2E Population
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2E Population

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2E Population 2E Population Presentation Transcript

  • POPULATION World Population Growth
  • BY THE END OF THE LESSON… We will be able to, 1. Describe the world population development. 2. Give some reasons for the population boom from 1850. 3. Describe population terms..
  • WORLD POPULATION DEVELOPMENT 0.15 0.2 0.3 0.5 1 1.2 1.3 0.9 1.1 1.3 1.8 2.8 6.3 10.2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000 2050 Billions Industralized Countries Developing Countries
  • REASONS FOR POPULATION BOOM 1. Better medical and health care. 2. Improved hygiene. 3. Improved urban sanitation and waste removal. 4. Increased food supply. 5. Improved quality of the water supply and accessibility. 6. Improved accessibility to vaccines and antibiotics.
  • BIRTH RATE • Refers to the number of live births per 1000 people per year. • For example, if the birth rate of a country is 21 live births per 1000 per year, • it means that for every 1000 people in the country, 21 babies were born in that year.
  • TOTAL FERTILITY RATE • Sometimes also called the fertility rate. • Refers to the average number of children that would be born to a woman over her lifetime.
  • DEATH/MORTALITY RATE • Refers to the number of deaths per 100o people per year. • For example, if the death rate of a country is 9 deaths per 1000 per year, • it means that for every 1000 people in the country, 9 people died in that year.
  • RATE OF NATURAL INCREASE • Refers to how fast a population grows. • This can be calculated by subtracting the death rate from the birth rate. Birth Rate Death Rate Rate of natural increase 21 9 19 22 21 21
  • RATE OF NATURAL INCREASE • Refers to how fast a population grows. • This can be calculated by subtracting the death rate from the birth rate. Birth Rate Death Rate Rate of natural increase 21 9 12 19 22 -3 21 21 0
  • IMMIGRATION • The action of coming to live permanently in a foreign country i.e. foreigners coming in.
  • EMIGRATION • The action of leaving one’s country to settle permanently in a foreign country i.e. locals going out.
  • LIFE EXPECTANCY • Refers to the average number of years a person born in a given country would live if mortality rates at each age were to remain constant in the future.
  • INFANT MORTALITY RATE • Infant mortality rate (IMR) is the number of deaths of children less than one year of age per 1000 live births.
  • POPULATION Population Distribution
  • BY THE END OF THE LESSON… We will be able to, 1. Describe the population distribution of the world. 2. Describe the factors affecting population distribution.
  • POPULATION DISTRIBUTION • Refers to the arrangement or spread of people living in a given area. • Can also be how the population of an area is arranged according to variables such as age, race, or sex.
  • POPULATION DENSITY PP/KM2 2013
  • FACTORS INFLUENCING POPULATING DISTRIBUTION 1. Physical Environment – Fertility of soil – Climate 2. Level of Technology
  • PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT • The fertility of soil influences population distribution. • People tend to live in areas where there is fertile soil as • the conditions are favorable for agricultural activities and crop yield will be high. • For example, • river deltas such as the Nile Delta in Egypt and the Ganges River Delta have large populations as the soil is very fertile due to sediments deposited by the rivers.
  • PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT • Climate conditions influences population distribution. • Population is higher in areas where the climate is not extreme as • places with climates which are too hot, too cold or too dry are neither favorable for the cultivation of crops nor suitable for human beings to settle in. • For example, • there are fewer people living in deserts where the climate is hot and dry.
  • LEVEL OF TECHNOLOGY • The level of technology influences population distribution. • With improvements in technology, environments which were previously unsuitable for living can be converted into suitable living environments. • For example, • advances in technology has enabled water to be transported to various places in Las Vegas, a city located within a desert region.
  • POPULATION Population Density
  • BY THE END OF THE LESSON… We will be able to, 1. Describe population density. 2. Calculate population density. 3. Describe the problems of high population density.
