Development
Chapter 10
• Enormous gaps between
the rich and poor
countries of the world
• Some states are still
subsistence based while
others ha...
Measuring Development
Gross National Product (GNP) Measure of the total value of the
officially recorded goods and service...
Concepts & Approaches
• Gross National Product-all goods & services produced
by the economy per year both inside & outside...
Measures of Development
• National Product per person-the total
income divided by total populationCore (developed) about $...
Measures of Development
• Transportation & Communication per
person-railroad, road miles and airline
connections per perso...
Issues with Measuring
Economic Development
• All measurements count the:
– Formal Economy – the legal economy that
governm...
Core-Periphery Model
• Immanuel Wallerstein proposed the World Systems
Theory with promoted the Core-Periphery concept.
• ...
Core-Periphery Model
• New approach to developed or
underdeveloped idea
• Core-Periphery also used in a
political context
...
Global Economic Disparities
• Much of the disparity
existed as Colonialism was
established by European
nations.
• The Indu...
Conditions in the Periphery

• High birth rates, moderate death rates and low life
expectancy
• High infant mortality rate...
Conditions That Hamper Development
• Political instability and
corruption
• Exploitation of natural
resources and workers
...
Costs of Economic Development
• Industrialization
– Export Processing Zones (EPZs), maquiladoras,
and special economic zon...
Tourism: Boom or Bust
• Tourism contributes little to
a nation’s development &
may have serious negative
effects on the cu...
Tourism: Boom or Bust

• Profits are reinvested in
airports, cruise ship ports &
other infrastructure to serve
tourists
• ...
Levels of Industrialization
• Some countries like the
Soviet Union industrialized
quickly with central
planning-Stalin’s F...
Models of Development
• There are two broad models of
economic development;

– Liberal Models based on
the assumption that...
Development Models
Modernization Model
Walt Rostow’s model assumes all countries follow a
similar path to development or m...
Models of Development
Walt Rostow created this liberal model of development in
the 1960s
1. First Stage-Traditional
1. Sub...
Models of Development
3. Third Stage-Take Off
1. Experiences industrial growth
2. Urbanization
3. Industrialization, techn...
Rostow’s Ladder of Development
Models of Development
• Structuralist Model this is
the alternate to the Liberal
Model that states
disparities are inevita...
Models of Development
• Dependency Theory is
another Structuralist Model
• Political & economic
relationships between
nati...
Dependency Theory
The political and economic relationships between
countries and regions of the world control and limit
th...
Dependency Ratio by Country, 2005
A measure of the number of people under the age of 15 and
over the age of 65 that depend...
A Changing World
• Until 1980s there were 3
Blocs
– First World-The Capitalist
West-the most advanced
nations-democratic &...
Three Tier Structure
Core

Periphery

Processes that incorporate higher
levels of education, higher
salaries, and more tec...
Differences in
Communications
Connectivity
Around the World
Dollarization –
Abandoning the local currency of a country and
adopting the dollar as the local currency.

El Salvador wen...
Commodity Chain
Series of links
connecting the
many places of
production and
distribution and
resulting in a
commodity tha...
Barriers to Economic Development
• Low Levels of Social Welfare
– Trafficking-bullied into poor working conditions
– High ...
Foreign Debt Obligations
Total interest payments compared to the export of
goods and services.
Foreign Debt Obligations

Foreign Debt and Economic Collapse
in Buenos Aires, Argentina, 2001
Widespread Disease
• Malaria kills 150,000 children in the global
periphery each month.
Tamolo, India
This baby sleeps
und...
Global Distribution of
Malaria Transmission Risk
Areas Threatened by Desertification
How Government Policies
Affect Development
• Governments
–
–
–
–
–
–
–

get involved in world markets
price commodities
af...
Export Processing Zones
Governments &
Corporations
can create
Islands of
Development
Places within a
region or
country where
foreign
investment,
j...
Africa Map
• Be able to locate major countries: such
as-South Africa, Nigeria, Sudan,
Kenya, Ethiopia, Rwanda, Somalia and...
Government-created Island of
Development
Malaysian government built a new, ultramodern capital at
Putrjaya to symbolize th...
Corporate-created Island of Development
The global oil industry has created the entire city of Port
Gentile, Gabon to extr...
Nongovernmental
Organizations (NGOs)
entities that operate independent of state and local
governments, typically, NGOs are...
The End
Neb  development
Neb  development
Neb  development
Neb  development
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Neb development

