Information Literacy in the                  Knowledge Society                           Wolfgang G. StockHeinrich-Heine-U...
AgendaHEINRICH-HEINE-UNIVERSITY DÜSSELDORF   2
AGENDA       Information Literacy: Retrieval Literacy and Knowledge        Representation Literacy       Information Lit...
Information Literacy:                                 Retrieval Literacy and                                 Knowledge Rep...
INFORMATION LITERACY: RETRIEVAL LITERACY ANDKNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATION LITERACY       What means „Information Literacy“?   ...
INFORMATION LITERACY: RETRIEVAL LITERACY ANDKNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATION LITERACY       What means „Knowledge Society“?      ...
INFORMATION LITERACY: RETRIEVAL LITERACY ANDKNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATION LITERACY       What means „Information Literacy in t...
INFORMATION LITERACY: RETRIEVAL LITERACY ANDKNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATION LITERACY   Information Literacy is one of the    bas...
INFORMATION LITERACY: RETRIEVAL LITERACY ANDKNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATION LITERACY       „Alexandria Proclamation on Informati...
INFORMATION LITERACY: RETRIEVAL LITERACY ANDKNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATION LITERACY                                  Access to I...
INFORMATION LITERACY: RETRIEVAL LITERACY ANDKNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATION LITERACY   Information Literacy:    Two competencies...
INFORMATION LITERACY: RETRIEVAL LITERACY ANDKNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATION LITERACY   Information Literacy:    Two competencies...
INFORMATION LITERACY: RETRIEVAL LITERACY ANDKNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATION LITERACY   Layer model of literacies   Basic litera...
INFORMATION LITERACY: RETRIEVAL LITERACY ANDKNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATION LITERACY                     Recognition    Searching...
Information Literacy in the                                       Everyday Life, in the Workplace andHEINRICH-HEINE-UNIVER...
INFORMATION LITERACY IN THE EVERYDAY LIFE, IN THE WORKPLACEAND IN SCHOOL AND UNIVERSITY       Information Literacy in the...
INFORMATION LITERACY IN THE EVERYDAY LIFE, IN THE WORKPLACEAND IN SCHOOL AND UNIVERSITY       „Knowledge Gap Hypothesis“ ...
INFORMATION LITERACY IN THE EVERYDAY LIFE, IN THE WORKPLACEAND IN SCHOOL AND UNIVERSITY       Empirical results (Bonfadel...
INFORMATION LITERACY IN THE EVERYDAY LIFE, IN THE WORKPLACEAND IN SCHOOL AND UNIVERSITY       Information Literacy in the...
INFORMATION LITERACY IN THE EVERYDAY LIFE, IN THE WORKPLACEAND IN SCHOOL AND UNIVERSITY       Information Literacy in sch...
INFORMATION LITERACY IN THE EVERYDAY LIFE, IN THE WORKPLACEAND IN SCHOOL AND UNIVERSITY       Instruction of Information ...
Measuring Information LiteracyHEINRICH-HEINE-UNIVERSITY DÜSSELDORF                             22
MEASURING INFORMATION LITERACY       Methods to study information literacy:              1st Using rubrics             ...
MEASURING INFORMATION LITERACY       Standards of retrieval literacy: American Library Association        (ALA) / Associa...
MEASURING INFORMATION LITERACY        Standards of retrieval literacy                              Searching for and     ...
MEASURING INFORMATION LITERACY       Standards of knowledge representation literacy („Düsseldorf        model“) (Gust von...
MEASURING INFORMATION LITERACY       Standards of knowledge representation literacy                Creation of           ...
MEASURING INFORMATION LITERACY       Using rubrics              Defining „rubrics“ (study dimensions)              Stud...
MEASURING INFORMATION LITERACY       Using rubrics. Example: Rubrics from van Helvoort (2010)HEINRICH-HEINE-UNIVERSITY DÜ...
MEASURING INFORMATION LITERACY       Advantages of rubrics              Authentic products as a test base              ...
MEASURING INFORMATION LITERACY                                                    ILAS-ED       Instant Questionnaires   ...
MEASURING INFORMATION LITERACY       Instant questionnaires       Typical example: (from TRAILS)HEINRICH-HEINE-UNIVERSIT...
MEASURING INFORMATION LITERACY       Self-designed questionnaire. Example 1: Chang et al. (2012):        Assessing inform...
MEASURING INFORMATION LITERACY       Self-designed questionnaire. Example 2: Erkmen &        Shanmugarajah (2013): Assess...
MEASURING INFORMATION LITERACY       Example 3: Erkmen & Shanmugarajah (2013): Assessing        knowledge representation ...
MEASURING INFORMATION LITERACY       Advantages of questionnaires              Quantative data              Easy to eva...
How information literate are people               today? Some examplesHEINRICH-HEINE-UNIVERSITY DÜSSELDORF                ...
HOW INFORMATION LITERATE ARE PEOPLE TODAY? SOME EXAMPLES       Three recent empirical studies on Information Literacy    ...
HOW INFORMATION LITERATE ARE PEOPLE TODAY? SOME EXAMPLES       Study by Erkmen & Shanmugarajah (2013)       Retrieval Li...