  • POPULATION DENSITY • Population density gives us an idea of the number of people living in a particular area. • It is usually expressed in terms of the number of people per square kilometre of the land. • Formula: Total number of people Total land area
  • POPULATION DENSITY • > 200: Densely populated • 10 – 199: Moderately populated • 0 – 9: Sparsely populated
  • POPULATION DENSITY PP/KM2 2013
  • POPULATION Population Pyramids
  • BY THE END OF THE LESSON… We will be able to, 1. Describe and construct population pyramids.
  • POPULATION PYRAMIDS • A population pyramid, also known as a age- sex graph, is a special type of graph that shows the distribution of a location’s population in terms of age groups, called cohorts, and sex. • The vertical scale tells us the age group of the population. • The horizontal scale represents the percentage or the total number of people within that age group.
  • QUESTION • Describe the following population pyramids.
  • TRIANGULAR, BROAD-BASED
  • TRIANGULAR, BROAD-BASED • Population is growing rapidly. • Many more young people than elderly. • Low life expectancy, few can live up to 80.
  • BEEHIVE-SHAPED
  • BEEHIVE-SHAPED • Population is growing very slowly. • Number of young and children are decreasing. • High life expectancy, many can live up to 80.
  • NARROW-BASED
  • NARROW-BASED • High proportion of elderly • Low proportion of youth and children. • Population is ageing.
  • POPULATION High rate of population growth
  • BY THE END OF THE LESSON… We will be able to, 1. Explain the causes of a high rate of population growth.
  • CAUSES OF A HIGH RATE OF POPULATION GROWTH • Low death rate: 1. Better medical and health care 2. Better hygiene • High birth rate 3. Lack of family planning 4. Early marriages 5. Preference for sons 6. Need for farm labour
  • CAUSES OF A HIGH RATE OF POPULATION GROWTH 1. Better medical and health care – Improved medical and health care have enabled more babies to survive beyond their first year, and elderly receiving better medical care are able to live longer. – For example, in developed countries such as Singapore and Australia, infant mortality rate is very low and life expectancy is high.
  • CAUSES OF A HIGH RATE OF POPULATION GROWTH 2. Better hygiene – If living conditions are clean and hygienic, people are less prone to falling sick and contracting diseases like malaria and diarrhea. – In many countries, the death rate and infant mortality rate has greatly decreased when there is a supply of clean water, or when the environment is clear of disease-carrying pests and insects.
  • CAUSES OF A HIGH RATE OF POPULATION GROWTH 3. Lack of family planning – Family planning refers to how many children a couple plans to have. – In many less developed countries, people are ledd educated and know little about family planning, which result in having more children. – They may also have more children because of – Families may also have many children due to religious or traditional beliefs, such as require sons to perform certain rituals.
  • CAUSES OF A HIGH RATE OF POPULATION GROWTH 4. Early marriages – Couple who marry at an early age tend to have larger families as the women who marry early have longer childbearing years. – Couple forced to marry early are more likely to be uneducated and have inadequate knowledge about family planning.
  • CAUSES OF A HIGH RATE OF POPULATION GROWTH 5. Preference for sons – Some societies such as those in parts of China or India place a lot of importance in having sons. – For example, these familes may prefer sons to carry on the family name or to inheri the family business.
  • CAUSES OF A HIGH RATE OF POPULATION GROWTH 6. Need for farm labour – People in less developed countries and rural areas such as rural China and India often depend on farm labor for income. – These people tend to have more children as they require more hands to work on the farms.
  • POPULATION PYRAMID
  • BY THE END OF THE LESSON… We will be able to, 1. Explain the consequences of a high rate of population growth.
  • QUESTION • What are the consequences of a high rate of population growth?
  • CONSEQUENCES OF A HIGH RATE OF POPULATION GROWTH 1. Higher demand for resources 2. Higher demand for housing 3. Higher demand for education 4. Higher demand for jobs 5. Environmental problems
  • CRAFTING AN EXPLANATION • Point + Elaboration + Example
  • CONSEQUENCES OF A HIGH RATE OF POPULATION GROWTH 1. Higher demand for resources – A high rate of population growth will create higher demand for resources. – This is because with more people, the demand for resources such as food and water also increases. – For example, many less developed countries such as Angola and Somalia suffer from shortage of food because not enough food is being produced to feed the rapidly growing population.
