urban human geography


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  • Not until 8,000 years ago did humans begin to live in cities
  • Top Amsterdam
    Bottom-hillside slum in South America
    Calcutta and Mumbai, India are growing at a very rapid pace
    Costal China has phenomenal growth as well-Shenzen, China grew from 20,000 (size of Homewood) to 2.5 million (size of Chicago) in 30 years.
  • Picture at upper right-the Euphrates River where urban civilization began
    Lower right-Iranian farmers winnowing grain-same method is ancient times.
    Before urbanization, people often clustered in agricultural villages –
    a relatively small, egalitarian village, where most of the population was involved in agriculture. About 10,000 years ago, people began living in agricultural villages
  • Picture at right-a roof garden-city hall Chicago-reduces air conditioning costs
  • Urban elite required to organize the distribution of food, organize defense and irrigation.
    The harvest was stored as a tax and tribute
    Out of this need for an organized society came record keeping and writing
    Laws ere codified or written down and traditions were preserved in writing.
  • The River Valley civilizations or Hydrologic Societies as Marvin Harris called them, developed governments, mathematics, engineering to irrigate and control the rive and architecture.
  • The Maya civilization thrived from 200 to 800 AD- with 2 million people in the Yucatan
    The Aztec civilization thrived from 1200 to 1500 AD
    Olmec were the first to emerge in Central America
  • Ancient Americas rain god Tlaloc (main god of Teotihuacan) on the top on an ornate incense burner from Teotihuacan
  • Archaeologists have found that the houses in Indus River cities, such as Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa, were a uniform size: each house had access to a sewer system, and palaces were absent from the cultural landscape.
  • Ancient Mesopotamia and Nile River Valleys had between 10,000 and 15,000 people-the maximum size sustained by food production and distribution systems of the period.
  • Frieze of the Parthenon in Athens
  • Athens-the Parthenon begun 447BC
  • The Etruscans had controlled Tuscany from Po Valley south-the Romans learned to build in stone, irrigation and drainage as well as urban living from them.
    From the Greeks the Romans copied the grid pattern of streets at right angles
    The Forum became the center of public life
  • Top left-aqueduct, Nimes, France
    Roman Road construction
    Roman Road-Appian Way from Rome to tip of Italy.
    The road system held the empire together and made Rome the apex of a large hierarchy.
  • The arena featured war games, massacres of wild animals, as well as fights to the death and the massacre of criminals and Christians.
  • Top town gate of Salisbury, England
    Bottom-Nordlingen, Germany-walled city 14th to 16th century
  • Picture at right-the Medieval Shambles of York, England
  • The leading city of a country. The city is disproportionately larger than the rest of the cities in the country.
    For example: London, UK
    Mexico City, Mexico
    Paris, France
    - the rank-size rule does not work for a
    country with a primate city
  • Upper Right minaret of great mosque in Agadez, Niger –built in 16th cent. Of dried earth-commercial crossroads for trans-Saharan commerce
    Lower left-village in high Atlas mountains of Morocco-built in Berber style for protection and now for air conditioning. Built of clay and chalk with flat roofs for drying crops.
  • During the mercantile era, the cities that thrived were embellished by wealthy merchant families, who built ornate mansions, patronized the arts, participated in city governments, and supported the reconstruction of city centers.
  • Picture tenement slum alley in England late 19th cent.
  • Suburb of Miami in Dade county Florida-2 million people one of the most densely populated areas of Florida.
  • Gypsy immigrants arrive at Ellis Island
  • Canal barge pulled by a horse in England
  • 1830s version of the steam locomotive
  • 1923 steam locomotive on narrow gauge track in Colorado Mts.
  • Freeway interchange near Los Angeles-Pasadena to Santa Monica interchange
    Schiphol airport outside of Amsterdam, Netherlands
  • Zenith plant in Reynosa, Mexico
  • Picture-Arkwright’s cotton textile mill-Cromford, England
    Agglomeration of raw materials-transport systems, builders, glassmakers, and other businesses.
    Specialization-Sheffield, England-high quality steel and silver
    Birmingham, England-steel
    Pittsburgh-steel hence “Pittsburgh Steelers”, “Milwaukee Brewers” etc,
  • Note that some names can be deceiving-villages is used since it sounds friendlier than city of or town of
  • Anchored by the Bois de Boulogne in the west and the Bois de Vincennes in the east, Paris’s 450 parks and gardens cover over 7,400 acres-almost 30% of the city-one of Europe’s greenest cities.
  • Picture-upper right-Jackson Park, Chicago-designed by Olmsted
    Picture-lower right-Metropolitan Chicago-air, sea, road and rail hub
  • Top-Market Square, Brugge, Belgium
    Bottom-Berlin Wall being torn down after 1989
  • Singapore is dominated by Chinese-seceded from Malaysia in 1965-now an independent island nation.
    Bangkok-subsidence of 1” per year due to water being pumped from ground wells, has canals like Venice-called the Venice of the Southeast-air pollution is now worse than Mexico City
    Mexico City-the elevation of 7,000 ft. flanked by mountains traps air-pollution is severe--noisy, crowded with traffic congestion, high rises, 500 slums, 1,000 new immigrants per day over 750,000 new citizens each year.
  • Calcutta street scene
  • Indonesian rice paddies on terraces on the island of Bali
  • Hong Kong street scene
  • Favela of Rio de Janeiro with dualism of peripheral metropolises-shanty town on hillside overlooks the luxury apartments near the famous Ipanema Beach
  • Shanty town of Belem, Brazil-capital of Para state and main river port of the Amazon.
    ½ of the 2 million residents live in shantytowns with precarious dwellings made out of recycled materials
  • Barail-a majority of the wealth is controlled by only 10% of the people.
