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Neb agriculture

Neb agriculture






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  • Logs of Teak near Mandalay, Myanmar <br /> Lumber Mill <br />
  • Aquaculture in Thailand <br />
  • Chinese industrial air conditioner factory <br />
  • Soybeans in the semi-arid ranchlands of western South Dakota <br />
  • The # of farmers is the lowest since the mid-19th century when the total population was only 20 million. <br />
  • Jakun (tribe an aboriginal tribe) blow pipe hunter at Tasek Chini in Malaysia on the mainland peninsula <br />
  • Top Left-Bushmen of the Kalahari gather berries <br /> Bottom Right-a Bushman aims his poisoned tipped, bone arrow at an animal in the dry grass plains of the Kalahari Desert. Also called the San-the live in small, scattered mobile bands. Most common prey are antelopes, wildebeest and other smaller game. <br />
  • Cooking made food more digestible and was used to drive animals over cliffs or into traps <br /> Thule artifacts from east side of Ellesmere Island northwest of Greenland, 2 small female ivory fetishes as well as stone, bone and antler tools, spear points, harpoon heads, etc. <br /> Spear thrower delivered 7 x more power than the traditional method of throwing a spear. <br />
  • Wood & bone or antler was often used for fish hooks or harpoon points. Seals and fish were hunted using these in pre-historic Scandinavia <br /> Pacific Coast and Arctic shores <br /> Ainu of Northern Japan <br /> And Western Europe-wicker baskets and stone traps used to catch salmon and other fish <br /> These fishing settlements had a degree of permanence due to the plentiful food supply <br />
  • Right-wheat-one of the 1st seed crops to be domesticated. <br />
  • With sedentary communities wild animals kept as pets or ceremonial sacrifices-some wild animals hung around as scavengers of food and gradually were kept as protection against other predators or to aid in the hunt. Even today-in African Wildlife Preserves-wild animals hang around camps at night and scatter by day. <br />
  • Top-Zebu Cattle in India <br /> Horse drawing a hay rake <br />
  • Eland, a land mammal that is being bred in captivity at an experimental station in near Nairobi, Kenya <br />
  • About 8,000 BC man began to select, breed and domesticate and cultivate various species of plants and animals <br /> It was a slow, gradual process that occurred at different times in various places-due to climate or soil limitations it did not spread all over the world. <br /> World Population increased X16 between 8,000 BC and 4,000 BC due to increased and reliable food supply. <br />
  • Iranian farmer harrowing a field with mules <br />
  • Crete-a peasant plows a field with a donkey <br />
  • Various kinds of maize <br /> Oxen pull a plow in Portugal <br />
  • Definitions of subsistence vary-Indian and China are not shaded because farmers sell some produce in markets. <br /> In equatorial Africa and South America, subsistence allows little of this <br />
  • Shifting Cultivation is usually practiced in tropical areas with poor soils-soil fertility is maintained by rotating fields-note burned stumps with corn and beans interplanted. (land cleared is called Swidden) <br /> Requires less intense farming or work-but supports a lower population density than traditional farming. <br /> To outsiders Slash and Burn appears to be destructive, wasteful and disorganized- <br /> there are no neat rows of monocrops-no carefully plowed soil- <br /> Instead there are a variety of crops grown next to each other in what appears to be a jumble. <br />
  • Not only are crops interplanted, but they are planted at different times, assuring harvest over a long period of time. The variety of crops ensures that there won’t be a catastrophic loss to disease, pest or drought. <br />
  • In some areas the forced changes caused famines <br />
  • Herding sheep in the Middle East <br /> Cattle crossing the Niger River <br />
  • Haiti, a woman carries bananas to Market <br /> Iranian Farmers winnowing wheat <br />
  • Gambia-women traditionally grew the rice, but donations for the irrigation projects were directed at the men-the women lost. <br />
  • Cadastral System-the method of land survey <br /> In Southern Europe, Asia, Africa and South America-land is divided up among sons with much fragmentation of farmland <br />
  • Namibia village of the Himba people, a semi-nomadic people who live in kraals of about 50 people. <br /> Masai-bleed their cattle for food. <br />
  • Left-Sun-dried brick homes with thatch roof in a round African village of Mahebli south of Odienne in the Ivory Coast-The Chief’s house always held the place of prominence near the entrance of the kraal. <br /> Right-Villagers flat roof houses cling to rocky terraces for protection. The straw-hatted granaries are built on stilts to keep the grain dry-Dogon villages seem haphazard, but conformed to a mythical human pattern with the Blacksmith’s hearth at the head, shrines at the feet and family dwellings at the chest. <br />