  • CONSEQUENCES OF A HIGH RATE OF POPULATION GROWTH
  • CONSEQUENCES OF A HIGH RATE OF POPULATION GROWTH
  • CONSEQUENCES OF A HIGH RATE OF POPULATION GROWTH 2. Higher demand for housing – A rapid increase in population would result in competition for housing. – This is especially so in cities of less developed countries, which do not have sufficient housing for its growing population. – For example, in some cities in India, it is common to see people living in temporary shelters made of cardboard and wooden planks.
  • CONSEQUENCES OF A HIGH RATE OF POPULATION GROWTH 3. Higher demand for education – A high rate of population growth will create higher demand for education. – This is because with more babies born every year, there is a need to ensure that there are sufficient schools and teachers to educate the young. – Less developed countries such as Laos may lack the funds to build more schools hence not everyone will be able to attend school and obtain a good education.
  • CONSEQUENCES OF A HIGH RATE OF POPULATION GROWTH 4. Higher demand for jobs – In a country with rapid population growth, there will be a higher demand for jobs as more people are competing for a limited pool of jobs. – The limited supply of jobs would eventually create social problems such as poverty and crime as is the case in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
  • CONSEQUENCES OF A HIGH RATE OF POPULATION GROWTH 5. Environmental problems – Rapid population growth also results in environmental problems as – with a larger population, not only are more resources used by more people, more waste such as used paper, empty bottles and sewage are produced. – In less developed countries such as India, waste disposal services and other public services are lacking, leading to water and land pollution.
  • POPULATION Actions to control a high rate of population growth
  • BY THE END OF THE LESSON… We will be able to, 1. Explain the actions to control a high rate of population growth.
  • ACTIONS 1. Education on family planning 2. Incentives and penalties
  • ACTIONS 1. Education on family planning – One way is through education on family planning. – This refers to teaching couples to use various methods of controlling the size of their families. – For example, in India and Bangladesh, family planning agencies are sent to rural areas to educate the people and give advice on family planning, such as the use of contraceptives.
  • ACTIONS 2. Incentives and penalties – Another way is to use incentives and penalties. – This may refer to giving of monetary incentives to couples who have fewer children, and penalising those who have more by imposing higher taxes. – For example, China rewards couples who adhere to the ‘One Child Policy’ with incentives and fines those who do not.
  • POPULATION Low rate of population growth
  • BY THE END OF THE LESSON… We will be able to, 1. Explain the causes of a low rate of population growth.
  • CRAFTING AN EXPLANATION • Point + Elaboration + Example
  • CAUSES OF A LOW RATE OF POPULATION GROWTH • Low death rate: 1. Higher standards of hygiene 2. Better nutrition 3. Better medical and health care • Low birth rate 4. Later marriages 5. Fewer marriages 6. Preference for smaller families
  • POPULATION PYRAMID
  • QUESTION • In groups of 4s, explain how 2 of the following lead to low population growth rate by contributing to http://tinyurl.com/lowpopn. Higher standards of hygiene 1. Better nutrition 2. Better medical and health care 4. Later marriages 5. Fewer marriages 6. Preference for smaller families • Support your answer with the use of examples. • Add value to your contribution by pointing your friends to interesting case studies.
  • CAUSES OF A LOW RATE OF POPULATION GROWTH 1. Higher standards of hygiene – In countries with high standards of hygiene such as Australia and Singapore, there is clean food, water and air. – People are less prone to contacting diseases such as cholera, which is associated with unhygienic conditions.
  • CAUSES OF A LOW RATE OF POPULATION GROWTH 2. Better nutrition – In developed countries such as USA and Canada, people generally enjoy higher levels of income and can afford to buy sufficient food and water. – Food and water shortages are rare in these countries.
  • CAUSES OF A LOW RATE OF POPULATION GROWTH 3. Better medical and health care – With better medical and health care, people are able to enjoy longer and healthier lives. – For example, in Singapore, all children are given vaccinations to protect them from illnesses such as smallpox and measles. – In addition, world-class hospitals and well- trained medical staff in Singapore enable people to enjoy excellent medical care.
