By thinking through the assessments upfront, we ensure greater alignment of our goals and means, and that teaching is focused on desired results
Assessment also lets the teacher know if the objectives were or were not met and if re-teaching needs to take place. Some things absolutely have to be re-taught other concepts may be able to be incorporated into future lessons. But if it was important enough to teach and the learner didn’t get it the first time the teacher needs to contemplate how to re-teach it without holding everyone back. Discuss strategies to re-teach One - on -one time (office hours, before or after school, tutoring sessions) Individualized packets for additional reading or clarification Peer tutoring Assessment allows for improvement - a curriculum is a working document. Not something that is revisited every five years. Use it as a roadmap to what you are doing. When something doesn’t work , make notes in the curriculum to that changes can me made before the next time the unit or concept is taught. Assessment also allows the teacher to look at themselves critically. If students didn’t get it, if something was too “messy”, it something was not well received teachers need to self evaluate. Was it the way I taught it, was it the strategy I used, how could I make it better for students?, what would I can I do better and how? Teacher effectiveness needs to also be evaluated not just through self evaluation but by the learner, by peers and colleagues, by supervisors. Each group will see something different to make a whole picture of the effectiveness, the strengths and weakness of the instructor and instructional process. Organizations and districts gather data about the effectiveness of programs for funding and/or renewal. Assessment data can give on objective picture of the effectiveness of the program, about standards, objectives, performance. . . Assessment communicates information both informally and formally about programs and instruction - what learner say, what supervisors see, hear, and learn through data collection.
Assessment can be achieved through testing and non-testing methods. Testing is probably less effective in assessing the retention of information. Too often “stuff” is learned for the test but never applied or internalized. Testing provides a measurable accountability for oversight agencies and organizations. Assessment provides opportunity to check learner performance to the stated objectives of the lesson. Sometimes the teacher says the objective is one thing but never assesses whether or not students achieved the objective. A test or a project must be closely aligned with what the stated objectives are. Schools and organizations may have objectives that are set by agencies other than themselves. The Department of Elementary and Secondary Education sets standards that schools must meet. Example of Natalie Allen . . . . Natalie works for the Cardinal organization. What might be their objectives in hiring a dietician and how do they know she is doing the job she is hired to do? What sort of assessments might give the organization this information?
In effective assessments, we see a match between the type or format of the assessment and the achievement target it tends to measure. If the goal is for students to learn basic concepts and skills, then written tests and quizzes generally provide adequate and efficient measures. When the goal, however, is deep understanding, we need to rely on more complex assessment methods to determine if the goal has been reached.
A variety of assessment tools should be used to accommodate all types of learners. Within each lesson and unit a variety of assessment both formal and informal should be ussd. An authentic task is: Realistic. Requires judgment and innovation. Asks a student to “do” the subject. Replicates or simulates the contexts in which adults are tested in the workplace. Assesses a student’s ability to efficiently and effectively use a repertoire of knowledge and skills to negotiate a complex task. Allows appropriate opportunities to rehearse, practice, and consult resources; obtain feedback on performances; and refine performances and products.
Formative assessments are single instruments that are used to guide further instruction and development of activities to help the learner achieve the objectives. Cumulative are the culminating activities or final assessment that may be a combination of many items - You have a culmanating project for Fontbonne in Education - What does that instrument look like? What is included? How could it guide the future for instruction here at Fontbonne? Describe how it helps the learner.
Critical Thinking/Higher Order Thinking. Using the information from Blooms - do any of these lend themselves to HOT versus LLT - HOT verbs: appraise, justify, compare, estimate, evaluate LLT verbs: define, label, match, list Are there any concepts or classes where some of these types of questions are more appropriate than others?
Age appropriateness of assessments is critical. List as many others as you can think of . . Discuss each method in terms of HOT, Age level, skills taught . . .
Three domains Cognitive Affective Psychomotor Scoring Tools help us to avoid subjectivity in scoring. It defines what the learner is expected to do and what you as the teacher are looking for when you score. Take personal issues out of the process Peer or self evaluation can be a very powerful tool. Advantages/Disavantages??
What could we learn from this information? What would you do after you had this information?
Take the time to do an item analysis on all tests. Look at the mean median and mode Pay attention to any significant changes in each student’s scores.
Checklists, score sheets, rubrics are important tools for assessment. Many sources for creating these tools are available. Your other professionals, texts, web sites, teacher resource materials. CA, MS, SS, Art, Science, Math, Spl. Educ
“Evidence of understanding is a
greater challenge than evidence that
the student knows a correct or valid
answer.” Jay McTighe
Analyze purposes of assessment.
Discuss why assessment is important.
Recognize the importance of variety and
differentiation in assessment.
Examine methods for gathering and analyzing
Examine sample data to determine strategies for
analysis and interpretation of data.
Who are your customers for assessment?
Why do you give assessments?
Do you score what is to score or do you score
what is essential?
What is the difference between performance and
FOUR QUESTIONS THAT WILL
GUIDE YOU IN DEVELOPING
What do you want students to know and be able
What will count as acceptable performance?
What criteria will assure expert and unbiased
How will you provide feedback for growth.
BACKWARD DESIGN GRANT WIGGINS/ JAY
2. Determine acceptable evidence
3. Plan learning experiences and instruction
1. Identifying desired results
FIVE BENCHMARK PRACTICES FOR
a. Use assessment to restructure the curriculum
in order to develop an abilities-based class.
Incorporate ongoing self-assessment of
teaching and learning.
d. Use class assessment techniques to focus on
e. Assess overall student progress, and determine
when changes occur by using follow-up studies
of retention and achievement.
b. Delineate expected outcomes and make them
available to the students.
PURPOSES OF ASSESSMENT
Assess effectiveness of
Assess and improve
Assess and improve teacher
Communicate with others
CURRICULAR PRIORITIES AND
Performance tasks and projects
Important to know
Traditional quizzes and tests
ASSESSMENT. . .
Varied types, over time:
academic exam questions, prompts,
quizzes and test items
informal checks for understanding
authentic tasks and projects
TESTING AS ASSESSMENT
know About a topic
before the unit or lesson
RELIABILITY OF ASSESSMENT
Snapshot vs. Album
Reliable assessment requires multiple
evidence over time.
Includes stem and
relationship between two
Multiple choice items
Must be right or wrong
Written as question
Short answer items
Requires labeling or
locating parts of a
Evaluate higher level
thinking; control for
approximates use of
skills in real life
IN CLASS ACTIVITY: DATA
ANALYSIS -- Sample grade sheet
1. Why do we need to examine data?
2. What information does this data give you?
3. How would analysis influence your teaching?
4. Share your discussion with class.
what other ways can you analyze
DEVELOPING ITEMS - GROUP
Begin with standard
State objective in
Decide on type of assessment
Determine guidelines for scoring
Develop a scoring tool
Bloom’s level must match –