Families in cities tend to be smaller than those in rural areas Even in cities-affluent areas-fewer children per couple. Age selection of migration-usually male Most African slaves were male Most European immigrants were male. This male or sex-selection migration is evident in African and Indian cities where males out number females.
Forced Migration examples-African Slave Trade e.g. Trail of Tears in the 19 th Cent./India-Pakistan Border/German-Polish Border after WWII/Blacks forced into Homeland during Apartheid Reluctant Migration-1969 Indonesian government aggressive campaign to move people from densely populated Java to other islands and territories-”biggest colonization program in history” Periodic Movement -off to college, vacation, military service, migrant workers. Cyclical Movement- commuting to work, school, shopping or visiting friends-activity space is increasing as technology makes travel faster and cheaper. Many Americans’ daily commute is farther than many Chinese peasants will travel in a year. Transhumance -in Switzerland livestock and herders travel up the mountain as the season progresses to take advantage of fresh pasture. Horn of Africa-hundreds of thousands follow livestock hers from lowland to highland and back. Nomadism- cyclical migration that is irregular in arid or semiarid areas-seasonal changes determine the location of herds, flocks and their caretakers-Masai of East Africa have a village that they return to for the rainy season-even grow crops there-when the drought begins, the pack and move.
Low population growth rate in several European countries due to permanent departures and declining fertility. US low natural growth is offset by migration 1980s and 1990s Migration from East to West and from North to South New York lost 330,000 to Florida and 70,000 to California in the 1980s. Early 20 th cent. 1920s-40s Blacks from rural South to Industrial North-job boom caused by WWI and WWII.
Poverty has driven millions from their homelands-North America has received many legal and illegal immigrants from Mediterranean, Caribbean, across the Rio Grande Political- oppressive regimes-Mariel Boatlift from Cuba 125,000, Boat People from Vietnam in 1970s and 80s. Armed Conflict-War- Rwanda-militant Hutus versus minority Tutsi and moderate Hutus-600,000 died in out migration-2 million fled to Zaire Environmental- potato famine 1840s Ireland, also floods, drought, earthquakes, volcanoes, etc. Threat to Culture and Tradition -India-Pakistan, Millions fled, Soviet Jews fled to Israel. Technological advances -easier and cheaper to sail or fly, also air-conditioning made south and southwest US more desirable. Photo is of Italian Immigrants at Ellis Island, New York in 1905.
Mexican immigrants captured near Laredo, Texas Barbed wire fence separates the US & Mexico east of Douglas, Arizona
Warner Glenn on his ranch in San Simon, Arizona-Migrants often cut his barbed wire fence to enter the US Border Patrol-near Calexico, California
Juan & Marcia Garcia have lived in this shack near McAllen, Texas since coming to the US from Reynosa, Mexico 2 years ago. A woman and daughter run beneath the Gateway to the Americas International Bridge in Laredo after crossing the Rio Grande from Nuevo Laredo. US officials caught them moments later.
Migrants do not represent a cross section of their place of origin. Today in the US young people in their 20s are the most mobile. Today 40-60% of migrants are women and girls so the young males rule is less valid today than it was Today the rural to urban migration pattern is true of the periphery, but not the core
Refugees move with what they can physically carry Most make their first move on foot, bike, wagon or open boat They have no official documents or papers such as passport, etc.
Picture at right-Rwanda refugees-1994-over 1 million Rwandans fled into Zaire (Dem. Rep. of Congo), Tanzania, Uganda, and Burundi to escape the massacre and famine.
An example of Forced Migration Indian Removal Act of 1830 forced Eastern Native American tribes to move from their Eastern Homelands to Indian Territory west of the Mississippi (currently Oklahoma). The Choctaw, Chickasaw, Cherokee, Creek and Seminole tribes vacated lands that had been protected by treaties. Other examples-China-the Three Gorges Dam project has evicted millions. During Apartheid, South Africa evicted blacks from their native lands and forced them to live in homelands
Another example of Forced Migration
Europe -Before 1830s about 2.75 million left- 1835-1935 75 million left for New World, (most from England & Germany) Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. Africa- slave trade began in 16 th cent. With Caribbean sugar plantation workers Early 17 th cent. North America to work on cotton plantations Most were from West Africa-Liberia to Nigeria and from coastal margins of Sahara. Most 10 million out of 12 million went to Brazil and Caribbean for sugar plantations East Africa slave trade also active Arab slave traders on Zanzibar along the Horn India- British brought many Indians to South Africa and East Africa as well as Caribbean-(Trinidad, Guyana) as indentured servants. China-SE Asia- tended to migrate to urban areas and engaged in trade 76% of Singapore 32% of Malaysia 14% of Thailand 3% of Indonesia (but it is 200 million)
Post war immigration to Palestine accelerated which displaced 600,000 Palestinian Arabs who sought refuge in Jordan, Syria, Egypt and so forth.