    About 25 million Brazilians live in slums
  • Dharavi, the largest slum in Asia, (Mexico City’s slum-Neza-Chalco-Itza has 4x the number of people) is a teeming, noisy slum of 1 million people with 18,000 people per acre. Mumbai’s total population is 12 million
    15 people share 300 square feet of floor space
    Top right- Shraddha Kurmi (age 9) lives in a shack with no power and jute bag walls
    Lower right-Mena Lohar wife of a carpenter keeps her one room home tidy-lucky to have a cooking stove and electricty-most do not
  • Tokyo-Shinkuju District-Tokyo now has 28 m.& stretches 45 miles-the world’s largest urban center.
    Note the fraction bottom number gets larger-hence the reverse proportion.
    If time permits-Hand out Road Atlas and look at Iowa or another Great Plains state where the rank size rule holds true
    Rank-Size Rule:
    in a model urban hierarchy, the population of the city or town will be inversely proportional to its rank in the hierarchy. For example:
    largest city = 12 million
    2nd largest = 6 million
    3rd largest = 4 million
    4th largest = 3 million
  • Multiplier Effect can also work in reverse-when Basic Sector jobs are lost-many more Non Basic sector jobs are lost as well
  • As transportation improvements made longer trips for services possible and practical, many small hamlets, villages and towns declined in North America for example.
  • Although no area on earth is isotropic (same in all directions) Christaller’s model has proven useful in planning new cities-in polder land in the Netherlands, Brazil’s Amazonia development
  • Black lines=hamlet hinterland
    Red lines=village hinterland
    Blue lines=town hinterland
    Green lines=city hinterland
    Christaller’s model confirmed that the general map pattern is not an accident, but the function of specific economic forces that create a regular rank-size pattern
  • Residential areas of Chicago in 1920 were used as basis for many studies and models of the city. Compare this pattern with the Concentric Zone and Sector Models
    Because of the 1871 Fire-Chicago exhibited a more pronounced social patterning than existed in other large older cities
    Chicago became segregated with rings of rising affluence.
    Yet wealthy continue to monopolize the “Gold Coast and other parts of the city
    Burgess accounted or this by stating the rich tended to monopolize hills, lakes, and shorelines
    Zoning established parks and public areas along the Lake Michigan shore (Burnham Plan that prevented industrial development along the Lake
  • Poorest households occupy the more accessible locations near city centers in the US and the wealthiest live in the farthest suburbs-in most of the world it is the opposite-the wealthiest live near the city center and the poorest live in slums, favelas or barrios on the outskirts of the city.
  • Burgess was a University of Chicago professor of Sociology who studied the culture and urban structure of Chicago.
    The dynamic inner ring grew and encroached on zones 2 &3
    Zone 2 transition between CBD & residential with rooming houses, small apartments, tenements for low income, slums & skid row, some ethnic ghettos
    Zone 3 Workingmen’s quarters-ethnic neighborhoods of blue collar immigrant workers who moved out of zone 2 in flats or single family dwellings
    Zone 4 better middle class housing
    Zone 5 commuter zone of higher income families in suburbs or furthest extent of trolley lines
  • Hoyt was an economist who studied housing date for 142 American cities and presented his Sector Model in 1939
  • The multiple nuclei model takes into account the various factors of decentralization that are taking place.
  • Chicago grew from 30,000 in 1850 to 500,000 by 1861 and
    2.3 million by 1911.
    Chicago experienced explosive growth in the late 19th century.
    4 square miles of the city were destroyed in the 1871 Fire
    Rapidly rebuilt with the industrialists taking the opportunity to build impressive new structures downtown-birth of the skyscraper. The City’s economic and social elite colonized the Lake Michigan shore, while heavy industry, warehouses and rail yards crowded the banks of the Chicago River.
    To the south the Union Stockyards and a pocket of heavy industry developed where the Calumet River met Lake Michigan. All around were the homes of working families-neighborhoods spread rapidly outward as wave after wave of immigrants arrived.
    Chicago’s Edge Cities
  • Each realm is a separate economic, social and political entity that is linked together to form a larger metro framework.
    By 1970 the outer cities were becoming increasingly independent with their own CBDs that duplicated functions of the central city. Regional shopping centers, business and industrial parks developed in the suburban areas due to cheaper land prices and the availability of customers or workers. T. Hartshorn and P. O. Muller described the new urban realms in “Suburban Downtowns and the Transformation of Metropolitan Atlanta’s Business Landscape” in Urban Geography 1989
  • Unable to fund adequate schools, crime prevention programs, public housing and services-a downward spiral begins.
    Row houses abandoned in North Philadelphia
  • Abandoned steel mill in Pennsylvania
  • DINK=double income and no children
    SINK=single income and no children
    Baby Boomers those born between 1946 & 1964 in the Post World War II baby boom are now nearing retirement and many choose to move back to the city from the suburbs
  • Government tax breaks for businesses willing to relocate to the inner city-or local or state funding to redevelop central city residential or commercial areas. Cities often condemn run down areas-forcing the people out so that redevelopment can take place
    Many retired baby boomers and young urban professionals see no need to live in the expensive suburbs-preferring instead to move back into the city to be near
    Chicago’s Navy Pier built in 1916 became a run down blighted area-refurbished in the early 1990s
  • Urban Decay, Wash. DC
    Uptown neighborhood in Chicago-abandoned building-area primed for gentrification
  • Left-Marina Towers (the “Corncobs”) in Chicago-built in 1964-1977 became condos-60 story apartments, offices, restaurants, etc. with 18 stories of parking
    Top middle-homeless in Wash. DC in front of the White House
    Top right-Navy Pier revitalized in the 1990s
    Bottom Robert Taylor Homes-largest public housing complex in world with 28 buildings of 16 stories and 4,400 apartments-became high rise ghettos-a big failure-now being torn down as of 2006 16 of the 28 have been demolished-new low rise and mixed use developments are taking their place
    Gentrification can create problems-homeless and low income people are displaced by buildings that they can not afford-loss of the sense of place
  • Miami suburb
    P.O. Muller wrote “The Suburban Transformation of the Globalizing American City” in 1992.