HOW INFORMATION LITERATE ARE PEOPLE TODAY? SOME EXAMPLES       Study by Erkmen & Shanmugarajah (2013)       Knowledge Re...
HOW INFORMATION LITERATE ARE PEOPLE TODAY? SOME EXAMPLES       Study by Erkmen & Shanmugarajah (2013)       Information ...
HOW INFORMATION LITERATE ARE PEOPLE TODAY? SOME EXAMPLES       Study by Given, Julien, Quellette and Smith (2010)       ...
HOW INFORMATION LITERATE ARE PEOPLE TODAY? SOME EXAMPLES       Study by Chang et al. (2012): Information Literacy of     ...
HOW INFORMATION LITERATE ARE PEOPLE TODAY? SOME EXAMPLES       The studies from three continents present (more or less) t...
Information Literacy Instruction:                         How to Teach Information Literacy?HEINRICH-HEINE-UNIVERSITY DÜSS...
INFORMATION LITERACY INSTRUCTION:HOW TO TEACH INFORMATION LITERACY?       Didactics of Information Literacy (Ader, Orszul...
INFORMATION LITERACY INSTRUCTION:HOW TO TEACH INFORMATION LITERACY?       Information Literacy: Subject of its own right?...
INFORMATION LITERACY INSTRUCTION:HOW TO TEACH INFORMATION LITERACY?       Information Literacy: Subject of its own right?...
INFORMATION LITERACY INSTRUCTION:HOW TO TEACH INFORMATION LITERACY?       Resource-based learning (Document-based learnin...
INFORMATION LITERACY INSTRUCTION:HOW TO TEACH INFORMATION LITERACY?       Resource-based learning (Document-based learnin...
INFORMATION LITERACY INSTRUCTION:HOW TO TEACH INFORMATION LITERACY?       Resource-based learning (Document-based learnin...
INFORMATION LITERACY INSTRUCTION:HOW TO TEACH INFORMATION LITERACY?       Resource-based learning in Information Literacy...
INFORMATION LITERACY INSTRUCTION:HOW TO TEACH INFORMATION LITERACY?       Inquiry-base learning (Edelson, Gordin, & Pea, ...
INFORMATION LITERACY INSTRUCTION:HOW TO TEACH INFORMATION LITERACY?              Opportunities for learning (cont„d)     ...
INFORMATION LITERACY INSTRUCTION:HOW TO TEACH INFORMATION LITERACY?              Inquiry-based learning                  ...
INFORMATION LITERACY INSTRUCTION:HOW TO TEACH INFORMATION LITERACY?       Inquiry-based learning in Information Literacy ...
INFORMATION LITERACY INSTRUCTION:HOW TO TEACH INFORMATION LITERACY?       Teacher-centered learning                    I...
INFORMATION LITERACY INSTRUCTION:HOW TO TEACH INFORMATION LITERACY?       Teacher-centered learning in information litera...
INFORMATION LITERACY INSTRUCTION:HOW TO TEACH INFORMATION LITERACY?       Team-based learning (in the sense of Michaelsen...
INFORMATION LITERACY INSTRUCTION:HOW TO TEACH INFORMATION LITERACY?       Team-based learning in Information Literacy ins...
INFORMATION LITERACY INSTRUCTION:HOW TO TEACH INFORMATION LITERACY?       Team-based learning in Information Literacy ins...
INFORMATION LITERACY INSTRUCTION:HOW TO TEACH INFORMATION LITERACY?       Game-based learning              „Homo ludens“...
INFORMATION LITERACY INSTRUCTION:HOW TO TEACH INFORMATION LITERACY?       Game-based learning              Game mechanic...
INFORMATION LITERACY INSTRUCTION:HOW TO TEACH INFORMATION LITERACY?       Game-based learning in Information Literacy ins...
INFORMATION LITERACY INSTRUCTION:HOW TO TEACH INFORMATION LITERACY?       Information Literacy teachers              Edu...
CONCLUSION: INFORMATION LITERACY IN THE KNOWLEDGE SOCIETY       The importance of Information Literacy increases in a    ...
QUESTIONS?CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE DISCUSSION?                                          Thank you!                            ...
LITERATUREAder, S., Orszullok, L., Stock, W. G. (2013). Informationskompetenz als Schulfach: Wer sollte was wann und wieun...
LITERATURE (CONT’D)Hannafin, M. J., & Hill, J. R. (2008). Resource-based learning. In J.M. Spector, M.D. Merrill, J. van M...