British relocated many Asian during the colonial period as did the Dutch. The Chinese migrated for economic opportunities as traders. Today they make up 14% in Thailand 32% in Malaysia 76% in Singapore 3% in Indonesia, but that is a large number out of 200 million.
So many Cubans live in Dade County Florida that it is now a bilingual county
Immigration to the US from 1820-2001 1870 US Population was 40 million 72% lived in small towns or on farms 1900-1915 at least 15 million immigrants-mostly Eastern Europeans & Southern Europeans flooded into the US These new immigrants were different in religion and darker in complexion than previous immigrants 1920- 110 population of which over half lived in cities
Migration to the US by region of origin. Europeans made up 90% during the 19 th cent. And as late as 1960 made up 50%. South Asia was the largest source for a brief time in the 1980s. Latin America is now the main source Of European immigration-fueled by rapid population growth Germany sent the largest # with 7.1 million Italy 5.4 m. UK 5.2 m Ireland 4.8 m Russia & former USSR 3.5 million
The US population center continues to move to the south and west
2 views of China’s great wall built to keep out barbarian invasions and migrations
2 views of Hadrian’s Wall built to keep out the barbarians of northern Britain
Top left-Berlin Wall today-being chipped away for souvenirs Bottom left-1961 West Berlin youth protest the recent construction of the wall Far right after the wall opened in 1989 guards lift up a child to see over to the other side.
Only recently has Germany allowed the Turks-now 2 nd or 3 rd generation-to become German citizens Nigeria kicked out its guest workers Indonesia pulled out its many citizens in the Middle East before the 2003 Iraq War
• Migration A change in
residence that is intended
to be permanent.
• Emigration-leaving a
• Immigration-entering a
Little Haiti, Miami, Florida
• On average, Americans move once every 6 years.
• US population is the most mobile in the world with
over 5 million moving from 1 state to another every
• 35 million move within a state, county or community
• Migration a key factor in the speed of diffusion of
ideas and innovation.
• Our perception of distance and direction are often
distorted-thus a sizable % of migrants return to their
original home due to these distorted perceptions.
Types of Migration
• Forced Migration-migrants
have no choice-must leave.
• periodic movement-short term
(weeks or months) seasonal
migration to college, winter in
the south, etc.
• Cyclic movement-daily
movement to work, shopping.
Horn of Africa.
• Nomadism-cyclical, yet
irregular migration that follows
the growth of vegetation.
Commuter train in Soweto,
Key Factors in MigrationKey Factors in Migration
• External Migration-from one country to
another (emigration & immigration)
• Internal Migration-from one part of a country
to another part
– Absolute-compass directions
– Relative-Sun Belt, Middle East, Far East, Near East
– Absolute distance “as the crow flies”
– Relative distance-actual distance due to routes
taken such as highways or railroads
Catalysts of Migration
• Economic conditions-poverty
and a desire for opportunity.
• Political conditions-
persecution, expulsion, or war.
• Environmental conditions-
crop failures, floods, drought,
• Culture and tradition-
threatened by change.
• Technology-easier and cheaper
transport or change in livability.
• Chain migration-migration of people to a specific
location because of relatives or members of the same
nationality already there.
• Step migration-short moves in stages-e.g. Brazilian
family moves from village to town and then finally Sao
Paulo or Rio de Janeiro
• Refugees-those who have been forced to migrate.
• Push-Pull Factors-push factors induce people to leave.
Pull factors encourage people to move to an area.
• Distance decay-contact diminishes with increasing
distance. (both diffusion and migration)
• Intervening opportunity-alternative destinations that can
be reached more quickly and easily.
Internal Migration -
Movement within a single country’s borders
(implying a degree of permanence).
weighs into the
many migrants to
move less far
Voluntary Migration – Migrants weigh push and pull
factors to decide first, to emigrate from the home country
and second, where to go.
Economic Conditions – Migrants will often risk
their lives in hopes of economic opportunities that will
enable them to send money home (remittances) to
their family members who remain behind.
In Altar, Sonora, migrants called pollos (chickens), stock up
On supplies for the desert crossing.
Most illegal immigrants are Mexicans, but a growing number
Are from Central and South America, like the men waiting
Outside of “Bar Honduras” in Nuevo Laredo.