    Discussed how cities are now polycentric realms with suburban edge cities and man hubs of international company headquarters, telecommunication hubs and foreign communities
  • Disney chose Orlando because it was at the confluence of 2 important highway systems-Interstate 4 and the Florida Turnpike-part of Eisenhower’s Cold War Defense system
    Disneyland’s 300 acres in Southern California is ringed by suburban blight-motels, strip malls, copy cat amusement parks
    Florida’s Disney World a totally artificial creation-Celebration (1940s style small town) has a city hall, but no actual government-it is controlled by the Board of Directors of Walt Disney Corporation-time shares can’t be owned or out-right rented.
  • Left-Gated Housing in Beijing, China
    Right-St. Louis Missouri-1971 view of Pruiett-Igoe housing project before it was demolished in 1972-built in 1951, by the 1970s the rampant crime rate was evidence of the failure of these housing project.
  • New York, New York-Left-The New Amsterdam Theater in Times Square in 1947 with advertising, arcades and a flea circus. Right Times Square cleaned up and reinvigorated by the Disney Corporation
  • Top-Toronto skyline
    Bottom-Quebec City-French style buildings
  • Top Calgary, Alberta, Canada Skyline
    Bottom-Toronto Canada’s largest city-
  • Fuel in Europe is about 3X the cost of gas in the US
  • London-view of Parliament Building
  • Paris skyline-note old section of city maintained-no skyscrapers here
    Berlin-historic buildings montage
    Nordlingen, Germany walled 14th century city
  • Budapest, Hungary Microdistricts
  • Red Square in Kremlin during a May Day Parade in the 1970s when The Soviet Union still existed
  • Lower Left-Microdistricts in East Berlin as seen through broken Berlin Wall in early 1990s
    Upper Right-Budapest Microdistricts
    Lower Left-Poprad, Slovakia with Tatra Mts. in the background
  • Mexico City-Paseo de Reforma a major boulevard from the CBD
    Favela of Rio de Janeiro on a hillside
    Unlike America cities-the poverty areas are concentrated in squatter settlements on the outskirts of town-the poorest live the farthest from the CBD
  • Nairobi, Kenya
  • Singapore-Container Port
    Malaysia-Kuala Lumpur-Petronas Towers-highest building in the world if you count the antenna towers
    Malaysia is building a new capital city 25 miles south of Kuala Lumpur
  • Chicago-Jackson Park with Museum of Science & Industry in the background
  • urban human geography

    1. 1. UrbanUrban GeographyGeography Chapter 12 andChapter 12 and 1313
    2. 2. City – a conglomeration of people and buildings clustered together to serve as a center of politics, culture, and economics. Urban-The buildup of the central city and the suburban realm – the city and the surrounding environs connected to the city.
    3. 3. 20th Century-the Urban Century20th Century-the Urban Century • 1900 only 13 cities had 1 million people • 1999 about 362 cities had 1 million • By 2025 there will be 650 cities of 1 million or more • Sometime in 21st cent. The world will become mostly urban • Western Europe, US & Canada are 4/5 urban • China and India are only 3/10 urban
    4. 4. Urban DefinitionsUrban Definitions • Urban-a general term for towns, cities and suburban areas • City-nucleated settlement with many functions and a central business district • Town-small than a city- less complex • Suburb-subsidiary area that is exclusively residential, commercial or industrial-not self sufficient.
    5. 5. Urban MorphologyUrban Morphology The layout of a city, its physical form and structure. Berlin, Germany With wall (above) And without wall (right)
    6. 6. Ancient CitiesAncient Cities • Between 7,000 & 5,000 b.p. agricultural societies became more complex with irrigation & larger scale farming • Stratified societies developed with priests, merchants, administrators, soldiers and farmers • Central authority or the state developed which led to the rise of ancient civilizations such as Egypt, Greece & the Roman Empire.
    7. 7. Urban DefinitionsUrban Definitions • Central City-main city around which suburbs have grown • Urbanized area- continuously built up area with buildings & population density with no reference to political boundaries • Metropolitan area-a large scale functional entity containing several urbanized areas that are integrated as an economic whole
    8. 8. Attributes of CitiesAttributes of Cities • Centers of political power • Centers of industrial power • Centers of technology • A market place for goods • Specialization in products and services • Services of all types • Medical advances • Cultural and Artistic pursuits • Centers of education and research • Entertainment of all types • Sports teams, arenas and parks • An anchor of society
    9. 9. Five Hearths of UrbanizationFive Hearths of Urbanization • Mesopotamia, 3500 BCE • Nile River Valley, 3200 BCE • Indus River Valley, 2200 BCE • Huang He and Wei River Valleys, 1500 BCE • Mesoamerica, 200 BCE
    10. 10. Five Hearths of UrbanizationFive Hearths of Urbanization In each of these hearths, an agricultural surplus and social stratification created the conditions necessary for cities to form and be maintained.
    11. 11. Function & LocationFunction & Location • Earliest civilizations probably developed with the need for organization to create irrigation and provide enough food • Availability of water, good farmland and defensible sites helped certain towns thrive • Positions on travel & trade routes created urban growth. • Urban elites or decision makers evolved. • Writing made the codification of laws and record keeping possible.
