WNR.sg - Changing Landscapes in Malaysia


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Changing Landscapes in Malaysia

By Dr Lai Chee Kien, Assistant
Professor from Department of Architecture, National University of Singapore

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WNR.sg - Changing Landscapes in Malaysia

  1. 1. Changing Landscapes in Malaysia Lai Chee Kien Department of Architecture, National University of Singapore 12 Sep 2010, When Nations Remember
  2. 2. Preah Vihear temple Cambodia’s heritage? Thailand’s heritage? JAKARTA — For Indonesians, it is a point scored in a long-running rivalry with their neighbor Malaysia: The United Nations has decided to recognize Indonesian batik as one of the world’s important cultural traditions. After a run of what Indonesian nationalists view as Malaysia’s poaching of its culture, the announcement last week that the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization would add batik to its Intangible Cultural Heritage list at a ceremony at the end of this month was especially welcome. To celebrate, President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono has asked all Indonesians to wear batik on Oct. 2. “It is so important that the world finally recognize and acknowledge batik as an Indonesian heritage,” said Obin, one of the country’s leading fashion designers. “It is a part of our soul.” But bragging rights to batik, the process of creating intricate patterns on textiles with wax-resistant dyes, is only one of a slew of issues — cultural, social and political — that have bedeviled relations between Malaysia and Indonesia of late. In June, things had reached the point where Malaysia’s defense minister felt it necessary to declare that, contrary to appearances, the two countries were not on the brink of war. Indonesia and Malaysia’s numerous commonalities have often sparked disputes. Their historically fluid borders gave rise to populations that share both the Islamic religion and very similar languages. The two countries fought a real war over territory on the island of Borneo in the 1960s, and several conflicts over small, but resource-rich, islands and coastal territories continue today. Score One for Indonesia in the War Over Batik New York Times, 14 Sep 2009
  3. 3. UN General Assembly Hall Signing of the UN Charter, 1945 Established October 1945
  4. 4. Woodrow Wilson Established Jan 1920
  5. 5. On the Path of the Revolution, 1933, by Zeki Faik Izer Liberty leading the People, 1830, by Eugene Delacroix England and France, the first “nations”
  6. 6. Galactic Polities Angkor Wat Borobudur
  7. 7. Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere, in 1941
  8. 8. Southeast Asia during the Japanese Occupation, 1942-45.
  9. 9. Penang Malacca Singapore Kuala Lumpur Ipoh White areas in Malaya, 1955-1959 “Amnesty” pamphlet
  10. 10. Indonesia 1945 Philippines 1946 India 1947 Pakistan 1947 Sri Lanka 1948 Burma 1948 Laos 1950 Cambodia 1950 Malaya 1957 Singapore 1965
  11. 11. PARTIAL MAP OF SOUTHEAST ASIA Mainland S.E. Asia Java Sumatra Borneo Penang Malacca Singapore Kuala Lumpur Ipoh
  12. 12. Date of joining United Nations Philippines 24 Oct 1945 Thailand 16 Dec 1946 Burma 19 Apr 1948 Indonesia 28 Sep 1950 Cambodia 14 Dec 1955 Laos 14 Dec 1955 Malaya 17 Sep 1957 Singapore 21 Sep 1965 Vietnam 20 Sep 1977 Brunei 18 Sep 1984Indonesia’s flag raised at United Nations, 1950
  13. 13. Capital City State Region and Affiliations World B O R D E R SPACE S Colonial ContemporaryNational TIME Nation Classical
  14. 14. END Thongchai Winichakul
  15. 15. A Chronology of Malaysia and Singapore Millenia Pre-colonial Southeast Asia July 25, 1511 Afonso de Alburquerque landed in and captured Malacca Aug 11, 1786 Francis Light landed in Penang Island January 26, 1819 Stamford T. Raffles landed in Singapore March 17, 1824 Anglo-Dutch Treaty: The Netherlands ceded Malacca to the British East India Company 1826 Straits Settlements established under British East India Company 1841 Brunei Sultanate ceded Sarawak to the White Rajahs 1846 Brunei Sultanate ceded Labuan to Britain, becoming a Crown Colony in 1848, then part of North Borneo on January 1, 1890. 1857 Swiss botanist Heinrich Zollinger first used the term “Malesia” as a biogeographical term to describe the Malay Archipelago. 1888 North Borneo (present-day Sabah) becomes a British Protectorate April 1, 1867 Straits Settlements formed with lands comprising Penang, Malacca, Singapore andLabuan (joined October 30, 1906) 1895 Federated Malay States established (Perak, Selangor, Pahang and Negri Sembilan) 1942-1945 World War II (Japanese Occupation) from 1945 Cold War in Asia Apr 1, 1946 Malayan Union formed, Singapore became Crown Colony and which included Labuan (which was then annexed to British North Borneo on July 15, 1946) Jan 31, 1948 Federation of Malaya established (Malay States + Penang and Malacca) 1948-1960 The Malayan Emergency Oct 8, 1949 University of Malaya inaugurated Aug 31, 1957 Independence for Malaya (Merdeka) Sep 17, 1957 Malaya joined United Nations June 3 1959 Singapore granted self-governance status Dec 12-15, 1959 Southeast Asian Peninsular Games (SEAP) 1961 Regional Affiliations: Association of South East Asia (ASA) formed between thePhilippines, Thailand and Malaya. Feb 1, 1962 University of Malaya becomes University of Malaya in KL and University of Singapore in Singapore Sep 16, 1963Formation of Malaysia from peninsular Malaya, Singapore, Sabah and Sarawak 1963-1966 Konfrontasi with Indonesia July 21, 1964 Communal riots in Singapore Aug 9, 1965 Singapore separated from Malaysia September 21, 1965 Singapore joined United Nations. 1965 New Straits Times formed, separately from The Straits Times (1845) 1966 Malaysia-Singapore Airlines formed, but separated in 1972 into Malaysia Airlines and Singapore Airlines (1946: Malayan Airways, 1963: Malaysia Airways) Aug 8, 1967 Association of Southeast Asian Nations formed (ASEAN) May 13, 1969 Communal riots in several Malaysian cities 1971-1990 New Economic Policy, succeeded by New Development Policy from 1991 May 8, 1973 Malaysian Ringgit no longer exchangeable with Singapore or Brunei dollar. Jan 1, 1982 Malaysia changes standard time to +8 hours GMT. Singapore announced change following Malaysian announcement in 1981. Dec 2, 1989 Peace Accord in Haatyai between Malaysian government and Malayan Communist Party