473

Published on

Published in: Technology, Economy & Finance
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
473
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
16
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Top photo-boatmen in China on the Hwang He pull a barge in bare feet
    Bottom photo a Chinese textile plant
    In 2000 the GNP of Japan was $32,350
    US $29,240
    European Union$26,348
    India $ 440
    Nigeria $ 300
    Indonesia $ 640
  • Underdeveloped had a negative connotation-thus was changed to the more politically correct developing nation-which incorrectly implies that all nations have the potential to develop.
  • Washing dishes on the banks of the Niger River
    Rwanda refugees in 1994
  • Many countries have per capita GNI of less than $1,000 per year –key to survival in these countries is the informal economy the illegal or uncounted economy.
    Garden plots in backyard, to black market and even illegal drug sales
  • Do Core-Periphery Activity?
  • North-South Gap-most countries in the Core are above 30 degrees latitude
    Viewed from a Polar Projection-more countries are clustered in an inner core, while less developed countries are relegated to a periphery or outer ring.
    20% of the World’s population controls 85% of the wealth
    Poorest 20% lives in the Southern Hemisphere
  • World Bank-a Wash. DC based agency that promotes global economic development divided the world into 4 categories:
    High Income-US, Canada, Western Europe, Japan, Australia, South Korea, New Zealand, Israel and some oil rich nations like Kuwait & UAE.
    Upper Middle Income-Mexico, Brazil, Chile, Argentina, Poland, Czech Rep., Slovakia, Hungary & Saudi Arabia
    Lower Middle Income-rest of S. America, Russia, most of Soviet Republics, Algeria, Morocco and South Africa.
    Low Income-India, China, Pakistan, Afghanistan and most of Africa
  • The World Bank projects that China will have the largest economy by the year 2020 ahead of the US & Japan.
    India and Indonesia will be next
    Then Germany, South Korea, France, Taiwan, Brazil, Italy, Russia, the United Kingdom and Mexico
    Thus-7 of the top 14 economies will be those that are currently considered less developed.
  • Italian troops guarding Boxers in China 1900
    Cecil Rhodes astride Africa in an 1892 newspaper cartoon-he hoped to extend British influence from Cairo, Egypt of the Cape of Good Hope
  • Rubber plantation worker in Indonesia attaches a small cup to catch the latex. This plantation was established by the Dutch using an nonnative (American) commercial crop for a distant market using Chinese labor supervised by Dutch managers. Present day ownership, management, and labor has changed, but the nature and market orientation remains
    Nigerian Oil Boom-oil 95% of exports 80% revenue-1960s palm oil and cacao were major exports-today oil-rich Nigeria imports food & fuel annual income only $1,400 below Senegal which exports fish & nuts
    Fragile State of armed conflict-epidemic disease & failed governments-corruption, sabotage, murder-n 2003 70% of oil profits stolen or wasted.
  • Industrialization-Export Processing Zones are areas where favorable taxes, lack of regulations invite foreign firms
    Maquiladoras and Special Economic Zones of China are types of Export Processing Zones-
    Maquiladoras started in 1965, but really took off after the 1980s and especially after 1994 NAFTA agreement
    Today 2,000 plants employ about 600,000 workers or 20% of Mexico’s labor force.-produce electronics, electrical appliances, textiles, plastics and furniture
    Agriculture-is subsistence in most periphery countries for personal consumption or large scale agricultural conglomerates-producing export crops that locals can’t afford-poor internal distribution systems, outdated equipment, small plots of poor land
  • Sioux from South Dakota prepares for a powwow dance
    Tourism-Papua New Guinea-a small charter bus delivers tourists to a small thatched hut at the base of Mount Wilhelm to prepare for a climb.
  • Favelas of Rio with Ipanema Beach in Back ground with towering luxury hotels
  • Sugar being loaded in Cebu, Philippines
    Coffee Plantation
  • China, Cuba and North Korea remain socialist-but China is especially shifting to a market economy
    Western Europe, especially in Scandinavia-mixed economies with much socialism or state ownership of
  • Over 2 million Salvadorians live in the US and send over $2 billion in remittances to El Salvador annually
    Over 2/3 of El Salvador’s exports go to the US
    International Monetary Fund counts 13 countries that have adopted the dollar as domestic currency.
    Ecuador is the largest.
    The U.S.Federal Reserve estimates that $350 billion dollars—roughly half of all circulating dollar notes—are held abroad.
  • New Commodities in the last few years: Blackberries, I-Pods, Bottled Water, etc.
    Have students to ask their parents about what new products exist now that did not exist when they were in high school.
  • Low Levels of Social Welfare
    Lack of education, High illiteracy
    Trafficking is not slavery, but conditions are grim, most are children and are girls-street vendors, domestic servants or prostitution
    Political Instability
    Military coups common in the periphery where democracy was difficult to establish-definite link between economic stability and political stability
    Foreign Debt
    Some of the money was squandered on wasteful projects, corruption, etc. Structured loans-require economic reforms and ear mark money for certain projects-also must open country to foreign investment.
  • Neb development