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Information Literacy in the Knowledge Society

  1. 1. Information Literacy in the Knowledge Society Wolfgang G. StockHeinrich-Heine-University Düsseldorf, Germany, Department of Information Science Conference on Information Literacy, Düsseldorf, Germany, Febr. 7, 2013
  2. 2. AgendaHEINRICH-HEINE-UNIVERSITY DÜSSELDORF 2
  3. 3. AGENDA  Information Literacy: Retrieval Literacy and Knowledge Representation Literacy  Information Literacy in the Everyday Life, in the Workplace and in School and University  Measuring Information Literacy  How Information Literate are People Today? Some Examples  Information Literacy Instruction: How to Teach Information Literacy?HEINRICH-HEINE-UNIVERSITY DÜSSELDORF 3
  4. 4. Information Literacy: Retrieval Literacy and Knowledge Representation  Information Literacy: Retrieval Literacy and Knowledge Representation LiteracyLiteracy  Information Literacy in the Everyday Life, in the Workplace and in School and University  Subjects of Information Literacy  Measuring Information Literacy  How information literate are people today? Some examples  Information Literacy Instruction: Ho to Teach Information Literacy?HEINRICH-HEINE-UNIVERSITY DÜSSELDORF 4
  5. 5. INFORMATION LITERACY: RETRIEVAL LITERACY ANDKNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATION LITERACY  What means „Information Literacy“?  Information Literacy comprises those contents of Information Science that are needed by everyone  in everyday life,  on the job and  in school (or university)HEINRICH-HEINE-UNIVERSITY DÜSSELDORF 5
  6. 6. INFORMATION LITERACY: RETRIEVAL LITERACY ANDKNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATION LITERACY  What means „Knowledge Society“?  A Knowledge Society is based on information and communication technology, on (scientific and other) knowledge, and on creativity. Essential parts of the workforce are knowledge workers and other creative people  Knowledge changes. In the knowledge society, lifelong learning becomes important  In knowledge societies, digital natives form the majority of people  Knowledge-based and creative companies are in need of corporate (and city-wide) knowledge management.HEINRICH-HEINE-UNIVERSITY DÜSSELDORF 6
  7. 7. INFORMATION LITERACY: RETRIEVAL LITERACY ANDKNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATION LITERACY  What means „Information Literacy in the Knowledge Society“?  Knowledge workers and other creative people: without Information Literacy they have no chance on job markets  Lifelong learning: without Information Literacy people are not able to perform information acquisition and learning  Digital natives: their basic characteristic is being Information Literate  Knowledge management: employees must be Information Literate.  Conclusion: The importance of Information Literacy will increase in knowledge societiesHEINRICH-HEINE-UNIVERSITY DÜSSELDORF 7
  8. 8. INFORMATION LITERACY: RETRIEVAL LITERACY ANDKNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATION LITERACY  Information Literacy is one of the basic skills of the 21st century (Illustrations by M. Stock)HEINRICH-HEINE-UNIVERSITY DÜSSELDORF 8
  9. 9. INFORMATION LITERACY: RETRIEVAL LITERACY ANDKNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATION LITERACY  „Alexandria Proclamation on Information Literacy and Lifelong Learning“: „Information Literacy ... empowers people in all walks of life to seek, evaluate, use and create information effectively to achieve their personal, social, occupational and educational goals“.  Information Literacy minimizes social inequality in the knowledge society  Information Literacy minimizes the digital divide  Information Literacy strengthens the individual„s participation in the knowledge society (e-inclusion)  Perhaps Information Literacy becomes a human right in the knowledge societyHEINRICH-HEINE-UNIVERSITY DÜSSELDORF 9
  10. 10. INFORMATION LITERACY: RETRIEVAL LITERACY ANDKNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATION LITERACY Access to ICT and to information services Participation in the knowledge Motivation society Competencies: --- General education --- ICT and media literacy --- Information literacyHEINRICH-HEINE-UNIVERSITY DÜSSELDORF 10
  11. 11. INFORMATION LITERACY: RETRIEVAL LITERACY ANDKNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATION LITERACY  Information Literacy: Two competencies  1. Information retrieval literacy  Searching, finding and use of information  Special knowledge in the topical area  Historical background:  Library instruction  ALA standards  „Six Big Skills“HEINRICH-HEINE-UNIVERSITY DÜSSELDORF 11
  12. 12. INFORMATION LITERACY: RETRIEVAL LITERACY ANDKNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATION LITERACY  Information Literacy: Two competencies  2. Knowledge representation literacy  Creation and publication of information  Indexing  Historical background:  Web 2.0  „Produser“ / „Produsage“HEINRICH-HEINE-UNIVERSITY DÜSSELDORF 12
