Industry 1


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Industry 1

  1. 1. Industries and Services Chapter 12
  2. 2. Where did the Industrial Revolution begin, and how did it Diffuse?
  3. 3. 1730s to 1860s First Phase of the Industrial Revolution. Textiles, Iron Production, Steam Power 1860s to 1914 Second Phase of the Industrial Revolution Steel, Chemicals, Railroads, Gasoline Engine, and mass production. Post WWII Third Phase of the Industrial Revolution high technology-computerization, miniaturization and automation Industrial Revolution: dramatic innovations in manufacturing, mining, transportation and communication that results in rapid changes in society and commerce
  4. 4. Flow of Capital into Europe, 1775-Needed flow of capital in order to fuel the industrial revolution.
  5. 5. Textiles Production: Liverpool and Manchester Iron Production: Birmingham Coal Mining: Newcastle
  6. 6. Why England? • Geographic Advantages: – Island-not invaded – Resources-coal, iron ore, water power, rivers • Political Advantages: – Stable government- encouraged business • Cultural Advantages: – Entrepreneurs willing to take a risk & inventors. A monopoly of skilled workers
  7. 7. •Economic Advantages: –Banking system and available capital –The Agricultural Revolution and Enclosure Movement -supply of cheap and abundant labor. –A large merchant fleet was protected by an efficient navy. –Mercantilism-colonies provided sources of raw materials and markets.
  8. 8. James Watt’s improved steam made steam power A versatile form of energy for mining, iron production, transportation and even, the milling of flour and brewing of beer.
  9. 9. • Abraham Darby ‘s coking process, which baked the impurities from coal, gradually replaced scarce charcoal as the fuel for iron production. • Pictured at right are some of the original coking ovens in Northumberland, England.
  10. 10. The Iron Bridge, the world’s first bridge built of iron
  11. 11. Transportation-Railroads
  12. 12. The first Railroad in England opened in 1825 and by 1830 Manchester and Lancaster were connected by rail
  13. 13. Diffusion to Mainland Europe • Early 1800s innovations diffused to mainland Europe-Low Countries & Germany – Location criteria-proximity to coal fields – Connection to a water port • Latter Diffusion in late 1800s innovations – Location criteria-access to railroads strengthened Paris and London as manufacturing centers
  14. 14. Over 50% of goods entering Europe arrive at two ports in the Netherlands
  15. 15. Diffusion of the Industrial Revolution
  16. 16. Diffusion to Mainland Europe • A belt of coal fields stretch along southern edge of North European Plain-northern France, Netherlands, German Ruhr, western Bohemia & Silesia • Rotterdam, Netherlands- located on the Rhine-connects Ruhr Valley to the sea-most important port of Europe • Paris-luxury items-jewelry, perfume, fashions plus metallurgy and chemicals- LeHavre major port connects Paris with the sea
  17. 17. Diffusion of Industrial Revolution
  18. 18. The Paris Basin is the Industrial base of France. Rouen (above) is at the head of navigation point on the Seine River.