    1. 1. Development Chapter 10
    2. 2. • Enormous gaps between the rich and poor countries of the world • Some states are still subsistence based while others have moved beyond manufacturing to tertiary economies. • Even within the wealthy or First World nations there are often areas of economic disparity within regions Global Economics
    3. 3. Measuring Development Gross National Product (GNP) Measure of the total value of the officially recorded goods and services produced by the citizens and corporations of a country in a given year. Includes things produced inside and outside a country’s territory. Gross Domestic Product (GDP) Measure of the total value of the officially recorded goods and services produced by the citizens and corporations of a country in a given year. Gross National Income (GNI) Measure of the monetary worth of what is produced within a country plus income received from investments outside the country. ** Most common measurement used today.
    4. 4. Concepts & Approaches • Gross National Product-all goods & services produced by the economy per year both inside & outside the nation • Gross Domestic Product-all goods & services produced by the economy per year with in the nation • GNP or GDP does not reflect regional variations-it also doesn’t count the informal economy-black market, illegal drug trade & underground economy • Developed Countries-(DCs) have high levels of industrialization, urbanization & standard of living • Underdeveloped (UDCs) or Developing Countries are moving toward developed status-not as highly industrialized or urbanized with a lower standard of living
    5. 5. Measures of Development • National Product per person-the total income divided by total populationCore (developed) about $25,000 while Periphery (developing) as low as $100. • Occupational Structure of the Labor Force-% of workers in each sectionhigh number in agriculture signals low development • Consumption of Energy per Personthe greater the use of electricity-the higher the development • Productivity per Worker-production of all goods divided by the total labor force
    6. 6. Measures of Development • Transportation & Communication per person-railroad, road miles and airline connections per person as well as telephone, radio, television or computers per person. • Consumption of Manufactured Metal per Person-the greater the amount of steel, iron, copper, aluminum etc. used per person • Other Rates– – – – Literacy Caloric intake % of income spent on food Amount of savings per person
    7. 7. Issues with Measuring Economic Development • All measurements count the: – Formal Economy – the legal economy that governments tax and monitor. • All measurements do not count the: – Informal Economy – the illegal or uncounted economy that governments do not tax or keep track of.
    8. 8. Core-Periphery Model • Immanuel Wallerstein proposed the World Systems Theory with promoted the Core-Periphery concept. • Unlike the term-developed and developing, the CorePeriphery Model does not imply that change will occur. • Core-Periphery regionalism got its start during the period of colonialism was re-enforced by the Industrial Rev. and continues in the age of globalization.
    9. 9. Core-Periphery Model • New approach to developed or underdeveloped idea • Core-Periphery also used in a political context • Core-the nations with a high level of prosperity with dominant economies globally • Periphery-poor nations that are dependent on the core as markets for raw materials and sources of technology • Semi-Periphery-better off than periphery, but still dominated by the core to some degree
    10. 10. Global Economic Disparities • Much of the disparity existed as Colonialism was established by European nations. • The Industrial Revolution increased the need for raw materials and markets for finished goods. • Neo-colonialism refers to the economic dominance of the core over the former colonial nations-economic rather than political control
    11. 11. Conditions in the Periphery • High birth rates, moderate death rates and low life expectancy • High infant mortality rates-large population under age 15 yrs. • Poor health care & shortage of doctors-disease is common • Poor sanitation and lack of fresh, clean water • Poor nutrition and protein deficiency • Low per capita income with many women & children doing hard manual labor • High illiteracy rate with low levels of education • Great disparity between rich & poor, small middle class • Urban areas overcrowded, lack of services, rapid urban migration • Subsistence farming on small landholdings
