1. GPX1, SOD1 and Type II A brief introduction and survey of current Diabetes research
2. Why is our research important?Understanding the complex mechanisms and processes that cause, mitigate or could prevent the onset of type II diabetes will help us better treat and possibly cure the disease. The more we know, the more we can do.Diabetes is:A major cause of heart disease and strokeThe seventh leading cause of death in the UnitedStatesResponsible for $116 billion in direct medical costsIncurable at present, but treatable
3. What is type II diabetes? ~90% of all cases of diabetes are type IINot for Insulin resistance within muscles + fat tissue and inadequate insulin production to compensate high blood glucose =a type II complications! INSULINdiabete Key hormone: ssuffererMolecular mechanism of insulin
4. What is important to us about insulin? pancreas in islets of Produced in Langerhans Amino acid-sequence of insulin extremely well preserved within vertebrates Complex regulatory system, metabolic pathway and release regime (ideas!)An insulin Cause and molecular mechanisms ofhexamer. insulin resistance a subject of intense research!
5. What is glutathione peroxidase 1“gloot-a-thigh-own” (GPX1)?One of the most importantantioxidant enzymes inhumans, detoxifieshydrogen peroxide(H2O2), which is anoxidative speciesAn intracellularOxidative stress associated with insulin resistance (IDEA!) GPX1selenoproteinlinked to development of insulin resistance and obesity in mice thatoverexpress it!
6. What is superoxide dismutase 1Another important (SOD1)?antioxidant enzymeresponsible fordestroying freesuperoxide radicals inthe bodyKnockout of SOD1 in mice reduces insulin function and also bonestrength! how could this be exploited to help treat diabetes?
7. A very simplified molecular pathway via SOD1 via GPX1 enzyme enzymeSuperoxide Hydrogen Water (H2O)anion news! peroxide (H2O2) Bad Good news! Still bad news!
8. More antioxidant enzyme studies
9. What are we doing now? Dr. Jun Won Yun, Postdoctoral associate at Cornell Department of Animal Science, Lei Lab What role does selenium have on GPX1 enzyme activity and also insulin secretion/insulin resistance? Recall GPX1 is a selenoprotein and is dependent on selenium