    12. 12. Maya and Aztec AmericaMaya and Aztec America
    13. 13. Theocratic CentersTheocratic Centers • God-kings or theocratic rulers developed in some ancient cities. • Priests, temples and shrines took center stage in the Yucatan, Guatemala and Honduras when the Maya Indians developed the great cities of Tikal, Chichen-Itza, Uxmal and Copan. • They also served as educational centers with teachers and philosophers
    14. 14. Harappa and Mohenjo- Daro were two of the first cities of the Indus River Valley. - intricately planned - houses equal in size - no palaces - no monuments Indus River ValleyIndus River Valley
    15. 15. Diffusion to GreeceDiffusion to Greece • Knossos emerged as the leading city of the Minoan Civilization about 3,500 yrs. ago. • Greece emerged as one of the most highly urbanized areas on earth with over 500 cities and towns by 500 BC • Athens was the largest city in the world with 250,000.
    16. 16. • Each Greek city had an acropolis (high city) for defense. • The most famous is the acropolis of Athens (447BC) • Below the acropolis was the agora or market place • Theaters, shops and stores of all kinds were available. • Despite the modern features-sanitation was still primitive
    17. 17. Athens, GreeceAthens, Greece above the acropolis below-the agora
    18. 18. Roman UrbanRoman Urban SystemSystem • The Romans created the largest urban system with an excellent transportation system • The Romans were masters of engineering efficiency creating aqueducts, sewers, roads, bridges and great public buildings like arenas and baths.
    19. 19. • Roman cities had great contrast-great villas & spacious avenues, aqueducts, baths and sewers, yet also – • Wretchedly poor housing in 4-5 story over-crowded tenements, dirty, noisy, crime-ridden streets and a population composed of ½ slaves. • With the collapse of the empire the city of 1 ½ m. shrunk to less than 50,000
    20. 20. Urban Growth ElsewhereUrban Growth Elsewhere • China-rapid growth in the Han Dynasty period-Xian became the Rome of East Asia. • Timbuktu developed in West Africa in the 14th cent. While Meroe on the upper Nile developed advanced metallurgy. • Tenochtitlan, the Aztec capital was the most advanced city in the world with 100,000 by the 16th cent.
    21. 21. Huang He and Wei River ValleysHuang He and Wei River Valleys The Chinese purposefully planned their cities. - centered on a vertical structure - inner wall built around center - temples and palaces for the leadership class Terracotta Warriors guarding the tomb of the Chinese Emperor Qin Xi Huang
    22. 22. Pre industrial EuropePre industrial Europe • Muslim invasion of Europe and later the Crusades opened up trade and contact between Europe and the Far East and Near East • Paris, Amsterdam, Antwerp, Lisbon, Naples and Venice revived and grew. • By mid-15th cent. London had 80,000 and Paris had 120,000. By 19th cent. London was 1 m. while Paris had only 670,000
    23. 23. Urban EnvironmentsUrban Environments • By 17th cent. Europe’s cities were: – Slum ridden – Unsanitary – Fire traps – Plagued by frequent epidemics – Crime ridden – Places of social dislocation
    24. 24. Models of Urban PlacesModels of Urban Places • Gideon Sjoberg explained the stages of urban development in The Preindustrial City: Past and Present (1960) • Sjoberg said that all cities were a product of their societies and went through stages: – Folk-preliterate – Feudal – Preindustrial – Urban-industrial
    25. 25. Primate CitiesPrimate Cities • Gideon Sjoberg was also the first to study the primate city. • A nation’s leading city in size that serves as an expression of national culture. – Not necessarily large – Dominated by religious and govt. buildings – Spacious with wealth near the center – Less privileged near the edge or outside wall
    26. 26. • Not all pre industrial primate cities were the same-Muslim cities were dominated by the great mosque and had less variation in surrounding housing. • Commerce and crafts were focused in the bazaar which has no western equivalent
    27. 27. The Modern Western CityThe Modern Western City • Medieval city was bleak and grimy with narrow dangerous streets. • Unpaved streets provided poor sanitation • The tallest buildings were the Church & Castle • Mercantile cities of the 16th & 17th cent. were nodes of regional, national and international trade • Great cities like London, Amsterdam, Lisbon and Copenhagen grew with the wealth of colonies.
    28. 28. The Second Urban RevolutionThe Second Urban Revolution A large scale movement of people to cities to work in manufacturing. Made possible by: 1. second agricultural revolution that improved food production and created a larger surplus 2. industrialization, which encouraged growth of cities near industrial resources
    29. 29. The Modern Western CityThe Modern Western City • Manufacturing city first developed in Britain, later Western Europe and North America. • Rapidly growing factory system with railroads and tenement slums • Sanitary systems, water supplies and housing were overwhelmed with rapid growth and pollution.
    30. 30. The Modern Western CityThe Modern Western City • Modernization of American cities took place in late 19th cent. • Electric trolley and other forms of mass transportation transformed cities-transport systems became circumferential and radial. • Suburbanization of the city became possible with 1920s revolution of the automobile • Modern cities of North America are sprawling expanses of suburbs, shopping malls and business parks
    31. 31. • Hinterland-a German word that means land behind the city • Spacing of cities-large cities lie farther apart- smaller settlements are closer to each other • Industrial Revolution began in Europe-arrived in the US around 1870-in only 50 yrs. US surpassed Europe • 25 million European immigrants arrived in America-many in manufacturing centers
    32. 32. John Borchert’s “American MetropolitanJohn Borchert’s “American Metropolitan Evolution”-4 Stage model of evolutionEvolution”-4 Stage model of evolution • First Stage-Sail- Wagon Epoch (1790-1830) slow, primitive overland and waterway transport-Boston, New York and Philadelphia were major cities oriented to European trade.
    33. 33. John Borchert’s “American MetropolitanJohn Borchert’s “American Metropolitan Evolution-4 Stage model of evolutionEvolution-4 Stage model of evolution • Second Stage-Iron Horse Epoch (1830-1870) Diffusion of steam-powered railroads-coal mining-boomed, tracks laid coast to coast- manufacturing spread outward from New England hearth-by 1850 New York was primate city with Pittsburgh, Detroit & Chicago growing rapidly
    34. 34. • Third Stage-Steel-Rail Epoch (1870-1920) coincided with the Industrial Revolution Steel industry in Chicago, Detroit & Pittsburgh Coal & iron ore supply areas- northern Appalachia and Lake Superior (Mesabi) Agglomeration in raw materials and market location due to railroad. Steel replaced iron rails-safer-more powerful locomotives-larger freight cars & even refrigerated cars added.
