Candida species are common and are present in human oral and intestinal environments. Yeast infections can be effectively treated using anti-fungal drugs. These include Amphotericin and Fluconazole, described in the next slides.
(a) Amphotericin. This is a polyene antibiotic that is administered through infusion. It is indicated for the treatment of progressive disseminated yeast infections. It is administered in a dosage of 0.25mg/kg of body weight with 5% glucose for children and increased to 1mg/kg of body weight with 5% glucose for adults. Amphotericin's side effects include nausea and vomiting, shock and pseudo-membranous colitis. It is available in 50mg/vials and goes by the trade name Fungizone, manufactured by Bristol Myers Squibb.
(b) Fluconazole. This is indicated for the treatment of persistent yeast infections unresponsive to common drugs. It is very effective in treating recurrent vaginal candidiasis. It can be taken orally or through I.V., starting with 150mg at a go, followed by 50mg daily for seven days. For non-vaginal infections, it is taken 50mg daily for 7-30 days, depending on the infection. In serious infections like those of the nails, the dose can be doubled. For children over one year but below five, it is administered 1-6 mg/kg body weight, depending on the infection. It is contraindicated for use in pregnancy, lactating mothers and those with hepatic impairment. Its side effects include rashes, renal disturbances and hepatic disturbances. It is available by trade names such as Diflucan by Pfizer in caps of 50mg, 150mg, 200mg and dry suspension, Flucozal by Aegis, Logican by Wincare and Zorcan by Cipla.
Other yeast infection drugs include Griseofulvin tablets, Itraconazole tablets and oral solution, Ketoconazole tablets, Terbenafine tablets, and Nystatin oral drops, tablets, suspension, and for injection. Other topical creams are also available.
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