Perangkat lunak
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Perangkat lunak

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    Perangkat lunak Perangkat lunak Presentation Transcript

    • Pengantar Teknologi Informasi PERANGKAT LUNAK Santika WP Departemen Teknik Informatika Institut Teknologi Bandung IF-ITB/SWP/Agustus03 Page 1 IF1101 - PERANGKAT LUNAK (software)
    • Perangkat Lunak• Pengetahuan Dasar• PL Sistem• PL Aplikasi IF-ITB/SWP/Agustus03 Page 2 IF1101 - PERANGKAT LUNAK (software)
    • Pengetahuan Dasar• Review Abstraksi USER USER USER ... USER Application Software System Software Computer Hardware IF-ITB/SWP/Agustus03 Page 3 IF1101 - PERANGKAT LUNAK (software)
    • Pengetahuan Dasar• Software (SW, perangkat Lunak - PK) ~ Program – (instruksi) dalam bahasa [formal] pemrograman, disusun pemrogram untuk dikerjakan komputer• Evolusi [PRE98] – Era-1 (1950-1965) • orientasi batch, distribusi terbatas, custom SW – Era-2 (1964-1974) • multiuser, real-time, DBMS, product software – Era-3 (1973-1988) • distributed, embedded intelligence, low-cost HW, consumer impact IF-ITB/SWP/Agustus03 Page 4 IF1101 - PERANGKAT LUNAK (software)
    • Pengetahuan Dasar• Evolusi – Era-4 (1986-2000-an) • desk-top oriented, OO-technology, ES, artificial NN, parallel computing• Karakteristik – dikembangkan/direkayasa, not manufactured – doesn’t wear out, no spare parts – custom built, not assembled• Komponen – machine-executable – non-machine-executable IF-ITB/SWP/Agustus03 Page 5 IF1101 - PERANGKAT LUNAK (software)
    • Pengetahuan Dasar• Lingkup Pengembangan – System SW [agar PK bekerja] – Application SW • Real-time • Business • Engineering & Scientific • Embedded • PC-oriented • AI• Myths [bagi] – Management; customer; practitioner IF-ITB/SWP/Agustus03 Page 6 IF1101 - PERANGKAT LUNAK (software)
    • Pengetahuan Dasar• Bahasa – natural: Indonesia, Inggris, Jawa – formal • deskriptif [model] matematis • High Level Language (HLL) – dimengerti dan mudah pembuatan programnya – contoh: BASIC, FORTRAN, Pascal, C, Java • Intermediate level (ILL) – tidak terlalu sulit pemahaman dan pembuatan programnya – contoh: autocoder, assembler, SPIM • Low level (LLL) – tidak mudah dan lama pembuatan programnya – contoh: machine language IF-ITB/SWP/Agustus03 Page 7 IF1101 - PERANGKAT LUNAK (software)
    • Pengetahuan Dasar• Pemrograman (programming) ~ aktifitas runtut pemrogram: – Pendefinisian masalah – [Deskripsi metoda formal] – Penyusunan algoritma [/flowchart] – Penulisan instruksi (coding) menggunakan sebuah bahasa formal – Uji coba Perbaikan kesalahan (debugging) – Run program – Dokumentasi IF-ITB/SWP/Agustus03 Page 8 IF1101 - PERANGKAT LUNAK (software)
    • Pengetahuan Dasar• Algoritma (algorithm) ~ pseudocode – (rules) untuk menyelesaikan suatu masalah – langkah-langkah logis yang dideskripsi tekstual dengan pola baku untuk menyelesaikan suatu masalah – jenis [http://www.leveltendesign.com/kb_terms/algorithm.html] • Definitive algorithms perform tasks that have a definite answer and a best method for processing, typically of interest to only computer scientist. • Subjective algorithm processes information based on an assumptive model where the "right" answer is a matter of opinion; is used heavily in social sciences, economics, business and financial forecasting, ….. [co.: Internet’s public search engines]; more interesting for business purposes. IF-ITB/SWP/Agustus03 Page 9 IF1101 - PERANGKAT LUNAK (software)