  13. 13. INFORMATION LITERACY: RETRIEVAL LITERACY ANDKNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATION LITERACY  Layer model of literacies  Basic literacies  ICT literacy / media literacy  Information LiteracyHEINRICH-HEINE-UNIVERSITY DÜSSELDORF 13
  14. 14. INFORMATION LITERACY: RETRIEVAL LITERACY ANDKNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATION LITERACY Recognition Searching Evaluation Making of for and of the use information retrieval of quality of of Provision needs information information information for information Representation law and Creation of and storage Provision ethics information of for privacy information Information literacy Basic computer Smart- Office Internet Media skills phone skills software skills literacy ICT and smartphone skills – Media literacy Reading Writing Numeracy LiteracyHEINRICH-HEINE-UNIVERSITY DÜSSELDORF 14
  15. 15. Information Literacy in the Everyday Life, in the Workplace andHEINRICH-HEINE-UNIVERSITY DÜSSELDORF in School and University 15
  16. 16. INFORMATION LITERACY IN THE EVERYDAY LIFE, IN THE WORKPLACEAND IN SCHOOL AND UNIVERSITY  Information Literacy in the everyday life  Digital divide: information rich vs information poor  Standing on the right side of the divide  „Knowledge Gap Hypothesis“ (Tichenor, Donohue, & Olien, 1970)  Increase of mass media information leads to  1. population with higher socioeconomic status and higher education will benefit from the richer information environment  2. population with lower socioeconomic status and only minimal education will loose orientation in the information environmentHEINRICH-HEINE-UNIVERSITY DÜSSELDORF 16
  17. 17. INFORMATION LITERACY IN THE EVERYDAY LIFE, IN THE WORKPLACEAND IN SCHOOL AND UNIVERSITY  „Knowledge Gap Hypothesis“  The gap between these two segments tends to increase  „Internet Gap Hypothesis“ (today)  Same results concerning internet use  Matthew effect:  „For whosoever hath, to him shall be given, and he shall have more abundance: but whosoever hath not, from him shall be taken away even that he hath” (Matthew 13:12). The context is: knowledge  Empirical results (Bonfadelli, 2002): education is the crucial factor of the internet gap (followed by income)HEINRICH-HEINE-UNIVERSITY DÜSSELDORF 17
  18. 18. INFORMATION LITERACY IN THE EVERYDAY LIFE, IN THE WORKPLACEAND IN SCHOOL AND UNIVERSITY  Empirical results (Bonfadelli, 2002):  „Internet access alone does not guarantee an informed public“  „People with higher education use the Internet for informational and service-oriented purposes“  „People with lower education use the Internet significantly more for entertainment reasons“  Information Literacy is a key for e-inclusion in the everyday life of the knowledge societyHEINRICH-HEINE-UNIVERSITY DÜSSELDORF 18
  19. 19. INFORMATION LITERACY IN THE EVERYDAY LIFE, IN THE WORKPLACEAND IN SCHOOL AND UNIVERSITY  Information Literacy in the workplace  In institutions, knowledge management and information literacy are strongly connected  Bruce (1999): organizational processes and information literacy  Many organizational process require information literate employees  Task for the corporate knowledge management or the company libraryHEINRICH-HEINE-UNIVERSITY DÜSSELDORF 19
  20. 20. INFORMATION LITERACY IN THE EVERYDAY LIFE, IN THE WORKPLACEAND IN SCHOOL AND UNIVERSITY  Information Literacy in schools / universities  Schools  Human Resource: Teacher librarians  Infrastructure: School libraries  Universities  Human Resource: Teaching librarians  Infrastructure: Academic librariesHEINRICH-HEINE-UNIVERSITY DÜSSELDORF 20
  21. 21. INFORMATION LITERACY IN THE EVERYDAY LIFE, IN THE WORKPLACEAND IN SCHOOL AND UNIVERSITY  Instruction of Information Literacy  Kindergarten  Primary school  Secondary school  University  Off-the-job training  On-the-job training  Instruction of special user groups (e.g., teachers, scientists, librarians, but also silver surfers or expats)HEINRICH-HEINE-UNIVERSITY DÜSSELDORF 21
  22. 22. Measuring Information LiteracyHEINRICH-HEINE-UNIVERSITY DÜSSELDORF 22
  23. 23. MEASURING INFORMATION LITERACY  Methods to study information literacy:  1st Using rubrics  2nd Using questionnaires  Presupposition:  Existence of standardsHEINRICH-HEINE-UNIVERSITY DÜSSELDORF 23
  24. 24. MEASURING INFORMATION LITERACY  Standards of retrieval literacy: American Library Association (ALA) / Association for College and Research Libraries (ACRL) (ACRL, 2000)  Determination of the nature and extent of the information needed  Effective and efficient access to needed information  Critical evaluation of retrieved information and its sources / incorporation of information in his/her knowledge base  Effective use of information to accomplish a specific purpose  Understanding of economic, legal and social issuesHEINRICH-HEINE-UNIVERSITY DÜSSELDORF 24