    35. 35. • Fourth Stage-Auto-Air- Amenity Epoch (1920- 1970) Gasoline-powered internal combustion engines-truck based regional and metropolitan distribution of goods; increased automation of blue-collar jobs; shift to white-collar jobs; highways, expressways and jet aircraft made travel faster & cheaper; amenities of suburbs, Sunbelt; New activities responded less to cost-distance factors
    36. 36. • Fifth Stage?- (1970- Now) decline of Rust belt continues; high tech. will stimulate an even greater dispersal of city populations; telecommuting, working from home, globalization and outsourcing change the way we work
    37. 37. Urbanization and LocationUrbanization and Location • 1800-despite Ind. Rev. Europe was still rural-by 1950 Europe was 50% urban-today 85% urban • World today is 50% urban • Agglomeration- clustering of industries for mutual benefit • Specialization-certain industries dominate certain regions- Manchester textiles, Pittsburgh, Pa. steel
    38. 38. • Urban Geographers look at: – How cities are arranged – What cities look like – Transport & communications – Why people move from place to place within the city • Hinterland: the surrounding service area of a city that includes smaller villages and hamlets • Centrality: the economic power or draw of a place compared to its competition
    39. 39. • Hamlet-small collection of houses-may have services. • Village-several dozen services-stores, gas stations and so forth • Town-larger than a village-higher level of specialization-banks, schools, libraries, specialized stores-furniture, appliances, hardware, etc. • City-more functional specialization-larger hinterland, greater centrality, well defined CBD and suburbs • Metropolis or Metropolitan area-urban area larger than a city • Megalopolis-when large metropolises coalesce into a megacity, e.g. Boston to New York
    40. 40. Site and SituationSite and Situation Site * absolute location of a city * a city’s static location, often chosen for trade, defense, or religion. Situation * relative location of a city * a city’s place in the region and the world around it.
    41. 41. • Paris-situational advantage-grew as the hinterland prospered; became multifunctional- religious, cultural, political, industrial center; today a megacity of 10 million; the next largest city is Lyon, France at 1/7th the size • A primate city
    42. 42. Eiffel TowerEiffel Tower built for thebuilt for the 1889 World’s1889 World’s FairFair
    43. 43. Anchored by the Bois de Boulogne in the west and the Bois de Vincennes in the east, Paris’s 450 parks and gardens cover over 7,400 acres-almost 30% of the city-one of Europe’s greenest cities.
    44. 44. • Chicago- situational advantage-Great Lakes & Mississippi water complex junction; west end of the industrial core; next to vast, rich farmland; location of rail, road, water (St. Lawrence Seaway 1959) & air route junction; major natural resource hinterland
    45. 45. • Guangdong Province-southern China; city of Shenzen-3 million, 30 yrs ago only 20,000 • Urban situation- proximity to Hong Kong & status as Special Economic Zone • Its relative location has enabled it to benefit from trade & commerce
    46. 46. Shenzhen changed from a fishing village to a major metropolitan area in just 25 years. 25 years ago, all of this land was duck ponds and rice paddies. Shenzhen, ChinaShenzhen, China
    47. 47. • Situations can deteriorate: • Cities of Northeast Manufacturing (Rustbelt) in decline • Brugge, Belgium-declined in size after river silted up. • Berlin, Germany destroyed in WWII and divided during the Cold War • Many rural towns were bypassed by expressways- withered and died. • As cars replaced horse & buggy, many rural hamlets, & villages declined
    48. 48. • Homes being constructed in King Dragon Villa complex in Lishui-this midsize town is a prime example rapid urban growth in China
    49. 49. • Urban site-the physical qualities of the place- plain, valley, plateau, island, etc. • Singapore-ideal location on an island-an “Economic Tiger” • Bangkok, Thailand- capital on delta of Chao Phraya river-subsidence & air pollution • Mexico City-2nd largest city-basin, flanked by mts. Subsidence, earthquakes, rapid growth and pollution.
    50. 50. Modern UrbanizationModern Urbanization Highest level of Urbanization-Western Europe, North America, Japan & Australia 70% & higher-Mexico, Cuba, France Former Soviet Union-Russia-73%, Ukraine-70%, Transcaucasus-55%, Central Asia-28% South America-cone of Argentina, Chile & Uruguay-highest urbanization-next Brazil & Venezuela, Paraguay, Bolivia, Guyana, Suriname & French Guiana lag behind. Sub-Saharan Africa-some of the world’s lowest urbanization rates-Nigeria-16%, Ethiopia, Rwanda, Burundi & Uganda are even lower. Tropical Africa-only a few nations that are 40% or higher-South Africa-57% due to mining and industry.