  16. 16. TIME 17th century 18th century 19th century 21st Liberty leading the People, 1830, by Eugene Delacroix England and France, the first “nations” W W I 1914-8 W W I I 1942-5 Indonesia 1945 Philippines 1946 India 1947 Pakistan 1947 Sri Lanka 1948 Burma 1948 Laos 1950 Cambodia 1950 Malaya 1957 Singapore 1965 Dates of Independence East India Company, British: 1600, Dutch: 1602 16th century Portuguese colonize Malacca, 1511 Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824 Global Financial Crisis 2007-8 On the Path of the Revolution, 1933, by Zeki Faik Izer League of Nations (1919), United Nations (1945) Formation of ASEAN, 1967 TURKEYFRANCE 20th century Cold War 1947-89 British colonize Penang Island, 1786 Jose Rizal executed 1896
  17. 17. MALESIA : a biogeographical term MALAYSIA : a geopolitical term SOUTHEAST ASIA
  18. 18. Alfred R. Wallace Heinrich Zollinger Malesia / Malaysia
  19. 19. Bajau boat people
  20. 20. Malayan/Malaysian Philippines Rizal often referred to himself and his countrymen as “the unfortunate Malays of the Philippines.” He explored and researched the origins of the Malay race and similarities between Sumatrans and Filipinos, right up to the time of his persecution. After his death, he was enthroned with appellations such as “the Great Malayan” or “Pride of the Malay Race,” while a post-war account of the advent of self-rule in the Philippines was declared the “First Malayan Republic.” In 1937, another Filipino nationalist Wenceslao Q. Vinzons dreamt of a “unified Malaysia extending from the northern extremity of the Malay Peninsula to the shores of the remotest islands of Polynesia” as the “original state of Malaysia before the home of [our] civilized ancestors was swallowed by the waves.” His famous essay “Malaysia Irredenta” expounded his vision of a united maritime nation. José Rizal Wenceslao Q. Vinzons
  21. 21. Besides Filipino groups, the use of the term “Malaysia” may also have taken to represent the concept of “Nanyang” (Southern Seas) for diasporic Chinese who arrived in the various cities of Southeast Asia in the early 19th century onwards. “Nanyang” described an imagined translocational network of relations determined by such Chinese settlement patterns, and their social and cultural links back to China. In Kuala Lumpur, for example, a society promoting scholarly Chinese culture and art forms was established in 1929, called “United Artists Malaysia,” but the term “Malaysia” referred to the diaspora on the nodal network rather than that imagined by Malaysian nationalists or the European scientists, all three a consequence of different forms of imagination.” United Artists Malaysia, 1929
  22. 22. Association of Southeast Asia (ASA) 1961 Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) 1967
  23. 23. Parliament House Masjid Negara Subang Int’l Airport National MonumentMuzium Negara Merdeka ParkStadium Merdeka University of Malaya Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka Stadium Negara
  24. 24. Putrajaya Masterplan, 1998
  25. 25. National Library at Stamford Road
  26. 26. Exhibition of works by Ng Eng Teng Internal Courtyard, former National Library
  27. 27. The National Theatre at Fort Canning Alfred Wong
  28. 28. Singapore Conference Hall
  29. 29. National Stadium
  30. 30. 1928 1949 1962 Raffles College University of Malaya University of Singapore University of Malaya
  31. 31. Sometime after 1965 from 1845
  32. 32. Singapore Airlines Malayan Airlines Malaysia-Singapore Airlines Malaysia Airlines 1947 1965 1972
  33. 33. Dollar notes from Malaysia, Brunei and Singapore Malaysian ringgit value decoupled from Singapore dollar, 8 May 1973
  34. 34. On 1 Jan 1982, Malaysia changed standard time to +8 hours GMT Instead of +7.5 GMT. Singapore announced change following Malaysian announcement in 1981.
  35. 35. Independence celebrations at Merdeka Stadium, 31 August 1957 “A bridge is a concourse between two territories. We must accordingly find a worthy symbolism in this bridge in the efforts we are making towards the ultimate fusion of our two territories, the Federation of Malaya and Singapore. Whether the fusion will be absolute or not, we must have a great broad bridge between the two territories for our ever-growing traffic of mutual understanding, sympathy and co-operation.” Lim Yew Hock, on the occasion of the opening of Merdeka Bridge, 17 Aug 1956
  36. 36. Straits Times, front page, 21 Sep 2010
  38. 38. Industrial estates in Singapore Jurong Town concept plan
  39. 39. Jurong Railway line Jurong Branch Line
  40. 40. Tunku Abdul Rahman visiting Jurong in 1965 Goh Keng Swee laying foundation stone for Jurong Shipyard 1964 The view from Jurong Hill
  41. 41. Jurong shipyard launches 3rd ship, 1965 Swan Socks Manufacturing
  42. 42. 回憶 , 回忆 知 影
  43. 43. Map of Southeast Asia Satellite image of Southeast Asia Mainland Southeast Asia Island Southeast Asia