2. Shifting Cultivation The use of multiple plots of land, normally three or more, which are planted in rotation by the year as to promote soil functionality.
3. Agriculture The science, art, or occupation concerned with cultivating land, raising crops, and feeding, breeding, and raising livestock; farming The cultivation of animals, plants, fungi, and other life forms for food, fiber, and other products used to sustain life.
4. Intertillage In shifting cultivation, spreads out production over the farming season by planting different crops in the same field.
5. Slash-and-Burn(swidden) A method of agriculture used in the tropics, in which forest vegetation is felled and burned, the land is cropped for a few years, then the forest is allowed to reinvade. Swidden is the plot of land that has been slash-and-burned upon.
6. MILKSHED A region that produces milk for a specific community The area surrounding a city from which milk is supplied
7. Market Gardening Highly intensive (in capital terms) farming of flowers, fruit, and very perishable vegetables on a commercial basis. Located close to urban areas as an immediate market, but large enterprises may also distribute at a national and regional scale.
8. Livestock Ranching The breeding and raising of animals, these animals are usually used for meat purposes and raised in large herds.
9. Subsidy Assistance paid to a business or economic sector.
10. MediterraneanAgriculture Form of Agriculture along the side of the Mediterranean Sea. The sea winds provide moisture for the crops and moderate winter temperatures and takes place in hilly, mountainous regions. Ex: Olives and grapes
11. Luxury Crop Crops that are not essential to human survival and are sold at a high price. EX: Tobacco, Sugarcane, and cotton
12. Crop Rotation The system of varying successive crops in a definite order on the same ground especially to avoid depleting the soil and to control weed diseases and pests- dictionary.com
13. Commercial agriculture The production of crops where the main goal is to turn a profit. Usually intended for widespread distribution to wholesalers or retail outlets. –AP human geography website.
14. Carl Sauer American geographer who studied and focused on the relationship between humans and land
15. Domestication Adaptation on to intimate association with human life.
16. Fallow Unplowed and unseeded during a growing season
17. Double Cropping Harvesting twice a year from the same feild
18. Von Th űnen’s Model ofLand Use States how market prices and location affect the production decisions of individual farmers
19. Horticulture The growing of fruit, vegetables, or flowers
20. GMO (geneticallymodified organisms) Crops that carry new traits that have been inserted through advanced genetic engineering methods.
21. Green Revolution Rapid diffusion of new agricultural technology, especially new high-yield seeds and fetilizers.
22. Ranching A form of commercial agriculture in which livestock graze over an extensive area.
23. SubsistenceAgriculture - agriculture designed primarily to provide for direct consumption by the farmer’s family.
24. Neolithic Revolution Transferring from hunter and gathering to cultivating plants (agriculture).
25. Vertical IntegrationOwnership by the same firm of a number of companies that exist along a variety ofpoints on a commodity chain.
26. Truck farmby mac and tim Highly efficient large scale operations that take full advantage of machines at every stage of the growing process.
27. Ridge tillage System of planting crops on ridge tops in order to reduce farm production cost and promote greater soil conservation
28. Transhumance Transhumance is the seasonal movement of people with their livestock between fixed summer and winter pastures.
29. Pastoral Nomadism Pastoralism involves the breeding and herding of animals to satisfy the human needs for food, shelter, and clothing.
30. Thomas Malthus an English scholar, influential in political economy and demography. Malthus popularized the economic theory of rent. Malthus has become widely known for his theories about population and its increase or decrease in response to various factors
31. Rural Settlement Clustered rural settlement- a place where a number of families live in close proximity to each other with fields surrounding the collection of houses and farm buildings
32. Extensive SubsistenceAgriculture Agriculture designed primarily to provide food for direct consumption by the farmer and the farmer’s family.
33. Intensive SubsistenceFarming Primary subsistence pattern of large- scale, populous societies. It results in much more food being produced per acre compared to other subsistence patterns. A form of subsistence agriculture that involves effective and efficient use of labor on small plots of land to maximize crop yields
34. AQUACULTURE!!! FARMING OF AQUATIC ORGANISMS SUCH AS FISH, SHELLFISH, AND EVEN PLANTS. www.Maine.gov
35. Dairying Branch of agriculture that encompasses the breeding, raising, and utilization of dairy animals for the production of milk and the various dairy products processed from it
36. Agribusiness Commercial agriculture characterized by the integration of different steps in the food processing industry, usually through ownership by large corporations.
37. Feedlot A management system in which naturally grazing animals are confined to a small area which produces no feed and are fed on stored feeds.
38. Biotechnology The manipulation of living organisms to produce useful usually commercial products
39. Boserup hypothesis Agricultural methods that depend on the size of the population.
40. Commodity chain Process used by multinational corporations where firms gather resources, transform them into foods or commodities and, finally is distributed to the consumers
41. “ Tragedy of theCommons” If a resource is used by all, then, ultimately, that resource will be destroyed.
42. Plantation a usually large farm or estate, especially in a tropical or semitropical country, on which cotton, tobacco, coffee, sugar cane, or the like is cultivated, usually by resident laborers.