    51. 51. Modern UrbanizationModern Urbanization Southwest Asia-North Africa-great variety of urbanization. Much of Middle East, esp. Arabian Peninsula are highly urbanized due to nucleation of the oil industry. Jordan an exception-no oil wealth-but urban due to long tradition Southern Arabia is oil poor and rural Contrast-oil rich Libya is urban, oil poor Afghanistan is rural
    52. 52. Modern UrbanizationModern Urbanization South Asia-low in urbanization, despite huge cities like Mumbai and Calcutta Most nations in South Asia are under 30% urban India-26% Pakistan-28% Bangladesh-16% Subsistence farming dominates life here
    53. 53. Modern UrbanizationModern Urbanization Southeast Asia- Singapore is the only 100% urban state Brunei & Malaysia are the only other nations with over 50% urban Indonesia-31% Myanmar-25% Vietnam-20% Thailand-19% Subsistence farming dominates life here
    54. 54. Modern UrbanizationModern Urbanization East Asia- Averages 36% Only Japan, South Korea and Taiwan are highly urbanized in East Asia China below-25% Yet Shanghai & Beijing Have 25 million between Them, however most of China’s 1.2 m. are rural
    55. 55. Great CitiesGreat Cities • North America-several megalopolitan regions:Boston-Washington, DC – Chicago-Detroit-Pittsburgh – San Francisco-Los Angeles-San Diego – Montreal-Toronto-Windsor – Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach • Europe: – London-20 m. in Metro area – Germany-Ruhr, Rhine zone of Dusseldorf-Essen & Cologne – Poland-Saxony & Silesia – Also Moscow, St. Petersburg & Madrid-not yet multi cities, but growing
    56. 56. Great CitiesGreat Cities • Asia-Tokyo-Yokohama, Osaka-Kobe-Kyoto • Mega Cities: • UN says by 2025 at least 15 cities will be over 20 million – Many of the world’s most populous cities are found in the poorest nations-Mexico City, Shanghai, Calcutta, Mumbai & Cairo – Close are Bangkok, Indonesia; Lima-Callao, Peru; Saigon-Cholon, Vietnam – Mexico City, Sao Paulo and Shanghai will have over 30 million by 2025
    57. 57. Pull FactorsPull Factors • Pull factors often more imaginary that real-esp. in less developed areas. • 1990s Africa had the fastest growing cities in the world-followed by South Asia, East Asia, South and Middle America. • Cities of North America, Southern South America, Australia grew more slowly • Western Europe’s cities grew very little if at all. • New York was the world’s largest city for many years-now overtaken by Tokyo-Mexico City will overtake Tokyo-by 2025 NYC will not be in top 10.
    58. 58. Urban ProblemsUrban Problems • Zoning laws are lacking in many poor countries • Squatters occupy any open space on the outskirts of the city • Sharp contrast between fancy hotels of downtown and slums on outskirts • Cairo for example-paved streets give way to dusty alleys, tenements, traffic, garbage & 12.5 m. people bursting at the seams
    59. 59. Shanty town of Belem, BrazilShanty town of Belem, Brazil
    60. 60. • Many cities in developing nations are growing at a rapid rate with many new arrivals each day. • Unofficial suburbs such as this favela of Rio de Janeiro are poor and often lack basic services. (Disamenity sector) • Clinging to a hillside, this neighborhood often suffers fatal landslides during heavy rains.
    61. 61. Rank-Size RuleRank-Size Rule • The larger the city-the fewer there are- • Model indicates that the population of a city or town in inversely proportional (the fraction) to its rank in the hierarchy • If largest city is 12 million then 2nd largest is 6 m. (1/2) 3rd largest is 4 m. (2/3) 4th largest is 3 m. or (3/4) 10th largest is 1.2 million Rank-Size Rule does Not apply to primate Cities such as Paris, Mexico City and so forth
    62. 62. Urban FunctionUrban Function • Every city or town has an economic base. • Basic sector-workers who produce goods for export or local consumption • Non Basic sector or Service sector-workers who maintain the city, work in offices and provide services for others • The number of Non basic sector workers is always greater than Basic sector workers-as cities increase in size the ratio increases • Most large cities have a ratio of 1 to 2 • Multiplier Effect-if a business adds 50 manufacturing jobs-another 100 non-basic workers will be added to the work force
    63. 63. Functional SpecializationFunctional Specialization • A dominant service or industry was found in many cities during the Industrial Revolution. • Chauncy Harris wrote “A Functional Classification of Cities in the United States” in 1943-in it he described the concentration of manufacturing cities in the Northeast with functional specialization and the wide diversity of western cities with no dominant function • e.g. Detroit-automobiles, Pittsburgh-steel • Las Vegas and Atlantic City gambling • Leadville, Colorado-mining • Vero Beach, Florida-resorts • Trend today is toward diversity-especially in the Rustbelt.
    64. 64. Central Place TheoryCentral Place Theory • Central Places-hierarchy is based on population, function & services. • Economic reach-how functions & services attract customers from areas beyond the urban limits. • Centrality-the central position & ability to attract customers to a village, town or city. • Range of Sale-the distance people are willing to travel to buy goods or services
    65. 65. Central Place TheoryCentral Place Theory • Christaller tried to determine the degree of centrality of various places. • He created a model to show how central places in the urban hierarchy are spatially distributed. • He assumed: – No physical barriers – Soil and surface of equal quality – Even distribution of population – Uniform transportation system
    66. 66. Hexagonal HinterlandsHexagonal Hinterlands C = city T = town V = village H = hamlet
    67. 67. Hexagonal HinterlandsHexagonal Hinterlands • Christaller’s urban model showed that each central place had a complementary hinterland. • The hexagonal model solves the overlap problem that circles would have. • Nesting arrangement- region within a region- each larger complementary region is centered on a higher order urban place
    68. 68. Central Business DistrictCentral Business District • Downtown-the core of the city with high-rise skyscrapers, heavy traffic, production, education, services etc. • The CBD is the urban area of commercial & industrial zones within a ring of residential areas. • Suburb-an outlying residential area of the urban region that is most pronounced in the US
    69. 69. Bid RentBid Rent • The price paid to rent or purchase urban land is a reflection of its utility or usefulness. • Utility is a product of accessibility to customers & workers or for residents to jobs and amenities.
