Latin America City Model• Theory that the farther away from thecenter of a city, the worse conditions geteconomically, politically, and socially.
Multiple Nuclei Model• A model of the international structure ofcities in which social groups arrangedaround a collection of nodes of activities.
Gentrification• A process of converting an urbanneighborhood from a predominately lowincome, renter occupied area to apredominantly middle class, owneroccupied area.
Central Place Theory• Where the cetner of your market will bewhere you should place your service – thistheory also involves market area(servicearea), range(distance people will travel),and threshhold(how many you need tosupport the service) --
Market Area• A geographic place in which one canexpect primary demand for a specificproduct or service in one fixed location
CBD – Central Business District• The area of a city where retail and officeactivities are distributed
Concentric Zone Model• Model of the internal structure of cities inwhich social group are spatially arrangedin a series of rings
New Urbanism• Is the revival of our lost art of a placemaking and promotes the creation andrestoration of compact, walkable, mixed-use cities, towns, and neighborhoods –• This is a throw back to the 50’s and 60’s
Annexation• To incorporate a country or other territorywithin the domain of a state --
Sector Model• A model of the internal structure of cities inwhich social groups are arranged arounda series fo sectors, or wedges, radiatingout from the central business district
Conurbation• A group of continuous networks of urbancommunities.
Edge City• A large node of office and retail activitieson the edge of an urban area.
Density Gradient• The change in density in an urban areafrom the center of the area to the outside.
Hinterland• An area that surrounds an urban centerthat is dependent on the urban center forgoods and services.
Megalopolis• A very large city, sometimes a regionmade up of several large cities and theirsurrounding areas in sufficient proximity tobe considered a single urban complex.
Entrepôt• A port where merchandise can beimported and re-exported with payingimport duties; a mart or place wheremerchandise is deposited
Filtering• A process of change in the use of ahouse, from single-family owner-occupancy to abandonment.
Greenbelt• A ring of land maintained as parks,agriculture, or open space that surroundsa town or city and limits urban sprawl.
Urban Realms Model• Includes a central business district, centralcity, new downtown, and suburbandowntown.• Each realm is a separate economic,social, and political entity that is linkedtogether to form a larger metro framework.
Zoning• Pertaining to the division of an area intozones, as to restrict the number and typesof buildings and their uses.
Central Business District (CBD)• The area of a city where retail and officeactivities are clustered.
Zone in Transition• Zone of mixed land uses that surroundsthe central business district. These zonesare often referred to as such because ofthe mixture of growth, change, anddecline.
World City• Dominant city in terms of its role in theglobal political economy. Not the world’sbiggest city in terms of population orindustrial output, but rather centers ofstrategic control of the world economy.
Peripheral Model• A model of North American urban areasconsisting of an inner city surrounded bylarge suburban residential and businessareas tied together by a beltway or ringroad.
Sprawl• The spreading outwards of a city, and itssuburbs to its outskirts to low density andauto dependent development on ruralland, high segregation of uses, andvarious design features that encouragecar dependency.
Public Housing Project• Housing that is built, operated, and ownedby a government and that is typicallyprovided at nominal rent to the needy.
Concentric Zone Model• Model of the internal structure of cities inwhich social groups are spatially arrangedin a series of rings.
Underclass• A segment of the population that occupiesthe lowest possible position in a classhierarchy, below the core body of theworking class.
Redlining• A practice by banks and mortgagecompanies of demarcating areasconsidered to be high risk for housingloans.
Primate City• The largest settlement in a country, if ithas more than twice as many people asthe second-ranking settlement.
Central Place Theory• A theory that explains the distribution ofservices, based on the fact thatsettlements serve as centers of marketareas for services; larger settlements arefewer and further apart than smallersettlements, and provide services for alarger number of people who are willing totravel farther.
Urban Renewal• A program in which cities identify inner-cityneighborhoods acquire the properties fromprivate owners, relocate the residents andbusinesses, clear the site, build new roadsand utilities, and turn the land over toprivate developers.
MSA• Metropolitan Statistical Area• In the U.S., a central city of at least 50,000population, the county within which the cityis located, and adjacent counties meetingone of several tests indicating a functionalconnection to the central city