  25. 25. MEASURING INFORMATION LITERACY  Standards of retrieval literacy Searching for and Evaluation of the Recognition of Making use of retrieval of quality ofinformation needs information information information Provision for information economics, information law and information ethics HEINRICH-HEINE-UNIVERSITY DÜSSELDORF 25
  26. 26. MEASURING INFORMATION LITERACY  Standards of knowledge representation literacy („Düsseldorf model“) (Gust von Loh & Stock, 2013)  Know-how to create information (take a picture, write a blog post, make a video etc.) which can be published  Ability to store information in an information service (upload the video to a sharing service, upload/edit/delete information in a social network etc.)  Deploying methods of knowledge representation (tagging the information in sharing services, finding meaningful titles etc.)  Provision for privacy (own privacy and privacy of others)  Understanding of economic, legal and social issuesHEINRICH-HEINE-UNIVERSITY DÜSSELDORF 26
  27. 27. MEASURING INFORMATION LITERACY  Standards of knowledge representation literacy Creation of Storage of Representation of information information information Provision for information Provision of economics, information privacy law and information ethicsHEINRICH-HEINE-UNIVERSITY DÜSSELDORF 27
  28. 28. MEASURING INFORMATION LITERACY  Using rubrics  Defining „rubrics“ (study dimensions)  Studying „products“ from test persons (e.g., academic works from students)  Alternative: analysis of students„ portfolios  Assessing the materials (by more than one assessor)HEINRICH-HEINE-UNIVERSITY DÜSSELDORF 28
  29. 29. MEASURING INFORMATION LITERACY  Using rubrics. Example: Rubrics from van Helvoort (2010)HEINRICH-HEINE-UNIVERSITY DÜSSELDORF 29
  30. 30. MEASURING INFORMATION LITERACY  Advantages of rubrics  Authentic products as a test base  It is possible to evaluation learning progress across time  Disadvantages of rubrics  Only few dimensions of information literacy (mostly references)  Problems to find the „right“ evaluation (from „very good“ to „very bad“)  Low inter-assessor consistencyHEINRICH-HEINE-UNIVERSITY DÜSSELDORF 30
  31. 31. MEASURING INFORMATION LITERACY ILAS-ED  Instant Questionnaires Information Literacy ILT Assessment Information Literacy Test Scale for EducationHEINRICH-HEINE-UNIVERSITY DÜSSELDORF 31
  32. 32. MEASURING INFORMATION LITERACY  Instant questionnaires  Typical example: (from TRAILS)HEINRICH-HEINE-UNIVERSITY DÜSSELDORF 32
  33. 33. MEASURING INFORMATION LITERACY  Self-designed questionnaire. Example 1: Chang et al. (2012): Assessing information literacy in secondary schools in SingaporeHEINRICH-HEINE-UNIVERSITY DÜSSELDORF 33
  34. 34. MEASURING INFORMATION LITERACY  Self-designed questionnaire. Example 2: Erkmen & Shanmugarajah (2013): Assessing retrieval literacy in secondary schools in GermanyHEINRICH-HEINE-UNIVERSITY DÜSSELDORF 34
  35. 35. MEASURING INFORMATION LITERACY  Example 3: Erkmen & Shanmugarajah (2013): Assessing knowledge representation literacy in secondary schools in GermanyHEINRICH-HEINE-UNIVERSITY DÜSSELDORF 35
  36. 36. MEASURING INFORMATION LITERACY  Advantages of questionnaires  Quantative data  Easy to evaluate  Own questionnaire: freedom to choose research-specific questions (and: free of fees)  Disadvantages of questionnaires  Problematic to find test persons  Artificial situation  Predefined questions (and – sometimes – answers)HEINRICH-HEINE-UNIVERSITY DÜSSELDORF 36
  37. 37. How information literate are people today? Some examplesHEINRICH-HEINE-UNIVERSITY DÜSSELDORF 37
  38. 38. HOW INFORMATION LITERATE ARE PEOPLE TODAY? SOME EXAMPLES  Three recent empirical studies on Information Literacy  Study by Erkmen & Shanmugarajah (2013): Information Literacy of German secondary school students (Method: own questionnaire)  Study by Given, Julien, Quellete and Smith (2010): Information Literacy of Canadian high school graduates (Method: ILT questionnaire)  Study by Chang et al. (2012): Information Literacy of Singaporean secondary school students (Method: own questionnaire)HEINRICH-HEINE-UNIVERSITY DÜSSELDORF 38
  39. 39. HOW INFORMATION LITERATE ARE PEOPLE TODAY? SOME EXAMPLES  Study by Erkmen & Shanmugarajah (2013)  Retrieval Literacy of German secondary school students: 54.9% (35.14 out of 64 points)  Information needs 71.7% (4.3 out of 6 points)  Searching 59.4% (19 out of 32 points)  Evaluation 48.1% (6.97 out of 14.5 points)  Use 42.3% (4.87 out of 11.5 points)HEINRICH-HEINE-UNIVERSITY DÜSSELDORF 39
  40. 40. HOW INFORMATION LITERATE ARE PEOPLE TODAY? SOME EXAMPLES  Study by Erkmen & Shanmugarajah (2013)  Knowledge Representation Literacy of German secondary school students: 37.2% (9.67 out of 26 points)  Creation 32.2% (4.02 out of 12.5 points)  Storing 48.0% (0.96 out of 2 points)  Indexing 40.1% (4.69 out of 11.5 points)HEINRICH-HEINE-UNIVERSITY DÜSSELDORF 40
