriel Mouton, Vicar of St. Paul's Church in Lyons and an astronomer, proposes a metric system. Authorities credit him as the originator of what was to become the metric system. 1790 Thomas Jefferson proposed a decimal based measurement system for the USA. A subsequent vote in the USA congress to replace the current UK-based system by a metric system was lost by only one vote. 1790s Investigations conducted into reforming French weights and measures, which result in development and adoption of the metric system. Credit for authorising this is variously assigned (depending on which document one reads) to Louis XVI, Napoleon and the National Assembly of France. 1795 The metric system becomes the official system of measurement in France 1840 Metric system compulsory in France since this date. 1800s International support for metric system grows. International scientific community switches to metric system. 1900s By 1900, 39 countries had officially switched to the metric system. By the end of the century virtually all countries, with the USA being the only notable exception, had switched to the metric system. 1959 UK and USA redefine the inch to be 2.54 cm. In 1963 the UK redefines the pound to be exactly 0.45359237 kilograms. In 1985 the UK redefines the gallon to be exactly 3.785411764 liters. The USA took similar steps, although the USA gallon is smaller and consequently has been redefined as 3.785411784 liters. 1960 The metric system officially renamed to "Système International d'Unités" (International System of Units), and given the official symbol SI. Curren The metric system has been adapted by virtually every country, with the only notable exception being t HOM the USA (the other non-metric countries are Liberia and Burma). Some countries (such as the UK) are still in transition to the metric system. E
  43. 43. Quantity In metric Imperial or USA Freezing point of water 0°C 32°F Boiling point of water 100°C 212°F Healthy temperature of a 37°C 98.6°F person Density of water 1 kg/l 10 pounds/Imperial gallon 8.35 pounds/USA gallon Speed of light 300 000 km/s 186 000 miles/s Speed of sound 330 m/s 1090 feet/s Circumference of Earth 40 000 km 25 000 miles Distance between earth 150 000 000 km 93 000 000 miles and sun Distance between earth 385 000 km 240 000 miles and moon Altitude of geostationary 35 800 km 22 300 miles orbit Earth's gravity 10 m/s2 32 feet/s2 HOM E
  44. 44.  ENGLISH SYSTEM is system of measurement that is still used in U.S. Length Area 144 square 12 inches = 1 foot = 1 square foot inches 3 feet = 1 yard 9 square feet = 1 square yard 4,840 square 220 yards = 1 furlong = 1 acre yards 8 furlongs = 1 mile 640 acres = 1 square mile 5,280 feet = 1 mile 1 square mile = 1 section 1,760 yards = 1 mile HOM E
  45. 45.  MASS is the amount of matter in a body. The mass of an object is FIXED and UNVARYING QUANTITY that is independent of the object’s location.  WEIGHT is the measure of the earth’s gravitational attraction . The weight of an object varies in relation to the position of an object on or its distance from the earth.  DENSITY of a material is defined as its mass per unit volume. The symbol of density is ρ (the Greek letter rho). Formula: ρ is the density m is the mass V is the volume.  SPECIFIC GRAVITY is defined as the ratio of the density of a given solid or liquid substance to the density of water at a specific temperature and pressure. HOM E
  46. 46.  TEMPERATURE is a physical property of a system that underlies the common notions of hot and cold. Temperature formulas temperature formulas: Convert Fahrenheit To Celsius: 5/9 (Fahrenheit - 32) Celsius To Fahrenheit: ((9/5) * Celsius) + 32 Celsius To Kelvin: Celsius+ 273 Kelvin To Celsius: Kelvin - 273 Fahrenheit To Kelvin: (5/9 * (Fahrenheit - 32) + 273 ) Kelvin To Fahrenheit: ((Kelvin - 273) * 9/5 ) + 32 HOM E