    • Pengetahuan Dasar• Struktur baku algoritma M Instruksi-1 – Runtut (sequential / linear) ……. Instruksi-n – Alternatif ? (alternative/selection) Y Proses-1 Proses -2 – Berulang (loop/repetition)• Diagram alir (flowchart) Proses -3 – program flowchart ? – system flowchart Y S IF-ITB/SWP/Agustus03 Page 10 IF1101 - PERANGKAT LUNAK (software)
    • Pengetahuan Dasar Mulai• Program flowchart Masalah – langkah-langkah logis untuk menyelesaikan ? T Kaji ulang suatu masalah dengan Y menggunakan simbol Algo/Fc baku [ANSI/IBM] Coding – hasil konversi sebuah algoritma dengan Uji coba menggunakan simbol Debugging ? baku [ANSI/IBM] – Contoh pemrograman: Run Dok. Stop IF-ITB/SWP/Agustus03 Page 11 IF1101 - PERANGKAT LUNAK (software)
    • Pengetahuan Dasar• Translasi Bahasa – Dasar • low level language (LLL) hanya dimengerti mesin • high level languages (HLL) hanya dimengerti manusia • perlu translator: assembler, compiler, interpreter – Proses translasi • assembly • kompilasi (compilation), analisis: – leksikal (~ aturan penulisan ?) – sintaks (~ tata bahasa ?) – semantik (arti) IF-ITB/SWP/Agustus03 Page 12 IF1101 - PERANGKAT LUNAK (software)
    • PL Sistem• Jenis – Operating system (OS) [BRA91] • the extremely complex software suite that enables the untamed hardware power of the computer system to be used more easily without operator intervention. – Utilities • assembler • compiler / interpreter • I/O routines • diagnostic routines • JCL (command language) • DBMS IF-ITB/SWP/Agustus03 Page 13 IF1101 - PERANGKAT LUNAK (software)
    • PL Sistem• Jenis OS , ~ paradigma proses – Batch processing – Interactive / timesharing [multiaccess system] (<==> time slice, round-robbins) – Multiprogramming – Multiprocessing (<==> multicomputer) – Real time – Network (NOS)• Contoh OS – CP/M, OS/MFT, DOS, Mac OS, Unix, Windows IF-ITB/SWP/Agustus03 Page 14 IF1101 - PERANGKAT LUNAK (software)
    • PL Sistem• Karakteristik OS – Preinstalled – Selalu terbuka – Run program & mengelola data• OS goals: – Eksekusi user programs – Memiliki Kernel, komputer selalu siap dipakai – Pemakaian komputer efisien, untuk beragam aplikasi – Resource allocator – Mengendalikan perangkat I/O IF-ITB/SWP/Agustus03 Page 15 IF1101 - PERANGKAT LUNAK (software)
    • PL Aplikasi• Aplikasi Bisnis – Dasar • use computer to saves time hence saves money • have instant information when ever you need it – Jenis • word & text processing, contoh: WS, MS Words, emacs, LaTex, Adobe Acrobat, …. • Spreadsheet: lotus, excel • desk-top publishing (DTP): Adobe PageMaker, Adobe InDesign, QuarkXPress, Adobe FrameMaker, and Corel VENTURA • e-mail: Netscape, Eudora, IMP, …….. IF-ITB/SWP/Agustus03 Page 16 IF1101 - PERANGKAT LUNAK (software)
    • PL Aplikasi• Aplikasi saintifik dan teknis – Dasar • mendukung ide creatif, pekerjaan repetitif, akurat • pemakaian mudah didukung banyak libraries & methods – Jenis • CAXXX toolspackage: Autocad, CASE, CAD/CAM … • Data logging tools, untuk: cuaca, polusi, …. • robotics & AI tools • Embedded system tools, untuk – jaringan – alat rumah tangga: microwave, mesin cuci, – Multimedia & telecommunication: cellular phone – Games IF-ITB/SWP/Agustus03 Page 17 IF1101 - PERANGKAT LUNAK (software)
    • Catatan• PL untuk Desktop/Workstation – Copyrighted SW: MS ZZZ – Freeware – Shareware – Opensource: Linux• PL untuk Jaringan – Novell Netware – Windows NT – Unixware IF-ITB/SWP/Agustus03 Page 18 IF1101 - PERANGKAT LUNAK (software)