    70. 70. Modeling the North American CityModeling the North American City • Concentric zone model (Ernest Burgess) • Sector model (Homer Hoyt) • Multiple Nuclei Model (Chauncy Harris and Edward Ullman)
    71. 71. Classic Models of Urban StructureClassic Models of Urban Structure • Ernest Burgess-1925 Concentric Zone Model based on studies of Chicago. • CBD-financial, retail, theater, museums etc. • Transition to residential with deterioration-some light industry • Blue collar labor housing • Middle class residential • Suburban ring
    72. 72. FunctionalFunctional ZonationZonation The division of the city into certain regions (zones) for certain purposes (functions). Cairo, Egypt Central city (above) Housing projects (right)
    73. 73. Classic Models of Urban StructureClassic Models of Urban Structure • Homer Hoyt-1939 Sector Model based on studies of 142 US cities. • Pie-shaped wedges created by Hoyt compensated for the drawbacks of the Ring Model • Low Rent areas & High Rent areas could extend to the outer edge • Transportation and industrial zones accounted for the sectors
    74. 74. • Chauncy Harris & Edward Ullman Multiple Nuclei Sector Model 1945 showed that CBD is not the sole force in creating land-use patterns. • They said that Concentric Rings & Pie-shaped models had drawbacks as CBDs were losing dominance • Subsidiary and competing CBDs developed (Edge Cities) • Suburbanization accelerated the change with shopping malls and mass transit
    75. 75. Post WWII-rapid expansion ofPost WWII-rapid expansion of cities and suburbs led to Edgecities and suburbs led to Edge Cities with their own CBDCities with their own CBD
    76. 76. Why Do Inner Cities Still Attract People?Why Do Inner Cities Still Attract People? Recreational facilities Orchestras, theaters and venues for popular music concerts Museums and art galleries Sport teams and sporting arenas Banks and high finance institutions Universities and research facilities Specialized research hospitals and medical specialists Shopping and specialized stores
    77. 77. Making Cities in the Global CoreMaking Cities in the Global Core • Redlining – financial institutions refusing to lend money in certain neighborhoods. • Blockbusting – realtors purposefully sell a home at a low price to an African American and then solicit white residents to sell their homes at low prices, to generate “white flight.”
    78. 78. Problems in Urban AmericaProblems in Urban America 200 years ago only 5% of world was urbanized Today about 50% is urban Germany, Spain & Belgium are over 90% urban World wide urban problems are: pollution poor sanitation drugs and crime congestion and noise substandard housing & slums
    79. 79. Problems in Urban AmericaProblems in Urban America • With urban sprawl and expanding suburbs-inner city shrinks • CBD is often reduced to serving just the inner metro area • As basic sector jobs leave- large cities have shifted to service industries • Loss of tax base as businesses, industries and services leave • Urban decay results
    80. 80. Problems in Urban AmericaProblems in Urban America • New York City a good example: – 3 million people plus uncounted illegals crowd into 75 to 100 year old apartment buildings – Many buildings are worn out, rat & roach infested with high crime rates, vandalism and cases of spouse & child abuse • Yet despite the problems there is a sense of community that may be lost if the neighborhood is torn down
    81. 81. • Deglomeration-as globalization and improved communication and transportation have developed-many businesses leave the high costs of downtown since it is no longer an advantage to cluster with other similar businesses-the results are rustbelt cities with urban decay, loss of tax revenue and abandoned property
    82. 82. • Gentrification – individuals buy up and rehabilitate houses, raising the housing value in the neighborhood and changing the neighborhood. • Commercialization – city governments transform a central city to attract residents and tourists. The newly commercialized downtowns often are a stark contrast to the rest of the central city. Making Cities in the Global CoreMaking Cities in the Global Core
    83. 83. Gentrification or RevitalizationGentrification or Revitalization • The rehabilitation of deteriorated, sometimes abandoned inner city housing and industrial buildings. • Inner city gentrification attracts childless urbanites and singles who desire the cultural & recreational amenities -walking distance to restaurants, museums, theaters, etc. • DINKS, SINKS and retired “Baby Boomers” are drawn back to the city by revitalization. • Urban Policy-city governments encourage redevelopment by passing laws that encourage the redevelopment of blighted inner city areas-tax incentives and rezoning and the condemning of blighted regions. • Commercialization of Downtown-waterfront themes- Miami, NYC, Baltimore, Themed structures-Renaissance Center in Gary, Ind., Detroit, Mich. Chicago’s Navy Pier
    84. 84. Gentrification or RevitalizationGentrification or Revitalization • Economic policy-tax incentives (TIFS) encourage the redevelopment of inner cities where land is cheaper than the expensive suburbs. • Sense of place-many “baby boomers” as well as “Yuppies” are drawn to the historic landmarks and amenities of the city such as markets, museums and galleries ( e.g. Millennium Park, Navy Pier etc. Chicago’s Navy PierChicago’s Navy Pier
    85. 85. Urban decay inUrban decay in Washington,Washington, D.C.D.C. Uptown neighborhoodUptown neighborhood in Chicago-abandonedin Chicago-abandoned apartment buildings;apartment buildings; an area that is primedan area that is primed for gentrificationfor gentrification
    86. 86. Tear-downs – houses that new owners buy with the intention of tearing it down to build a much larger home. McMansions – large homes, often built to the outer limits of the lot. They are called McMansions because of their super size and their similar look. Hinsdale, Illinois (25% of houses have been torn down in last 20 years).
