2. Cultural Diffusion• Cultural diffusion or spatial diffusion is the spread of an idea or innovation from its source to other cultures.• Diffusion occurs through the movement of people, goods or ideas.• Carl Sauer focused on cultural diffusion in his book Agricultural Origins and Dispersals (1952)
3. Types of Diffusion• There are two main types of Diffusion:• Expansion Diffusion – The spread of an item or idea from one place to others. In the process it remains and often strengthens in the origin area. • Contagious diffusion-rapid widespread diffusion by direct contact. Affects all areas uniformly as it spreads outward. E.g. the spread of Islam. • Hierarchical diffusion-or cascade diffusion-the process of spreading ideas first between large cities and only later to smaller cities. • Stimulus diffusion-the spread of an underlying principle even though the main idea is not spread. E.g. industrialization• Relocation Diffusion – The innovation or idea is physically carried to new areas by migrating individuals or populations. E.g. Christianity brought to the New World by missionaries and colonists.
4. AContagious DiffusionBHierarchical Diffusion
5. Population and Migration
6. • In 1798 he published An Rev. Thomas Malthus Essay on the Principle of 1766-1834 Population• Malthus was the first to sound the alarm that the world’s population was expanding more rapidly than food production.• He was the first to recognize exponential or geometric population growth.• Today those who share his concerns are Neo- Malthusians
7. • Demographic Transition• Demographic cycles of population growth – Stage 1 High Stationary Growth with high birth rates 40/1000 or higher and high death rates. – Stage 2 Early Expanding with high birth rates and declining death rates (birth 40s/death 20/1000) = rapid growth in pop. – Stage 3 Late Expanding with declining birth rates (30s) and low death rates (10) = still significant growth – Stage 4 Low Stationary has low birth rates and low death rates (birth 15 and death 10 or lower) SPL Stationary Population Level
8. The Demographic Transition
9. Second Agricultural Revolution and Industrial Revolution• 18th century gains in agricultural production: – Crop yields improved with better farming methods – New crops such as potatoes, turnips and alfalfa – Storage and distribution improved which alleviated famines and shortages.• Industrial Revolution was also a factor: – Improved sanitation – Improved medical care – Disease prevention such as smallpox vaccine
10. • Crude death rate-the number of deaths per 1,000 each year.• Crude birth rate-the number of births per 1,000 each year.• Natural increase (NIR)rate-the % by which a population grows in a year. Computed by subtracting the % of CBR- CDR.• Total Fertility Rate (TFR) the number of children born to women of childbearing age-usually reported as a percentage.• Dependency ratio-the number of people who are too young or too old to work compared to the number of people old enough to work.
11. Population Pyramids –Charts that show the percentages of each age group in the total population, divided by gender.For poorer countries, the chart is shaped like a pyramid.Infant mortality rates are high, life expectancy is shorter.
12. • Population Pyramids- display a country’s population in a bar graph form.• Each 5 year group with the youngest 0-4 years old at the base of the pyramid are called cohorts.• Males are shown on the left side and females are shown on the right.• A wide-based pyramid indicates a country in Stage 2 of the Demographic transition.
13. Population PyramidsCharts that show the percentages of each age group in the total population, divided by gender. For wealthier countries, the chart is shaped like a lopsided vase. Population is aging, TFRs are declining.
14. • Four Patterns of Population Structure• Each nation faces different problems due to a large base with many young or negative growth.
16. Ernst Ravenstein’s “Laws of migration 1885 he studied the migration of England• Most migrants go only a short distance.• Big cities attract long distance migrants.• Most migration is step-by-step.• Most migration is rural to urban• Each migration flow produces a counterflow.• Most migrants are adults-families are less likely to make international moves.• Most international migrants are young males.
17. • Gravity model is an inverse relationship between volume of migration and distance to the destination.• Gravity model was anticipated by Ravenstein.• The physical laws of gravity first studied by Newton can be applied to the actions of humans in terms of migration and economics• Spatial interaction such as migration is directly related to the populations and inversely related to the distance between them.• International refugees cross one or more borders and are encamped in a country not their own.• International refugees abandon their homes, but not their countries-this is the largest number world wide.
18. Lee’s Model of Migration
19. Lee’s Model• Push factors – reasons to migrate from• Pull factors -- reasons to migrate to• Both places have + and - reasons to leave and stay – reasons to migrate and not to migrate• Intervening obstacles – barriers exist to migrating (money, border patrol, etc.)