• A massive dump site
in Arizona’s Upper
Altar Valley. After
walking 40 miles
through the desert,
illegal immigrants are
met here by coyotes.
They are told to dump
their old clothes &
packs and put on more
clothes the coyotes
have brought. They
then begin the trip to
an urban stash house.
Environmental Conditions –In Montserrat, a 1995
volcano made the southern half of the island, including
the capital city of Plymouth, uninhabitable. People who
remained migrated to the north or to the U.S.
Places within a
region or country
In late 1800s and
Southeast Asia to
work in trade,
•About 700,000 Jews
migrated to then-
Palestine between 1900
•After 1948, when the
land was divided into
two states (Israel and
Palestinian Arabs fled or
were pushed out of
Jerusalem, Israel: Jewish settlements on the
Ernst Ravenstein’s “Laws of migrationErnst Ravenstein’s “Laws of migration
1885 he studied the migration of England1885 he studied the migration of England
• Most migrants go only a short distance.
• Big cities attract long distance migrants.
• Most migration is step-by-step.
• Most migration is rural to urban
• Each migration flow produces a counterflow.
• Most migrants are adults-families are less
likely to make international moves.
• Most international migrants are young males.
• Gravity model is an inverse relationship between
volume of migration and distance to the destination.
• Gravity model was anticipated by Ravenstein.
• The physical laws of gravity first studied by Newton
can be applied to the actions of humans in terms of
migration and economics
• Spatial interaction such as migration is directly related
to the populations and inversely related to the distance
• International refugees cross one or more borders and
are encamped in a country not their own.
• Intranational refugees abandon their homes, but not
their countries-this is the largest number world wide.
The Refugee ProblemThe Refugee Problem
• UN definition-person who
migrates out of fear of
being persecuted for
reasons of race, religion,
nationality, social status or
• Difficult to get an accurate
manipulate the numbers.
• Internal (intranational)
refugees a bigger issue than
A person who flees across an international boundary because
of a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race,
religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group,
or political opinion.
Characteristics of RefugeesCharacteristics of Refugees
• Move with only what they can carry or
• Most move first on foot, bicycle,
wagon or open boat-very low tech.
• Most have no official documentation
such as passports, identification or
other official papers.
An Example of Forced Migration-The Trail of Tears
From 12 to 30 million Africans were forced from
their homelands in the 18th
century. It took
generations to restore the population balance.
Regions of Dislocation-AfricaRegions of Dislocation-Africa
• Endemic African
• Weak and corrupt
• Lack of national cohesion.
• Lack of a democratic
• Historic ethnic conflicts
• Excessive number of
weapons left over from
the Cold War.
• Sub-Saharan Africa-over
8 million official
largest # in the world.
• Collapse of order in
• Civil Wars in Liberia and
• Sudan’s civil war
• Rwanda massacres and
The Sudan –Fighting in the Darfur region of the Sudan has
generated thousands of refugees. In eastern Chad, the
Iridimi refugee camp is home to almost 15,000 refugees
from the Darfur province, including the women in this
Regions of DislocationRegions of Dislocation
• South West &
• Kurds in Iraq, Turkey and
Syria displaced during
• Palestinians displaced by
several wars with Israel.
refugees during the long
Taliban regime and war.
• South and South
• Civil War in Sri Lanka-
Tamils versus Sinahlese
• Vietnam and Cambodia
after the Vietnam War
• Myanmar (Burma)
military rule has driven
many to exile.
Major Modern Migrations
• Europe to North America & South America
• Africa to the Americas (Slave Trade)
• UK to Australia, New Zealand
• India to East Africa, SE Asia
• China to SE Asia
• Eastern US to Western US
• Western Russia to Eastern Russia
Review World Regions for TestReview World Regions for Test
Trans-Siberian Railway increased migration to the east.
International Migration –
Movement across country borders (implying a degree of
Historic US MigrationHistoric US Migration
• Westward to the frontier.
• Black migration to
northern cities in WWI
and WWII period
• 1950s, 60s Cubans to
Florida from Castro’s
• In recent decades the
migration from the Rust
belt to the Sunbelt took
• Some blacks returned to
Waves of Immigration-US 1820-2001
Changing immigration laws, and changing push and pull
factors create waves of immigration.
National Migration Flows
• Also known as internal migration
- eg. US, Russia, Mexico
• Guest workers – migrants whom a country
allows in to fill a labor need, assuming the
workers will go “home” once the labor need
- have short term work visas
- send remittances to home country
- France-many from Algeria
- Germany-many from Turkey, Eastern