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New Science & Humanities

New Science & Humanities



An analysis of the limitations of rational positivism and modern reductionism with solutions posed by Eastern philosophies and knowledge limits gauged by quantum theory and Godel’s Incompleteness ...

An analysis of the limitations of rational positivism and modern reductionism with solutions posed by Eastern philosophies and knowledge limits gauged by quantum theory and Godel’s Incompleteness Theorem.

This analysis is supported by contributions from OVium Solutions and International Innovative Institute.



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  • Logic

New Science & Humanities New Science & Humanities Presentation Transcript

  • New Sciences and Humanities Wolfgang Kraske, PhD Wennie H. Wu, PhD International Innovative Institute , USA
  • Abstract - The Limits of “Rational Positivism”
    • “ Modern” was once conflated with “Reductionism” and later with “Rational Positivism”. It was believed that from Science to Humanity, all would be clearly known with reductionist methods
    • Later discoveries have challenged the fundamentals of that paradigm.  We came to realize that entities in our environment are interrelated although with varying levels of determinism, uncertainty, probability along with the unrelenting incompleteness of science and humanity
    • The views of scientists such as: Newton, Einstein, Feynman, Prigogine, Hawking, etc., as well as views of politicians, writers, artists, will be discussed
  • Abstract (Cont.) - Western Embrace of Eastern Philosophies
    • Prigogine, a Nobel laureate 1977, interpreted that statistical processes of phase transition. He was inspired by Chinese views of nature
    • Bill Clinton and Tony Blair advocated “the Third way”, which echoes the Mid-way (Centrism) that is a major theme by Confucius
    • Transcendence from modernization to this “connectionist” era of globalization
  • Abstract (Cont. 2)
    • With the new views of Sciences and Humanities, how to progress toward a New Civilization - the betterment of the changing new Globe, will be explored
  • Introduction
    • Descartes Dualism
    • Newton’s Law of Physics. Determinism in sciences and social sciences
    • Later development in fields of science, logic, social science, arts will be briefed
    • Uncertainty, Probability and Indeterminism due to incompleteness, inconsistency, etc. will be discussed
    • Reductionism versus holism: connectionism, existentialism and agility for the betterment of the changing new Globe
  • Descartes Dualism res cogitans vs. res extensa
    • A Spiritual Mind is Extant from the Body
    • The Spiritual Mind is Rational & Intelligent
    Rationality Creativity Homeostatic Control Emotions Spiritual Corporeal
  • SCIENCE-Newton’s Physics
    • Newton’s laws of physics: physical objects are endowed with the quality momentum
      • Object momentum may change only when acted upon by external forces (1 st & 2 nd law)
      • Every action is is countered by an equal and opposite reaction (3 rd law)
      • Mass: inertial capacity of an object's energy
    • Lagrange's Determinism: given initial conditions: system behavior is absolutely predictable (Nature is an Automaton)
  • Chaos
    • Lagrange is wrong
    • Large systems of interacting classical particles develop chaotic behavior due to trajectory bifurcations
    • Bifurcations indicate probabilistic motion
    • Large numbers of bifurcations lead to phase space regions of uniform stochastic behavior
    • Boltzmann: Entropy and Ergotic Systems
    • Quantum Theory: Time and Space Behavior are not Absolutely Localized (Heisenberg Uncertainty)
  • Duality and Uncertainty - Gottingen School
    • Quantum Mechanics
    • Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle
    • Limits on the measured precision of the position and momentum or time and energy of a system --Heisenberg, uncertainty paper, 1927
    • The essential property interrelating wave mechanics and information theory
  • Wave Equation -Copenhagen School The Schrödinger equation A particle is distributed over all of space and time as a wave: Where, - position in three-dimensional space, - wave function; the particle amplitude, position r at time t, - particle mass, - potential energy for a particle at each position r m
  • SCIENCE-Indeterminism & Unknown
    • The Born-Einstein Letters . Einstein: "God does not play dice"
    • Stop telling God what to do with his dice - Niels Bohr quote
    • Prigogine (the Nobel Prize in 1977.) The concept of a passive nature subject to deterministic and time-reversible laws is quite specific to the Western world. In China and Japan, nature means "what is by itself." In his excellent book Science and Society in East and West , Joseph Needham tells us of the irony with which Chinese men of letters greeted the Jesuits' announcement of the triumphs of modern science. For them, the idea that nature is governed by simple, knowable laws seemed to be a perfect example of anthropocentric foolishness. According to Chinese tradition, nature is spontaneous harmony; speaking about "laws of nature" would thus subject nature to some external authority
    • Dark matter and dark energy are recent discoveries and much unknown
  • LOGIC-Incompleteness
    • Gödel's incompleteness theorems, proved by Kurt Gödel in 1931, are two theorems stating inherent limitations of all but the most trivial formal systems for arithmetic of mathematical interest
    • Overturned Bertrand Russel's “Principia Mathematica” (Direct Negation of Hilbert's 2 nd Conjecture)
    • Altered Course of Language Theory in Mathematics
  • LOGIC (Cont.)
    • Gödel's first incompleteness theorem (a duality):
    • Any mathematical system with a recursively enumerable set of axioms cannot be both consistent and complete