  41. 41. HOW INFORMATION LITERATE ARE PEOPLE TODAY? SOME EXAMPLES  Study by Erkmen & Shanmugarajah (2013)  Information Law and Ethics Literacy of German secondary school students: 62.5% (6.25 out of 10 points)  Information ethics 58.3% (2.33 out of 4 points)  Information law 65.3% (3.92 out of 6 points)HEINRICH-HEINE-UNIVERSITY DÜSSELDORF 41
  42. 42. HOW INFORMATION LITERATE ARE PEOPLE TODAY? SOME EXAMPLES  Study by Given, Julien, Quellette and Smith (2010)  Information Literacy (Retrieval Literacy) of Canadian high school graduates: 50.7%  Method: ILTHEINRICH-HEINE-UNIVERSITY DÜSSELDORF 42
  43. 43. HOW INFORMATION LITERATE ARE PEOPLE TODAY? SOME EXAMPLES  Study by Chang et al. (2012): Information Literacy of Singaporean secondary school studentsHEINRICH-HEINE-UNIVERSITY DÜSSELDORF 43
  44. 44. HOW INFORMATION LITERATE ARE PEOPLE TODAY? SOME EXAMPLES  The studies from three continents present (more or less) the same result:  The grade of Information Literacy of high school students is about 50%  Unscientific remark: that„s frustrating!  Or (more optimistic): There is an awful lot of work for us.HEINRICH-HEINE-UNIVERSITY DÜSSELDORF 44
  45. 45. Information Literacy Instruction: How to Teach Information Literacy?HEINRICH-HEINE-UNIVERSITY DÜSSELDORF 45
  46. 46. INFORMATION LITERACY INSTRUCTION:HOW TO TEACH INFORMATION LITERACY?  Didactics of Information Literacy (Ader, Orszullok, & Stock, 2013)  Subject of its own right?  Resource-based learning (Document-based learning)  Inquiry-base learning  Teacher-centered learning  Team-based learning  Game-based learningHEINRICH-HEINE-UNIVERSITY DÜSSELDORF 46
  47. 47. INFORMATION LITERACY INSTRUCTION:HOW TO TEACH INFORMATION LITERACY?  Information Literacy: Subject of its own right?  Embedded in other subjects„ instruction  In primary schools: e.g., in language instruction or in general studies (in Germany, Heimat- und Sachkunde)  In secondary schools: e.g., in history instruction  In universities: in combination with subjects studied (e.g. „Information Literacy for chemicists“, „Information Literacy for physicians“)HEINRICH-HEINE-UNIVERSITY DÜSSELDORF 47
  48. 48. INFORMATION LITERACY INSTRUCTION:HOW TO TEACH INFORMATION LITERACY?  Information Literacy: Subject of its own right?  Subject on its own right  In primary schools: probably not  In secondary schools: Düsseldorf model: 2 hours in grade 6; 2 hours in grade 10 or 11  In universities: „Information Literacy“ (independent of specific subjects)HEINRICH-HEINE-UNIVERSITY DÜSSELDORF 48
  49. 49. INFORMATION LITERACY INSTRUCTION:HOW TO TEACH INFORMATION LITERACY?  Resource-based learning (Document-based learning) (Hannafin & Hill, 2008)  Resource: media, people, places, ideas „that have the potential to support learning“  Resource-based learning: „The use and application of available assets to support varied learning needs across contexts“HEINRICH-HEINE-UNIVERSITY DÜSSELDORF 49
  50. 50. INFORMATION LITERACY INSTRUCTION:HOW TO TEACH INFORMATION LITERACY?  Resource-based learning (Document-based learning) (Hannafin & Hill, 2008)  Scaffolding: „Process through which individuals are supported in identifying, interpreting, or otherwise using resources“  Procedural scaffolds (focusing cognitive resources)  Conceptual scaffolds (identification of knowledge, making connections between resources)  Metacognitive scaffolds (reflection, comparison, revision)  Strategic scaffolds (identifying ways to analyze, plan, and respond)HEINRICH-HEINE-UNIVERSITY DÜSSELDORF 50
  51. 51. INFORMATION LITERACY INSTRUCTION:HOW TO TEACH INFORMATION LITERACY?  Resource-based learning (Document-based learning) (Hannafin & Hill, 2008)  Tools: „Devices that aid individuals to engage and manipulate resources and ideas“  Processing tools (applied technology)  Searching tools (Web search engines, professional information services)  Manipulation tools (e.g., testing different scenarios)  Communication tools (synchronous tools: instant messaging, videoconferencing; asynchronous tools: blogs, podcasts, microblogs, e-mail, wikis)HEINRICH-HEINE-UNIVERSITY DÜSSELDORF 51
  52. 52. INFORMATION LITERACY INSTRUCTION:HOW TO TEACH INFORMATION LITERACY?  Resource-based learning in Information Literacy instruction  Information Literacy instruction is always resource-based  Retrieval literacy: ability to find and use resources  Knowledge representation literacy: ability to create and represent resourcesHEINRICH-HEINE-UNIVERSITY DÜSSELDORF 52
  53. 53. INFORMATION LITERACY INSTRUCTION:HOW TO TEACH INFORMATION LITERACY?  Inquiry-base learning (Edelson, Gordin, & Pea, 1999)  Inquiry: pursuit of open questions (projects; „project- based learning“)  Authentic activities  Motivation for activity  Opportunities for learning  Developing general inquiry abilities (posing and refining research questions, planning and managing an investigation, analyzing and communicating results)  Acquiring specific investigation skills (e.g., controlled experimentation, modeling, synthesis of primary sources, exploration of quantitative data)HEINRICH-HEINE-UNIVERSITY DÜSSELDORF 53