  • Prosperous American farms typically have 2 story farm house, a stable, a barn, and various outbuildings including a garage for vehicles and farm machinery, a shed for tools and silos for grain storage. <br />
  • NAFTA-since it started in 1994 US corn imports into Mexico have tripled and Mexican corn production has gone down. Total population is increasing, thus many small villages are losing population to the maquiladora towns or they are migrating into the US <br />
  • Koppen was the first to devise a scheme for classifying the world’s climates on the basis of average temperature and precipitation. <br /> It is important to have a sense of where the major world climate types are located. For all but B climates, the basis is the amount of precip.and when it falls-B is both temp. & precip. <br /> A climates are hot or very warn and humid. <br /> The Af regions are equatorial rainforests. <br /> The Am climate is known as the Monsoon climate-farmers here are depend on monsoon rains to grow crops. <br /> Aw are hot dry grassland or savanna <br /> The yellow and light brown colors mean dry climates-BW are deserts and BS are steppes. (few live in A or B climates <br /> The Koppen map explains why the world faces a long-term world wide water crisis. <br />
  • Less than 1/5th of the cost of a food dollar goes to farmers <br /> 81% of the food dollar goes to corporations that transport, process and market the food. <br />
  • Flowers (a luxury crop) are grown for fresh flowers and bulbs and sold all over the world. <br /> Modern transportation systems-refrigerated containers and air freight make it possible to ship fresh flowers from Holland, Israel, Chile or Hawaii to the US or any where else in the world <br /> Holland controls 92% of the world flower market <br />
  • Multinational Corporations protect their interests-1940-50s Guatemala began agricultural reform to distribute land which threatened the monopoly of the United Fruit Company. The company used its close ties in the US Govt. Sect. Of State John F. Dulles and his brother CIA director Allen Dulles supported a coup that overthrew the govt. and est. a military dictatorship with close ties to the US. <br />
  • Indonesian rubber plantation <br />
  • Farming in Jakarta, Indonesia <br />
  • African Cotton bales <br />
  • Some people fear the impact of genetically modified foods on the natural habitat and the people who consumed them. Some European countries have banned their use. <br />
  • Vietnamese Coffee picker at bottom <br />
  • Farmland in danger of being suburbanized as cities expand into neighboring farmlands. <br /> Farmland in danger of being suburbanized as cities expand into neighboring farmlands. <br />
  • Live stock ranching is done on semiarid or arid land-it is practiced in MDCs where the vegetation is too sparse or soil too poor to support crops <br /> US cattle ranching expanded in the west with the demand for beef by the growing cities of the east-Chicago became a major meat packing city <br /> Ranching is only found in Spain & Portugal in Europe <br /> Brazilian, Uruguan and Argentine Pampas due to proximity to sea coast ports <br /> Australia, New Zealand, Middle East and South Africa herd sheep for wool & meat <br />
  • Argentina-beef cattle-herefords <br />
  • Wheat field in Nebraska <br /> Grain elevators in the midwest <br />
  • Wadi Rum-pivot irrigation in the southern Negev desert-Irrigation accounts for 2/3 of the world’s fresh water consumption <br />
  • Corn Harvest-Iowa- 1 million bushes. <br />
  • US Farmers have the latest technology and machinery <br /> Combine on Mr. David Peters farm 2005, 2006 field trips. <br /> Note the attachment for harvesting wheat <br />
  • Corn harvest in Nebraska <br /> Wheat farm in Montana <br />
  • Corn picker <br /> Corn planter <br /> Corn Planter at Randy Senesac’s farm in Manteno, Illinois <br />
  • Regional differences-most milk in the East is sold to consumers in New York, Boston etc. <br /> Most milk in the west is processed into cheese and butter unless near a large city. <br /> Wisconsin’s dairy production in processed into cheese <br /> New Zealand devotes only 5% of dairy production to liquid milk due to a lack of consumers-it is too far from large population countries to sell fresh milk <br />
  • Dairy farm-Mr. Supernent’s farm top 2 photos <br /> Bottom dairy cattle on a Dutch polder. <br />
  • Top transplanting rice in Indonesia <br /> Bottom transplanting rice in Japan <br />
  • Rice fields in terraces on island of Bali in Indonesia <br /> Stooks of Rice stacked to dry in Japan <br />

Neb agriculture Neb agriculture Presentation Transcript