    12. 12. Conditions That Hamper Development • Political instability and corruption • Exploitation of natural resources and workers regardless of consequences • Dependence of agricultural products or primary products such as mineral resources • Misuse of foreign assistance • Misguided priorities • Cultural resistance to modernization
    13. 13. Costs of Economic Development • Industrialization – Export Processing Zones (EPZs), maquiladoras, and special economic zones (SEZs). • Agriculture – Subsistence and agricultural conglomerates – Desertification-especially in Africa – Soil erosion • Tourism-may have serious negative consequences – Use of scarce commodities – Foreign investors make the profit
    14. 14. Tourism: Boom or Bust • Tourism contributes little to a nation’s development & may have serious negative effects on the culture • Hotels & other facilities are often owned by transnational corporations which take the profits out of the country • Tourism jobs can be demeaning & dehumanizing or even insulting • Tourism jobs pay minimal wages for menial tasks
    15. 15. Tourism: Boom or Bust • Profits are reinvested in airports, cruise ship ports & other infrastructure to serve tourists • Tourists use up valuable resources such as food & fresh water • Tourism can debase or change a local culture • An invasion by wealthy foreigners can breed hostility and resentment • Harsh contrast between gleaming modern tourist hotels and poor workers housing
    16. 16. Levels of Industrialization • Some countries like the Soviet Union industrialized quickly with central planning-Stalin’s Five Year Plans • All decisions were made in Moscow-no local control • Focus on heavy industrysteel, electrical, chemical, military hardware • Little emphasis on consumer goods • Little concern for worker safety or environmental problems
    17. 17. Models of Development • There are two broad models of economic development; – Liberal Models based on the assumption that all countries pass through the same stages of economic development and disparity is the result of short term inefficiencies – The Liberal Model assumes that all nations are capable of the same level of economic
    18. 18. Development Models Modernization Model Walt Rostow’s model assumes all countries follow a similar path to development or modernization, advancing through five stages of development, climbing a ladder of development. - traditional - preconditions of takeoff - takeoff - drive to maturity - high mass consumption
    19. 19. Models of Development Walt Rostow created this liberal model of development in the 1960s 1. First Stage-Traditional 1. Subsistence farms-limited technology 2. Rigid social structure 3. Resistance to change-transition triggered by external influence 2. Second Stage-Preconditions for Take-Off 1. Progressive Leadership-commercial exploitation of agriculture & extractive industries 2. Greater flexibility-installation of infrastructure-roads, railways, etc. 3. Greater openness to new technology 4. Greater Diversity of products produced
    20. 20. Models of Development 3. Third Stage-Take Off 1. Experiences industrial growth 2. Urbanization 3. Industrialization, technology & mass production 3. Drive to Maturity 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Diffusion of technology Industrial specialization International trade Modernization at the core Population growth is reduced 3. Fifth Stage-Final Stage 1. Mass consumption-widespread production of goods & services 2. High incomes 3. Majority of workforce in service sector
    21. 21. Rostow’s Ladder of Development
    22. 22. Models of Development • Structuralist Model this is the alternate to the Liberal Model that states disparities are inevitable due to structural features of the global economy. • These disparities can not be easily changed-it is misleading to assume that all areas will go through the same economic process of development
    23. 23. Models of Development • Dependency Theory is another Structuralist Model • Political & economic relationships between nations & regions limit the development of the less well off areas • Colonial dependencies are still in place from long ago. • Dependency theory sees little hope for economic prosperity in some traditional parts of the world