21. Core-Domain-Sphere Model
22. Core-Domain-Sphere Model• D.W. Meinig• The hearth or core is where the cultural traits are most prevalent
24. Immanuel Wallerstein’s World-Systems Theory: 1. The world economy has one market and a global division of labor. 2. Although the world has multiple states, almost everything takes place within the context of the world economy. 3. The world economy has a three-tier structure. European nations and those settled by European migrants established colonies throughout the world to extract wealth. This period of colonialism established the current imbalance in world economic and political power
25. “Heartland” theory by Halford Mackinder 1904
26. “Heartland” theory by Halford Mackinder 1904• Heartland theory-- A 1904 proposal by Mackinder that the key to world conquest lay in control of the interior of Eurasia
28. Von Thünen Model• Von Thünen Model – What farmers produce varies by distance from the town, with livestock raising farthest from town. – Cost of transportation governs use of land. – First effort to analyze the spatial character of economic activity.
29. Von Thünen• Johann Heinrich von Thünen (1783-1850) wrote Der Isolierte Staat (The Isolated State) which is the foundation of location theory.• Noted how crops near Rostock, Germany changed with no change in soil-mapped the pattern• With terrain, soils and rainfall the same he created the ringed-pattern• Noted that transportation costs governed land use
30. Von Thünen Model
31. Application of Von Thünen Model• Geographer Lee Liu studied the spatial pattern of agriculture production in China. Found: - farmers living in a village farm both lands close to the village and far away intensively - methods varied spatially – resulting in land improvement (by adding organic material) close to village and land degradation (lots of pesticides and fewer conservation tactics) farther from village.
32. Boserup’s Model• Malthus believed that agriculture methods determines population• Boserup’s Model argues the population determines agriculture (possibilism) – In other words, innovation would out pace population demands
33. Boserup’s Model
35. Core-Periphery Model• Immanuel Wallerstein proposed the World Systems Theory with promoted the Core-Periphery concept.• Unlike the term-developed and developing, the Core- Periphery Model does not imply that change will occur.• Core-Periphery regionalism got its start during the period of colonialism was re-enforced by the Industrial Rev. and continues in the age of globalization.
36. Core-Periphery Model• New approach to developed or underdeveloped idea• Core-Periphery also used in a political context• Core-the nations with a high level of prosperity with dominant economies globally• Periphery-poor nations that are dependent on the core as markets for raw materials and sources of technology• Semi-Periphery-better off than periphery, but still dominated by the core to some degree
37. Core-Periphery Model• Uses polar projection
38. Development ModelsModernization ModelWalt Rostow’s model assumes all countries follow a similar path to development or modernization, advancing through five stages of development, climbing a ladder of development. - traditional - preconditions of takeoff - takeoff - drive to maturity - high mass consumption
39. Models of DevelopmentWalt Rostow created this liberal model of development in the 1960s1. First Stage-Traditional 1. Subsistence farms-limited technology 2. Rigid social structure 3. Resistance to change-transition triggered by external influence2. Second Stage-Preconditions for Take-Off 1. Progressive Leadership-commercial exploitation of agriculture & extractive industries 2. Greater flexibility-installation of infrastructure-roads, railways, etc. 3. Greater openness to new technology 4. Greater Diversity of products produced
40. Models of Development3. Third Stage-Take Off 1. Experiences industrial growth 2. Urbanization 3. Industrialization, technology & mass production4. Drive to Maturity 1. Diffusion of technology 2. Industrial specialization 3. International trade 4. Modernization at the core 5. Population growth is reduced5. Fifth Stage-Final Stage 1. Mass consumption-widespread production of goods & services 2. High incomes 3. Majority of workforce in service sector
41. Rostow’s Ladder of Development
42. Models of Development• Structuralist Model this is the alternate to the Liberal Model that states disparities are inevitable due to structural features of the global economy.• These disparities can not be easily changed-it is misleading to assume that all areas will go through the same economic process of development
43. Models of Development• Dependency Theory is another Structuralist Model• Political & economic relationships between nations & regions limit the development of the less well off areas• Colonial dependencies are still in place from long ago.• Dependency theory sees little hope for economic prosperity in some traditional parts of the world
44. Dependency TheoryThe political and economic relationships betweencountries and regions of the world control and limitthe economic development possibilities of poorerareas. -- Economic structures make poorer countries dependent on wealthier countries. -- Little hope for economic prosperity in poorer countries.
45. Dependency Ratio by Country, 2005A measure of the number of people under the age of 15 andover the age of 65 that depends on each working-age adult.
46. A Changing World• Until 1980s there were 3 Blocs – First World-The Capitalist West-the most advanced nations-democratic & capitalist – Second World-The Communist East of the Soviet Union & its Eastern European Satellites, Red China, N. Korea & Vietnam – Third World-non aligned nations with mixed economies and state control- now an obsolete term
47. Three Tier StructureCore PeripheryProcesses that incorporate Processes that incorporate higher levels of education, lower levels of education, higher salaries, and more lower salaries, and less technology technology* Generate more wealth in the * Generate less wealth in the world economy world economy Semi-periphery Places where core and periphery processes are both occurring. Places that are exploited by the core but then exploit the periphery. * Serves as a buffer between core and periphery