  54. 54. INFORMATION LITERACY INSTRUCTION:HOW TO TEACH INFORMATION LITERACY?  Opportunities for learning (cont„d)  Developing an improved understanding of science concepts  Problematize (realizing boundaries of knowledge)  Demand (placing a demand for knowledge to complete the investigation)  Discover and refine (uncovering scientific principles, refining the principles in the investigation; „discovery learning“)  Apply (application of scientific understanding in the pursuit of the research question)HEINRICH-HEINE-UNIVERSITY DÜSSELDORF 54
  55. 55. INFORMATION LITERACY INSTRUCTION:HOW TO TEACH INFORMATION LITERACY?  Inquiry-based learning  Technological support:  ICT  Providing investigation tools  Providing knowledge resources  Providing record-keeping toolsHEINRICH-HEINE-UNIVERSITY DÜSSELDORF 55
  56. 56. INFORMATION LITERACY INSTRUCTION:HOW TO TEACH INFORMATION LITERACY?  Inquiry-based learning in Information Literacy instruction  (Nearly) all approaches of Information Literacy instruction apply inquiry-based learning  Example: Chu (2009)  Inquiry project-based learning in a primary school (grade 4)  Teachers: language teacher, general studies teacher, IT teacher, school librarian  Two projects in six months (Phase 1: The Earth; Phase 2: The History of Hong Kong and China)  Results: Evaluation of students, teachers and parents: improvement of Information Literacy and of enjoymentHEINRICH-HEINE-UNIVERSITY DÜSSELDORF 56
  57. 57. INFORMATION LITERACY INSTRUCTION:HOW TO TEACH INFORMATION LITERACY?  Teacher-centered learning  Inquiry-based learning does not mean to led the students alone  Inquiry-based learning alone: only minimal learning success (Kirschner, Sweeler, & Clark, 2006)  In combination with inquiry-based learning: teacher- based learning  Implementation of project management (e.g., milestones)  And (very important!): learning to learnHEINRICH-HEINE-UNIVERSITY DÜSSELDORF 57
  58. 58. INFORMATION LITERACY INSTRUCTION:HOW TO TEACH INFORMATION LITERACY?  Teacher-centered learning in information literacy instruction  In combination of inquiry-based learning  Phases with project-work (learner-based learning) and phases with teacher-centered learning (Mokhtar, Majid, & Foo, 2008)  Example (retrieval literacy instruction): Demonstration of the functionality of Web of Science by the teacher  Example (knowledge representation literacy instruction): Lecture on the thesaurus of Medline (MeSH)HEINRICH-HEINE-UNIVERSITY DÜSSELDORF 58
  59. 59. INFORMATION LITERACY INSTRUCTION:HOW TO TEACH INFORMATION LITERACY?  Team-based learning (in the sense of Michaelsen) (Michaelsen, Watson, Cragin, & Fink, 1982)  Team-formation and management (teams are permanent, formed by the instructor, and have the opportunity to develop into learning teams)  Accountability (team members are accountable to the rest of the team, every team member contributes to team discussions and problem solving, team members engage in peer assessment; the team performs as a whole)  Feedback (learning from other team members, necessary for group development)  Assignment design: the tRATs (team readiness assessment tests), additionally: iRATs (individual RATs)HEINRICH-HEINE-UNIVERSITY DÜSSELDORF 59
  60. 60. INFORMATION LITERACY INSTRUCTION:HOW TO TEACH INFORMATION LITERACY?  Team-based learning in Information Literacy instruction  Information Literacy course at the University at Albany, State University of New York (Jacobson, 2011)  Strategy: building students„ engagement and making the course interactive  Tasks to fulfill by the teamsHEINRICH-HEINE-UNIVERSITY DÜSSELDORF 60
  61. 61. INFORMATION LITERACY INSTRUCTION:HOW TO TEACH INFORMATION LITERACY?  Team-based learning in Information Literacy instruction (Jacobson, 2011)HEINRICH-HEINE-UNIVERSITY DÜSSELDORF 61
  62. 62. INFORMATION LITERACY INSTRUCTION:HOW TO TEACH INFORMATION LITERACY?  Game-based learning  „Homo ludens“ (Johan Huizinga)  Digital natives like to play (digital games) (Knautz, 2013)  Gamification: Use of game mechanics in non-game environments  Gamification fosters fun and intrinsic learning motivationHEINRICH-HEINE-UNIVERSITY DÜSSELDORF 62
  63. 63. INFORMATION LITERACY INSTRUCTION:HOW TO TEACH INFORMATION LITERACY?  Game-based learning  Game mechanics in learning environments  Points  Levels  Badges (status symbols)  Achievements  Quests  Virtual goods  LeaderboardsHEINRICH-HEINE-UNIVERSITY DÜSSELDORF 63
  64. 64. INFORMATION LITERACY INSTRUCTION:HOW TO TEACH INFORMATION LITERACY?  Game-based learning in Information Literacy instruction  Heinrich-Heine-University Düsseldorf: Tutorial of the lecture „Knowledge Representation“ applies game mechanicsHEINRICH-HEINE-UNIVERSITY DÜSSELDORF 64