    24. 24. Dependency Theory The political and economic relationships between countries and regions of the world control and limit the economic development possibilities of poorer areas. -- Economic structures make poorer countries dependent on wealthier countries. -- Little hope for economic prosperity in poorer countries.
    25. 25. Dependency Ratio by Country, 2005 A measure of the number of people under the age of 15 and over the age of 65 that depends on each working-age adult.
    26. 26. A Changing World • Until 1980s there were 3 Blocs – First World-The Capitalist West-the most advanced nations-democratic & capitalist – Second World-The Communist East of the Soviet Union & its Eastern European Satellites, Red China, N. Korea & Vietnam – Third World-non aligned nations with mixed economies and state controlnow an obsolete term
    27. 27. Three Tier Structure Core Periphery Processes that incorporate higher levels of education, higher salaries, and more technology * Generate more wealth in the world economy Processes that incorporate lower levels of education, lower salaries, and less technology * Generate less wealth in the world economy Semi-periphery Places where core and periphery processes are both occurring. Places that are exploited by the core but then exploit the periphery. * Serves as a buffer between core and periphery
    28. 28. Differences in Communications Connectivity Around the World
    29. 29. Dollarization – Abandoning the local currency of a country and adopting the dollar as the local currency. El Salvador went through dollarization in 2001
    30. 30. Commodity Chain Series of links connecting the many places of production and distribution and resulting in a commodity that is then exchanged on the world market. Dolomite stone from Jerusalem covers a fireplace in Beacon Hill, Boston, Massachusetts.
    31. 31. Barriers to Economic Development • Low Levels of Social Welfare – Trafficking-bullied into poor working conditions – High birth rates, Low life expectancy, large number of dependents – Lack of proper health care – Poor water supply & sanitation – Widespread Disease vectored diseases-spread by a host – Malaria-kills 150,000 children each month • Political Instability-military dictatorships, corruption, revolution • Foreign Debt – World Bank or International Monetary Fund – Structural adjustment loans-economic reform required
    32. 32. Foreign Debt Obligations Total interest payments compared to the export of goods and services.
    33. 33. Foreign Debt Obligations Foreign Debt and Economic Collapse in Buenos Aires, Argentina, 2001
    34. 34. Widespread Disease • Malaria kills 150,000 children in the global periphery each month. Tamolo, India This baby sleeps under a mosquito net distributed to villagers by UNICEF workers.
    35. 35. Global Distribution of Malaria Transmission Risk
    36. 36. Areas Threatened by Desertification
    37. 37. How Government Policies Affect Development • Governments – – – – – – – get involved in world markets price commodities affect whether core processes produce wealth shape laws to affect production enter international organizations that affect trade focus foreign investment in certain places support large-scale projects
    38. 38. Export Processing Zones
    39. 39. Governments & Corporations can create Islands of Development Places within a region or country where foreign investment, jobs, and infrastructure are concentrated.
    40. 40. Africa Map • Be able to locate major countries: such as-South Africa, Nigeria, Sudan, Kenya, Ethiopia, Rwanda, Somalia and so forth
    41. 41. Government-created Island of Development Malaysian government built a new, ultramodern capital at Putrjaya to symbolize the country’s rapid economic growth.
    42. 42. Corporate-created Island of Development The global oil industry has created the entire city of Port Gentile, Gabon to extract Gabon’s oil resources.
    43. 43. Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs) entities that operate independent of state and local governments, typically, NGOs are non-profit organizations. Each NGO has its own focus/set of goals. Microcredit program: loans given to poor people, particularly women, to encourage development of small businesses.
    44. 44. The End
    1. A particular slide catching your eye?

      Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

    ×