Migration• Migration A change in residence that is intended to be permanent.• Emigration-leaving a country.• Immigration-entering a country. Little Haiti, Miami, Florida
• On average, Americans move once every 6 years.• US population is the most mobile in the world with over 5 million moving from 1 state to another every year.• 35 million move within a state, county or community each year.• Migration a key factor in the speed of diffusion of ideas and innovation.• Our perception of distance and direction are often distorted-thus a sizable % of migrants return to their original home due to these distorted perceptions.
Types of Migration• Forced Migration-migrants have no choice-must leave.• periodic movement-short term (weeks or months) seasonal migration to college, winter in the south, etc.• Cyclic movement-daily movement to work, shopping.• Transhumance-seasonal pastoral farming-Switzerland, Horn of Africa.• Nomadism-cyclical, yet Commuter train in Soweto, irregular migration that follows South Africa the growth of vegetation.
Key Factors in Migration• External Migration-from one country to another (emigration & immigration)• Internal Migration-from one part of a country to another part• Direction: – Absolute-compass directions – Relative-Sun Belt, Middle East, Far East, Near East• Distance: – Absolute distance “as the crow flies” – Relative distance-actual distance due to routes taken such as highways or railroads
Catalysts of Migration• Economic conditions-poverty and a desire for opportunity.• Political conditions- persecution, expulsion, or war.• Environmental conditions- crop failures, floods, drought, environmentally induced famine.• Culture and tradition- threatened by change.• Technology-easier and cheaper transport or change in livability.
• Chain migration-migration of people to a specific location because of relatives or members of the same nationality already there.• Step migration-short moves in stages-e.g. Brazilian family moves from village to town and then finally Sao Paulo or Rio de Janeiro• Refugees-those who have been forced to migrate.• Push-Pull Factors-push factors induce people to leave. Pull factors encourage people to move to an area.• Distance decay-contact diminishes with increasing distance. (both diffusion and migration)• Intervening opportunity-alternative destinations that can be reached more quickly and easily.
Internal Migration -Movement within a single country’s borders (implying a degree of permanence).
Voluntary Migration – Migrants weigh push and pullfactors to decide first, to emigrate from the home country and second, where to go. Distance Decay weighs into the decision to migrate, leading many migrants to move less far than they originally contemplate.
Economic Conditions – Migrants will often risktheir lives in hopes of economic opportunities that willenable them to send money home (remittances) totheir family members who remain behind.
In Altar, Sonora, migrants called pollos (chickens), stock upOn supplies for the desert crossing.
Most illegal immigrants are Mexicans, but a growing numberAre from Central and South America, like the men waitingOutside of “Bar Honduras” in Nuevo Laredo.
• A massive dump site in Arizona’s Upper Altar Valley. After walking 40 miles through the desert, illegal immigrants are met here by coyotes. They are told to dump their old clothes & packs and put on more “American” looking clothes the coyotes have brought. They then begin the trip to an urban stash house.
Environmental Conditions –In Montserrat, a 1995volcano made the southern half of the island, includingthe capital city of Plymouth, uninhabitable. People whoremained migrated to the north or to the U.S.
EconomicOpportunitiesIslands ofDevelopment –Places within aregion or countrywhere foreigninvestment, jobs,and infrastructureare concentrated.
EconomicOpportunitiesIn late 1800s andearly 1900s,Chinese migratedthroughoutSoutheast Asia towork in trade,commerce, andfinance.
ReconnectingCultural Groups•About 700,000 Jewsmigrated to then-Palestine between 1900and 1948.•After 1948, when theland was divided intotwo states (Israel andPalestine), 600,000Palestinian Arabs fled orwere pushed out ofnewly-designated Israeliterritories.
Jerusalem, Israel: Jewish settlements on the West Bank.
Ernst Ravenstein’s “Laws of migration 1885 he studied the migration of England • Most migrants go only a short distance. • Big cities attract long distance migrants. • Most migration is step-by-step. • Most migration is rural to urban • Each migration flow produces a counterflow. • Most migrants are adults-families are less likely to make international moves. • Most international migrants are young males.
• Gravity model is an inverse relationship between volume of migration and distance to the destination.• Gravity model was anticipated by Ravenstein.• The physical laws of gravity first studied by Newton can be applied to the actions of humans in terms of migration and economics• Spatial interaction such as migration is directly related to the populations and inversely related to the distance between them.• International refugees cross one or more borders and are encamped in a country not their own.• Intranational refugees abandon their homes, but not their countries-this is the largest number world wide.
The Refugee Problem• UN definition-person who migrates out of fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, social status or political opinion.• Difficult to get an accurate count-governments manipulate the numbers.• Internal (intranational) refugees a bigger issue than external (international).
RefugeesA person who flees across an international boundary becauseof a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race,religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group,or political opinion.
Characteristics of Refugees• Move with only what they can carry or easily transport.• Most move first on foot, bicycle, wagon or open boat-very low tech. transport.• Most have no official documentation such as passports, identification or other official papers.
An Example of Forced Migration-The Trail of Tears
From 12 to 30 million Africans were forced from their homelands in the 18th century. It took generations to restore the population balance.
Regions of Dislocation-Africa• Endemic African • Sub-Saharan Africa-over Problems: 8 million official• Weak and corrupt international refugees-the governments. largest # in the world.• Lack of national cohesion. • Collapse of order in Somalia• Lack of a democratic tradition • Civil Wars in Liberia and Sierra Leone• Historic ethnic conflicts • Sudan’s civil war• Excessive number of weapons left over from • Rwanda massacres and the Cold War. economic disaster.
The Sudan –Fighting in the Darfur region of the Sudan hasgenerated thousands of refugees. In eastern Chad, theIridimi refugee camp is home to almost 15,000 refugeesfrom the Darfur province, including the women in thisphoto.
Regions of Dislocation• South West & • South and South Central Asia: East Asia:• Kurds in Iraq, Turkey and • Civil War in Sri Lanka- Syria displaced during Tamils versus Sinahlese Gulf Wars. • Vietnam and Cambodia• Palestinians displaced by after the Vietnam War several wars with Israel. • Myanmar (Burma)• Afghanistan-many military rule has driven refugees during the long many to exile. Soviet occupation, Taliban regime and war.
Major Modern Migrations• Europe to North America & South America • Africa to the Americas (Slave Trade) • UK to Australia, New Zealand • India to East Africa, SE Asia • China to SE Asia • Eastern US to Western US • Western Russia to Eastern Russia
Trans-Siberian Railway increased migration to the east.
International Migration –Movement across country borders (implying a degree of permanence).
Historic US Migration• Westward to the frontier.• Black migration to northern cities in WWI and WWII period• 1950s, 60s Cubans to Florida from Castro’s Cuba• In recent decades the migration from the Rust belt to the Sunbelt took place.• Some blacks returned to the South
Waves of Immigration-US 1820-2001Changing immigration laws, and changing push and pull factors create waves of immigration.
National Migration Flows• Also known as internal migration - eg. US, Russia, Mexico
Guest Workers• Guest workers – migrants whom a country allows in to fill a labor need, assuming the workers will go “home” once the labor need subsides. - have short term work visas - send remittances to home country - France-many from Algeria - Germany-many from Turkey, Eastern Europe