  • CAUSES OF A LOW RATE OF POPULATION GROWTH 4. Later marriages – More people are marrying later and having children later in their lives, largely due to more women having higher academic qualifications and thus may choose to pursue a career before settling down and having children. – Since most women cannot conceive after they reach the age of 50, those who marry later or delay having children are left with fewer years to have babies.
  • CAUSES OF A LOW RATE OF POPULATION GROWTH 5. Fewer marriages – As more people choose to remain single, there will be fewer families and birth rates will fall. – With fewer births, the number of young people in a population decreases.
  • CAUSES OF A LOW RATE OF POPULATION GROWTH 6. Preference for small families – People in developed countries prefer to have smaller families partly due to the increasing number of working women who find it difficult to balance work and family. – In addition, the cost of raising children has also increased, hence some couples may prefer not having children at all.
  • BY THE END OF THE LESSON… We will be able to, 1. Explain the consequences of a low rate of population growth.
  • CONSEQUENCES OF A LOW RATE OF POPULATION GROWTH 1. Ageing population 2. Higher taxes 3. Smaller talent pool
  • CONSEQUENCES OF A LOW RATE OF POPULATION GROWTH 1. Ageing population – Ageing population is one consequence of a low rate of population growth. – This is because countries with a low rate of population growth often have a growing percentage of elderly people compared to young people in their population. – For example, in countries such as France, Germany and Japan, there are more elderly and fewer youths in the workforce, hence increasing the burden on the working population.
  • POPULATION PYRAMID
  • CONSEQUENCES OF A LOW RATE OF POPULATION GROWTH 2. Higher taxes – Another consequence is higher taxes. – This is because public projects such as the building of hospitals and roads are funded by taxes collected from the working population. – This will mean that each working person will have to pay more taxes to fund public works.
  • CONSEQUENCES OF A LOW RATE OF POPULATION GROWTH 3. Smaller talent pool – Another consequence is smaller talent pool. – This is because the country will have a smaller pool of talent to draw from to lead and serve the country. – This is a very real problem for Singapore as Singapore already has a small population, hence a low rate of population growth only execrates the problem.
  • BY THE END OF THE LESSON… We will be able to, 1. Explain the actions to manage a low rate of population growth.
  • ACTIONS 1. Encouraging marriage and childbearing 2. Building special facilities 3. Helping the elderly keep healthy 4. Encouraging families to look after the elderly 5. Extending working life 6. Encouraging financial planning
  • ACTIONS 1. Encouraging marriage and childbearing – One solution is to encourage marriage and childbearing. – This can be done by encouraging married couples to have more children through incentives. – For example, in Singapore, couples are encouraged to have three or more children when they are younger and those who do are given tax breaks.
  • ACTIONS 2. Building special facilities – Another solution is to build special facilities. – This means building more clinics, hospitals, nursing homes and elderly-friendly facilities. – For example, in Singapore, more nursing homes for the elderly are being built and public facilities such as buses and trains are becoming more elderly friendly.
  • ACTIONS 3. Helping the elderly stay healthy – Another solution is to encourage the elderly to stay healthy. – This can be done through stay healthy campaigns and events. – For example, in Singapore, fun walks and simple aerobics events are common events during Grandparent’s Day.
  • ACTIONS 4. Encouraging families to look after the elderly – Families can also be encouraged to look after their elderly. – With their years of experience, the elderly have an important role to play in society and families can be encouraged to through incentives. – For example, the Singapore government are promoted through various privileges and tax subsidies to support their elderly.
  • ACTIONS 6. Extending working life – More can also be done to extend the working life of the elderly. – In an ageing population, the number of people in the workforce will decrease as the elderly retire. The elderly can be encouraged to work longer and contribute more to society. – For example, in Singapore, the retirement age has been raised to from 60 to 62.
  • ACTIONS 7. Encouraging financial planning – The elderly can also be encouraged to plan for their finances early. – This will ensure that the elderly will have a home and enough money to live comfortably in their retirement. – For example, in Singapore, the government ensures all Singaporeans saves a portion of their earnings into the Central Provident Fund (CPF), which they can withdraw as retirement funds.