      • Completeness: all statements(theorems) can be proven as true or false
      • Consistency: no statement is provable as both true and false
  • LOGIC (Cont. 2)
    • Relation to the liar paradox (layman's concept)
    • The liar paradox is the sentence "This sentence is false." An analysis of the liar sentence shows that it cannot be true (for then, as it asserts, it is false), nor can it be false (for then, it is true)
  • LOGIC (Cont. 3)
    • Gödel's second incompleteness theorem (in summary):
    • For any formal recursively enumerable (i.e., effectively generated) theory T including basic arithmetical truths and also certain truths about formal provability, T includes a statement of its own consistency if and only if T is inconsistent
    • Implies philosophical limitations of metaphysical interpretation
  • LOGIC (Cont. 4)
    • Economist Oskar Morgenstern recounts that toward the end of his life Einstein confided that his " own work no longer meant much, that he came to the Institute merely…to have the privilege of walking home with Gödel "
  • LOGIC (Cont. 5)
    • In the absence of his wife, Gödel refused to eat, eventually starving himself to death. He was 65 pounds when he died. His death certificate reported that he died of "malnutrition and inanition caused by personality disturbance" in Princeton Hospital on January 14, 1978
  • Analogs to Godel's Theorem
    • Brouer's Fixed Point Theorem: Quantum Spin Theory is a consequent
    • Turings Halting Problem: the impossibility of a computer system to predict that all algorithms on the system will halt (the algorithmic method to determine the halting of other algorithms may not halt or the impossibility of devising a reliable method to measure halting)
  • Theories of Everything in Physics
    • Stephen Hawking and others, argue that (an analogous argument to) Gödel's theorem implies that even the most sophisticated formulation of physics will be incomplete, and that therefore there can never be an ultimate theory that can be formulated as a finite number of principles, known for certain as "final"
    • Newton’s physical laws and Descartes separation of body and soul rendered enlightenment philosophy with a deterministic view culminating in the naïve modern view of the early 20 th Century; the conjecture that science provides a precise and complete predictions for the physical world, “rational positivism”
    • Some social scientists also believed social sciences should be and could be dealt with in a so-called scientific way to generate precise and complete predictions and solutions for the society: Economic Determinism influenced the development of “Communism” and “Socialism”
    • The 20 th century, witnessed a severe struggle between socialism and capitalism
    • Late 80’s, Berlin wall collapsed. Absolute social and economic control is a failure
    • Today, the financial tsunami hit the globe. Failure of free market capitalism with reckless social stimulus. Alan Greenspan exclaimed “Shocked disbelief”
  • Economics-Singularity of Collapse Models Predict Consistent Behavior Nary a Catastrophe ~ Sudden Collapse!
  • Countdown to a New Life Form? Ray Kurzweil Model Predictions are Inherently Naive!
  • Progressing Toward a New civilization -Be Open, Diversify
    • A practitioner (a thinker and a doer) aware of knowledge paradoxes and the humble limits of being human and searches for practical, solutions for our increasingly complex world: opportunistic generalists tend to survive ... Be open, inclusive; diversify
    • To maintain an exclusive model (doctrine) leads to crises, bubble economies, communist disintegration, extreme left and/or right
    • 盡信書 不如無書
  • Eastern Civilizations: A Progressive Perspective
    • In the west, some scholars, artists, leaders have had ideas pertinent to eastern civilizations
    • Prigogine (scientist, Nobel laureate, 1977) was inspired by Chinese views of the nature
    • Zen dealt with the boundaries of logic as does Gödel's incompleteness theory
    • Clinton and Blair advocated the third way (Centrism)
    • Existentialism respects Han-shan, She-Te
    • Martha Graham (Lin, Hwai Ming's mentor) created her modern dance based on the body language of the eastern dancers
  • Process Management for Societies and Institutions Agile Methodology
    • Agile Methodology for Process Management:
      • requirements, analysis, design, development, deployment, test & verification
    • Maintaining an “Agile” process or algorithm in a dynamic context.
  • Process Management for Societies and Institutions Agile Methodology Requirements Design Development Test Implementation Analysis Deployment Upgrade or New Iteration Iterated Software Life Cycle Core F1 Proto Fn ... Iterated Incremental Functional Roll out
  • CONCLUSION -Modernization (all knowing)
    • After Newton’s classical mechanics (1687), scientists, mathematicians, eventually some social scientists, believed that logic was complete and consistent, the world was precise, definitive, deterministic, and it was possible to know and control it all
  • CONCLUSION - New views for Sciences and Humanities
    • With the new way (Limitology): incomplete, uncertain, probabilistic, indeterministic and unknown must be anticipated for Science and Humanity, in this new era of globalization, being inclusive (multi-cultural), agile, are keys to a better world
    • Modeling, given incompleteness/indeterminism, is to be cyclically rerendered and measured: pragmatically, inclusively, agilely and adaptively. 苟日新 又日新 , 聖之時者也
  • Obama’s plan
    • Ideologically adaptive (left/right agnostic)
    • Pragmatic solutions to meet existential situations
    • Agile to evolving situations
    • Globally inclusive (no protectionism)
    • Need to be aware of Limitology: Hypothesize Boundary Conditions with Pragmatic Goals for Growth