Classroom ManagementThe behaviorist viewpoint focuses on stimuli,objects, actions and responses People are taught to behave the way they do People teach each other To learn is to change Teachers are people who change learnersFor behaviorists the single most importantfactor in learning a behavior is what happensimmediately following the behavior.
Building Management Skills Self control is the long-term goal of behavior management Effective teachers Use more suggestions than commands Encourage and show interest in students Use open-ended questions (require more than one word, thoughtful responses)
Classroom Management Discipline comes from the Latin word disciple meaning to teach. Teach students what you expect in terms of behaviors. Remember: Big Fish Don’t Take The Bait• Students will go to great lengths to “not lose face”• An expression of anger is a signal of psychological pain rather than an personal affront• You can be firm without being punitive• You can use authority without being authoritarian• Kids would rather be bad, indifferent, apathetic than be stupid• The best discipline is the kind nobody notices - not even the one being disciplined• Kids need to know you mean them no harm
Discipline Without Punishment Send positive messages - become aware of the number of times you state something negatively that could be stated positively. Promise with the positive by using contingencies rather than consequences. “as soon as you finish the project you can . . .” “If your work is not done, you’ll get an F . . .”• Offer choices - choices empowers, increases ownership and intrinsic motivation. Choices can be limited, structured, reasonable.
Limit Your Telling. Telling . . . Is often interpreted as an attempt to control conveys a subtle, negative message that the way they have been performing is wrong or not good enough. often creates defensiveness. causes resistance especially when telling involves notifying others how they personally need to do something differently. implies that something has to be changed.
Consider Students love to control but hate to be controlled. Think in terms os suggestions: “Have you thought of; What do you think about; Would you consider . . .?” Students don’t mind change as much as they mind being changed.
• Seek to understand• Express your needs “I need your help on this.” “I need quiet time.”• Use acknowledgements more than praise. • Acknowledgements/recognition/validation simply affirms. • “I see you got your project done.” • “You got it done early.”
Two categories of behavior management: Direct & IndirectDirect: involves physical and verbal actions l Facial expression l Body language l Touching l Talk to l Assist l Demonstrate & model desired behavior
Direct Guidance Principles: …Use simple clear instruction, language …Speak in calm relaxed voice …Be positive (What to do, Why, Consequences) …Encourage critical thinking …Be firm …Be consistent …Consider feelings
Indirect: involves outside factors that influence behavior: … The physical set up of the room … The weather … Special events & happenings both in the school and away … Noise level … Temperature … Light … Furniture … Things in the room - bulletin board, pictures, plants, “things” … How paper and time are managed Provide an environment with appropriate engaging activities Encourage independence through classroom arrangement, organization, visual reminders, duty assignments. Arrange space for cures regarding appropriate behavior Schedule activities to meet student needs
Managing Your Classroom:… Greet students at the door each day - say hello, make small talk… Develop structured routines… Always post lesson information on the board daily Objectives Activities Assignments… Have a pick-up table where student get needed supplies… Practice the “teacher stare” than can stop potential problems before they begin… Make sure discipline is consistent with school’s policies… Keep moving… Different students will respond to different techniques - have motivators and consequences, develop a repertoire of techniques… Limit your rules (5) these must be realistic and enforceable.… Avoid phrases like “be nice” or “be kind” - they are great goals and can be posted but they’re difficult to enforce because the lack clarity.… Post rules… Sent copy of rules to parents… Spend time establishing the rules
Research on behavior (Bear, 1998, Billings Enger 1995) indicates behaviors that consume administrative time: Bullying Verbal harassment Use of drugs Obscene language and gestures Gang behavior Sexual harassment Repeated class disuption Threat to safety of self or others Fighting Theft Truancy Disrespect
All new teachers should have aconversation with administration abouthow administrators want a new teacher tohandle discipline.Classroom management and classroomdiscipline are NOT the same thing.
Ineffective teachers have more: Hyperactive, disruptive, and bored students Permissive teachers have students who: Are more aggressive Show more attention seeking behaviors
Establishing Classroom Rules Rules should focus on actions and behaviors that reflect the goals of the school. Every area of a classroom/school needs rules. It is the responsibility of the teach to maintain rules. There are 3 reasons to establish rules: 1) By law, health and safety must be protected. 2) Rules help students define acceptable social behavior. 3) Rules allow students independence with guidance.
One of any school’s goals shoulc be to develop socially responsible behavior. Rules should be short, in understandable language and stated in a positive way. Rules should be reasonable and serve a purpose. Avoid having too many rules - have a few and maintain them. Define both acceptable and unacceptable behavior. Decide how you will deal with unacceptable behavior ahead of time - this should be a part of you discipline plan.
• Regular, unchanging enforcement of rules is important ⇒⇒⇒ consistency.• Rules need to be flexible to adapt to the situation or special needs of an individual. Be sure to explain to students situations when the rules have changed.
• The way you react to students who break the rules affects their 1) Feelings of security (trust) 2) Their self-esteem 3) Their feelings toward you 4) Their future performance 5) And maybe peer relationships• Be careful - teachers can do a lot of damage in the name of enforcing the rules.
Communicate rules to students in various ways: Post in room Verbally explain rules Have students explain rules back to you to check for understanding Restate the rule that was broken every time you deal with unacceptable behavior or broken. Write a set of rules for a foods lab and a set of rules for a 7th grade exploratory course