  65. 65. INFORMATION LITERACY INSTRUCTION:HOW TO TEACH INFORMATION LITERACY?  Information Literacy teachers  Education of Information Literacy teachers  What subject? Educational science and information science?  Advanced education  How to organize? (In schools? Teachers colleges? Universities?)  Establishment of Information Literacy research in universitiesHEINRICH-HEINE-UNIVERSITY DÜSSELDORF 65
  66. 66. CONCLUSION: INFORMATION LITERACY IN THE KNOWLEDGE SOCIETY  The importance of Information Literacy increases in a knowledge society.  In a knowledge society, Information Literacy is necessary in the everyday life (to stand on the right side of the digital divide), in the workplace and at school.  There are two methods to study Information Literacy: using rubrics or using questionnaires. There are lots of instant questionnaires (ILS, SAILS, NAILS, etc.).  Empirical studies on Information Literacy of students find (more or less) poor results: Today„s students are rarely information literate.  Therefore instruction of Information Literacy becomes necessary. Didactic elements are document-based, inquiry- based, teacher-centered, team-based and game-based learning.HEINRICH-HEINE-UNIVERSITY DÜSSELDORF 66
  67. 67. QUESTIONS?CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE DISCUSSION? Thank you! Stock@phil.hhu.deHEINRICH-HEINE-UNIVERSITY DÜSSELDORF 67
  68. 68. LITERATUREAder, S., Orszullok, L., Stock, W. G. (2013). Informationskompetenz als Schulfach: Wer sollte was wann und wieunterrichten? In S. Gust von Loh & W. G. Stock (Eds.), Informationskompetenz in der Schule (pp. 259-271). Berlin,Boston, MA: De Gruyter Saur.ACRL (2000). Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education. Chicago, IL: ALA.Bonfadelli, H. (2002). The internet and knowledge gaps. European Journal of Communication, 17(1), 65-84.Bruce, C. (1999). Workplace experiences of information literacy. International Journal of Information Management,19, 33-47.Chang, Y. K, Zhang, X., Mokhtar, I. A., Foo, S., Majid, S., Luyt, B., & Theng, Y. L. (2012). Assessing students‟information literacy skills in two secondary schools in Singapore. Journal of Information Literacy, 6(2), 19-34.Chu, K. W. S. (2009). Inquiry project-based learning with a partnership of three types of teachers and the schoollibrarian. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 60(8), 1671-1686.Edelson, D. C., Gordin, D. N., & Pea, R. D. (1999). Adressing the challenges of inquiry-based learning throughtechnology and curriculum design. The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 8(3/4), 391-450.Erkmen, M., & Shanmugarajah, P. (2013). Stand der Informationskompetenz bei Schülern in Deutschland.Bachelor„s Thesis. Heinrich-Heine-University Düsseldorf.Given, L. M., Julien, H., Quellette, D., & Smith, J. (2010). Evidence-based information literacy instruction. InProceedings of the 73rd ASIS&T Annual Meeting (2 pages).Gust von Loh, S., & Stock, W. G. (2013). Informationskompetenz als Schulfach? In S. Gust von Loh & W. G. Stock(Eds.), Informationskompetenz in der Schule (pp. 1-20). Berlin, Boston, MA: De Gruyter Saur.HEINRICH-HEINE-UNIVERSITY DÜSSELDORF 68
  69. 69. LITERATURE (CONT’D)Hannafin, M. J., & Hill, J. R. (2008). Resource-based learning. In J.M. Spector, M.D. Merrill, J. van Merriënboer, &M.P. Driscoll (Eds.), Handbook of Research on Educational Communications and Technology (pp. 525-536). 3rdEd. New York, NY: Lawrence Erlbaum Ass.Helvoort, J. van (2010). A scoring rubric for performance assessment of information literacy in Dutch HigherEducation. Journal of Information Literacy, 4(1), 22-39.Jacobson, T. E. (2011). Team-based learning in an information literacy course, Communications in InformationLiteracy, 5(2), 82-101.Kirschner, P. A., Sweller, J., & Clark, R. E. (2006). Why minimal guidance during instruction does not work. Ananalysis of the failure of constructivist, discovery, problem-based, experiental, and inquiry-based teaching.Educational Psychologist, 41(2), 75-86.Michaelsen, L. K., Watson, W. E., Cragin, J. P., & Fink, L. D. (1982). Team-based learning: A potential solution tothe problems of large classes. Exchange. The Organizational Behavior Teaching Journal, 7(4), 18-33.Mokhtar, I. A., Majid, S., & Foo, S. (2008). Teaching information literacy through learning styles. The application ofGardner„s multiple intelligences. Journal of Librarianship and Information Science, 40(2), 93-109.Knautz, K. (2013). Gamification im Kontext der Vermittlung von Informationskompetenz. In S. Gust von Loh & W.G. Stock (Eds.), Informationskompetenz in der Schule (pp. 223-257). Berlin, Boston, MA: De Gruyter Saur.Tichenor, P. J., Donohue, G. A., & Olien, C. N. (1970). Mass media flow and differential growth in knowledge.Public Opinion Quarterly, 34, 159-170.HEINRICH-HEINE-UNIVERSITY DÜSSELDORF 69
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