Where did the Industrial Revolution begin, and how did it Diffuse?
Industrial Revolution: dramatic innovations in manufacturing, mining, transportation and communication that results in rapid changes in society and commerce1730s to 1860s First Phase of the Industrial Revolution. Textiles, Iron Production, Steam Power1860s to 1914 Second Phase of the Industrial Revolution Steel, Chemicals, Railroads, Gasoline Engine, and mass production.Post WWII Third Phase of the Industrial Revolution high technology-computerization, miniaturization and automation
Flow of Capital into Europe, 1775-Needed flow of capital in order to fuel the industrial revolution.
Why England?• Geographic Advantages: – Island-not invaded – Resources-coal, iron ore, water power, rivers• Political Advantages: – Stable government- encouraged business• Cultural Advantages: – Entrepreneurs willing to take a risk & inventors. A monopoly of skilled workers
•Economic Advantages: –Banking system and available capital –The Agricultural Revolution and Enclosure Movement -supply of cheap and abundant labor. –A large merchant fleet was protected by an efficient navy. –Mercantilism-colonies provided sources of raw materials and markets.
James Watt’s improvedsteam made steam powerA versatile form of energyfor mining, iron production,transportation and even,the milling of flour andbrewing of beer.
• Abraham Darby ‘s coking process, which baked the impurities from coal, gradually replaced scarce charcoal as the fuel for iron production.• Pictured at right are some of the original coking ovens in Northumberland, England.
The Iron Bridge, theworld’s first bridgebuilt of iron