    87. 87. Urban SprawlUrban Sprawl Unrestricted growth of housing, commercial developments, and roads over large expanses of land, with little concern for urban planning. Henderson, Nevada
    88. 88. The Suburban CityThe Suburban City • Post WW II rapid transformation of rural areas adjacent to cities into suburbs • New automobiles & highways as well as govt. policy, Federal Highway Program, GI Bill and Loan Guarantees for housing • Demand for larger more expensive suburban homes by the returning GIs • 1970=37% suburban by 1990 46% suburban & 31% inner city with 23% rural
    89. 89. Suburban downtowns, often located near key freeway intersections, often with: - office complexes - shopping centers - hotels - restaurants - entertainment facilities - sports complexes Edge CitiesEdge Cities
    90. 90. New UrbanismNew Urbanism • Development, urban revitalization, and suburban reforms that create walkable neighborhoods with a diversity of housing and jobs. • some are concerned over privatization of public spaces – some are concerned that they do nothing to break down the social conditions that create social ills of the cities – some believe they work against urban sprawl
    91. 91. Celebration, Florida
    92. 92. • America’s population is decentralizing faster that at any time in history • Orlando grew 5 fold in 3 decades • Average home size grew by 63% over last 3 decades • 28% of suburban dwellers are ethnic minorities • 10 days a year-the average amount of time Americans spend commuting to work • Living in sprawling suburbs can add 61 lbs to your weight-due to driving & no exercise
    93. 93. Gated CommunitiesGated Communities Who are gated communities for? How do the goals/purposes of gated communities differ across the world?
    94. 94. Spaces of ConsumptionSpaces of Consumption The transformation of the city into an entertainment district, where major corporations encourage the consumption of their goods and services. For example: Berlin, Germany & New York City
    95. 95. The Canadian CityThe Canadian City • Less dispersed with higher pop. densities than US cities • More multi-family dwellings and less disparity in wealth • Suburbs not as large or as affluent as in the US • Central city has more middle and higher income pop. & stronger tax base • Better services & public transportation systems
    96. 96. Calgary,Calgary, AlbertaAlberta skylineskyline Toronto-Toronto- Canada’sCanada’s largest citylargest city
    97. 97. The European CityThe European City • Western European cities are more compact than Canadian cities • Same size in pop. As US cities, but smaller in land area • European govt. are proactive in maintaining healthy CBDs • No sprawl-suburbs are too far out to compete with CBD • Greenbelts preserve the central city from close suburban development • Very high fuel costs discourage suburban development • Central cities are clogged with cars, but mass transit, bikes, and walking are relied on for transportation • Zoning rules are strictly enforced and highway and beltway construction lags.
    98. 98. The European CityThe European City • London-6.4 m., Paris 10.2 m., Rome, Berlin, Madrid and Athens are megacities by world standards • These are historic cities not impacted by the Industrial Revolution • British Midlands & German Ruhr valley cities are very different-smaller & heavily industrialized- destroyed in WWII • Paris, Athens and Lisbon are Primate cities
    99. 99. The European City-GreenbeltsThe European City-Greenbelts • London’s Central city is the same size it was in 1960 • Greenbelts were est. to counteract ill effects of Ind. Rev. • Open countryside over 20 miles wide has scattered towns, but no extensive suburban areas • Many urban parks maintain a green areas within the city
    100. 100. During the second half of the 20th century… Nature of manufacturing changed and locations changed, too. Many factories have been abandoned, creating “rust belts” out of once-thriving industrial districts. Duisburg, Germany
    101. 101. The Eastern European CityThe Eastern European City • Eastern European & Russian cities were turned into microdistricts by communist planning • Old primate and historical cities were ignored • Huge dominant square & wide radiating avenues fronted by huge apartment complexes with factories, schools, shops & so on. • No need for CBD, mass commuting or suburbs
    102. 102. The Eastern European CityThe Eastern European City • Large 7 to 11 story complexes were rapidly built of shoddy material with no decoration-ugly and depressing • Moscow’s growing pop. (11 m.) lives in microdistricts that radiate out from Red Square. • St. Petersburg was rebuilt in the ugly socialist style after heavy damage in World War II
    103. 103. The Eastern European CityThe Eastern European City
    104. 104. Modeling the Cities of the Global PeripheryModeling the Cities of the Global Periphery and Semiperipheryand Semiperiphery • Latin American City (Griffin-Ford model) • African City (de Blij model) • Southeast Asian City (McGee model)
    105. 105. Making Cities in the Global Periphery andMaking Cities in the Global Periphery and SemiperipherySemiperiphery - sharp contrast between rich and poor - Often lack zoning laws or enforcement of zoning laws
    106. 106. The Ibero-American CityThe Ibero-American City • Latin American cities are growing rapidly-1950= 41% urban, 1997 74% urban • CBD dominates the center with 2 main divisions-traditional market and modern high rises • A commercial spine and axis of business is surrounded by elite residential housing Griffin-Ford model
    107. 107. The Ibero-American CityThe Ibero-American City • The spine is an extension of the CBD with offices, shops, high class housing, restaurants, theaters, & parks • Zone of Maturity-Middle class housing 2nd best • Zone of In Situ Accretion-high pop. Density of modest housing • Periphery-Periferico-high density shanty towns of extreme poverty and no services
    108. 108. The African CityThe African City • African cities often have 3 CBDs=Colonial, Traditional and Periodic Market Zone • Sub-Saharan Africa is the least urbanized area of the world, but the most rapidly urbanizing • No large cities to match Cairo-Kinshasa, Nairobi, Harare, Dakar, Abidjan were established by Europeans de Blij model
    109. 109. The African CityThe African City • No large cities to match Cairo-Kinshasa, Nairobi, Harare, Dakar, Abidjan were established by Europeans • South African cities-Johannesburg, Cape Town & Durbin are western cities with elements of European and American models-high rise CBDs and sprawling suburbs
    110. 110. The Southeast Asian CityThe Southeast Asian City • SE Asia-rapid growth of population & cities-1950- 15% urban, 1990s-29% urban • Most growth in coastal cities like Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon) • Old colonial port zone surrounds the commercial district • Unlike Western cities-no formal business zone, but separate clusters McGee model
    111. 111. The Southeast Asian CityThe Southeast Asian City
    112. 112. Ethnic NeighborhoodsEthnic Neighborhoods European City – eg. Muslim neighborhoods in Paris Cities of the Periphery and Semiperiphery – eg. Mumbai, India
    113. 113. Mumbai, IndiaMumbai, India
    114. 114. The EndThe End
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