• Migration A change in
residence that is intended
to be permanent.
• Emigration-leaving a
• Immigration-entering a
Little Haiti, Miami, Florida
• On average, Americans move once every 6 years.
• US population is the most mobile in the world with
over 5 million moving from 1 state to another every
• 35 million move within a state, county or community
• Migration a key factor in the speed of diffusion of
ideas and innovation.
• Our perception of distance and direction are often
distorted-thus a sizable % of migrants return to their
original home due to these distorted perceptions.
Types of Migration
• Forced Migration-migrants
have no choice-must leave.
• periodic movement-short term
(weeks or months) seasonal
migration to college, winter in
the south, etc.
• Cyclic movement-daily
movement to work, shopping.
Horn of Africa.
• Nomadism-cyclical, yet
irregular migration that follows
the growth of vegetation.
Commuter train in Soweto,
Key Factors in MigrationKey Factors in Migration
• External Migration-from one country to
another (emigration & immigration)
• Internal Migration-from one part of a country
to another part
– Absolute-compass directions
– Relative-Sun Belt, Middle East, Far East, Near East
– Absolute distance “as the crow flies”
– Relative distance-actual distance due to routes
taken such as highways or railroads
Catalysts of Migration
• Economic conditions-poverty
and a desire for opportunity.
• Political conditions-
persecution, expulsion, or war.
• Environmental conditions-
crop failures, floods, drought,
• Culture and tradition-
threatened by change.
• Technology-easier and cheaper
transport or change in livability.
• Chain migration-migration of people to a specific
location because of relatives or members of the same
nationality already there.
• Step migration-short moves in stages-e.g. Brazilian
family moves from village to town and then finally Sao
Paulo or Rio de Janeiro
• Refugees-those who have been forced to migrate.
• Push-Pull Factors-push factors induce people to leave.
Pull factors encourage people to move to an area.
• Distance decay-contact diminishes with increasing
distance. (both diffusion and migration)
• Intervening opportunity-alternative destinations that can
be reached more quickly and easily.
Internal Migration -
Movement within a single country’s borders
(implying a degree of permanence).
weighs into the
many migrants to
move less far
Voluntary Migration – Migrants weigh push and pull
factors to decide first, to emigrate from the home country
and second, where to go.
Economic Conditions – Migrants will often risk
their lives in hopes of economic opportunities that will
enable them to send money home (remittances) to
their family members who remain behind.
In Altar, Sonora, migrants called pollos (chickens), stock up
On supplies for the desert crossing.
Most illegal immigrants are Mexicans, but a growing number
Are from Central and South America, like the men waiting
Outside of “Bar Honduras” in Nuevo Laredo.
• A massive dump site
in Arizona’s Upper
Altar Valley. After
walking 40 miles
through the desert,
illegal immigrants are
met here by coyotes.
They are told to dump
their old clothes &
packs and put on more
clothes the coyotes
have brought. They
then begin the trip to
an urban stash house.
Environmental Conditions –In Montserrat, a 1995
volcano made the southern half of the island, including
the capital city of Plymouth, uninhabitable. People who
remained migrated to the north or to the U.S.
Places within a
region or country
In late 1800s and
Southeast Asia to
work in trade,
•About 700,000 Jews
migrated to then-
Palestine between 1900
•After 1948, when the
land was divided into
two states (Israel and
Palestinian Arabs fled or
were pushed out of
Jerusalem, Israel: Jewish settlements on the
Ernst Ravenstein’s “Laws of migrationErnst Ravenstein’s “Laws of migration
1885 he studied the migration of England1885 he studied the migration of England
• Most migrants go only a short distance.
• Big cities attract long distance migrants.
• Most migration is step-by-step.
• Most migration is rural to urban
• Each migration flow produces a counterflow.
• Most migrants are adults-families are less
likely to make international moves.
• Most international migrants are young males.
• Gravity model is an inverse relationship between
volume of migration and distance to the destination.
• Gravity model was anticipated by Ravenstein.
• The physical laws of gravity first studied by Newton
can be applied to the actions of humans in terms of
migration and economics
• Spatial interaction such as migration is directly related
to the populations and inversely related to the distance
• International refugees cross one or more borders and
are encamped in a country not their own.
• Intranational refugees abandon their homes, but not
their countries-this is the largest number world wide.
The Refugee ProblemThe Refugee Problem
• UN definition-person who
migrates out of fear of
being persecuted for
reasons of race, religion,
nationality, social status or
• Difficult to get an accurate
manipulate the numbers.
• Internal (intranational)
refugees a bigger issue than
A person who flees across an international boundary because
of a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race,
religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group,
or political opinion.
Characteristics of RefugeesCharacteristics of Refugees
• Move with only what they can carry or
• Most move first on foot, bicycle,
wagon or open boat-very low tech.
• Most have no official documentation
such as passports, identification or
other official papers.
An Example of Forced Migration-The Trail of Tears
From 12 to 30 million Africans were forced from
their homelands in the 18th
century. It took
generations to restore the population balance.
Regions of Dislocation-AfricaRegions of Dislocation-Africa
• Endemic African
• Weak and corrupt
• Lack of national cohesion.
• Lack of a democratic
• Historic ethnic conflicts
• Excessive number of
weapons left over from
the Cold War.
• Sub-Saharan Africa-over
8 million official
largest # in the world.
• Collapse of order in
• Civil Wars in Liberia and
• Sudan’s civil war
• Rwanda massacres and
The Sudan –Fighting in the Darfur region of the Sudan has
generated thousands of refugees. In eastern Chad, the
Iridimi refugee camp is home to almost 15,000 refugees
from the Darfur province, including the women in this
Regions of DislocationRegions of Dislocation
• South West &
• Kurds in Iraq, Turkey and
Syria displaced during
• Palestinians displaced by
several wars with Israel.
refugees during the long
Taliban regime and war.
• South and South
• Civil War in Sri Lanka-
Tamils versus Sinahlese
• Vietnam and Cambodia
after the Vietnam War
• Myanmar (Burma)
military rule has driven
many to exile.
Major Modern Migrations
• Europe to North America & South America
• Africa to the Americas (Slave Trade)
• UK to Australia, New Zealand
• India to East Africa, SE Asia
• China to SE Asia
• Eastern US to Western US
• Western Russia to Eastern Russia
Review World Regions for TestReview World Regions for Test
Trans-Siberian Railway increased migration to the east.
International Migration –
Movement across country borders (implying a degree of
Historic US MigrationHistoric US Migration
• Westward to the frontier.
• Black migration to
northern cities in WWI
and WWII period
• 1950s, 60s Cubans to
Florida from Castro’s
• In recent decades the
migration from the Rust
belt to the Sunbelt took
• Some blacks returned to
Waves of Immigration-US 1820-2001
Changing immigration laws, and changing push and pull
factors create waves of immigration.
National Migration Flows
• Also known as internal migration
- eg. US, Russia, Mexico
• Guest workers – migrants whom a country
allows in to fill a labor need, assuming the
workers will go “home” once the labor need
- have short term work visas
- send remittances to home country
- France-many from Algeria
- Germany-many from Turkey, Eastern