Figure 14.1: This gold mine in the Black Hills of the U.S. state of South Dakota has disturbed a large area of land. This site also contains cyanide leach piles and settling ponds that are highly toxic to wildlife in the immediate area .
Figure 14.2: The earth’s crust and upper mantle have certain major features. The lithosphere , composed of the crust and outermost mantle, is rigid and brittle. The asthenosphere , a zone in the mantle, can be deformed by heat and pressure.
Figure 14.3: The earth’s crust is made up of a mosaic of huge rigid plates, called tectonic plates , which move very slowly across the asthenosphere in response to forces in the mantle. See an animation based on this figure at CengageNOW.
Figure 14.4: This map shows the earth’s major tectonic plates. See an animation based on this figure at CengageNOW. Question: Which plate are you riding on?
Figure 14.5: This is the San Andreas Fault as it crosses part of the Carrizo plain between San Francisco and Los Angeles, California (USA). This fault, which runs almost the full length of California, is responsible for earthquakes of various magnitudes. Question: Is there a transform fault near where you live?
Figure 14.6: A volcano is created when magma in the partially molten asthenosphere rises in a plume through the lithosphere to erupt on the surface as lava (photo inset), which builds into a cone. Sometimes, internal pressure is high enough to cause lava, ash, and gases to be ejected into the atmosphere or to flow over land, causing considerable damage. Some volcanoes that have erupted and then become inactive have formed islands or chains of islands.
Figure 14.7: An earthquake (left), one of nature’s most powerful events, has certain major features and effects. In 2010, a major 7.0 earthquake in Haiti (right) killed at least 72,000 people and devastated this already very poor country.
Figure 14.8: This diagram illustrates how a tsunami forms. The map shows the area affected by a large tsunami in December 2004.
Figure 14.9: In December 2004, a great earthquake with a magnitude of 9.15 on the seafloor of the Indian Ocean generated a tsunami that killed 168,000 people in Indonesia, as well as tens of thousands more in other countries bordering the Indian Ocean. These photos show the Banda Aceh Shore near Gleebruk in Indonesia on June 23, 2004 before the tsunami (left), and on December 28, 2004 after it was stuck by the tsunami (right).
Figure 14.10: N atural capital. The rock cycle is the slowest of the earth’s cyclic processes. Rocks are recycled over millions of years by three processes: erosion , melting , and metamorphism , which produce sedimentary , igneous , and metamorphic rocks. Rock from any of these classes can be converted to rock of either of the other two classes or can be recycled within its own class ( Concept 14-2 ). Question: What are three ways in which the rock cycle benefits your lifestyle?
Figure 14.11: Each metal resource that we use has a life cycle . Each step in this process uses large amounts of energy and water, and produces some pollution and waste.
Figure 14.13: N atural capital degradation. This open-pit copper mine, which is located near the U.S. city of Bisbee, Arizona, has been abandoned since the mid-1970s. Question: Should governments require mining companies to fill in and restore such sites once their ore is depleted? Explain .
Figure 14.14: This heavy piece of equipment with a large bucket is removing material from an area-strip-mining operation in the U.S. state of Wyoming .
Figure 14.15: N atural capital degradation. Contour strip mining is used in hilly or mountainous terrain to extract minerals such as coal.
Figure 14.16: N atural capital degradation. Area strip mining of coal in Germany created these spoils banks. A coal-burning power plant is in the background. Question: Should governments require mining companies to restore such sites as fully as possible? Explain.
Figure 14.17: N atural capital degradation. This is a mountaintop coal mining operation in the U.S. state of West Virginia, where coal is the state rock. The large amount of debris that results from this method is deposited in the valleys and streams below. Mountaintop removal for coal is also occurring in the U.S. states of Virginia, Tennessee, Kentucky, and Pennsylvania. See other sites at http://www.appvoices.org/ . Question: Are you for or against mountaintop coal mining? Expl ain.
Figure 14.18: This mining site in Indonesia has been ecologically restored, but such restoration is rare.
Figure 14.19: N atural capital depletion. Each of these depletion curves for a nonrenewable resource (such as aluminum or copper) is based on a different set of assumptions. Dashed vertical lines represent the times at which 80% depletion occurs.
Figure 14.20: N atural capital degradation. This Summitville gold mining site near Alamosa, Colorado, became a toxic waste site after the Canadian company that owned it declared bankruptcy and abandoned it, rather than cleaning up the acids and toxic metals that leaked from the site into the nearby Alamosa River. Cleanup by the EPA will cost U.S. taxpayers about $120 million .
Figure 14.22: These compacted bales of aluminum cans are ready for recycling. About 54% of the aluminum cans used in the United States are recycled.
Bio 105 Chapter 14
MILLER/SPOOLMAN LIVING IN THE ENVIRONMENT 17TH Chapter 14 Geology and Nonrenewable Mineral Resources
Core Case Study: The Real Cost of Gold• Gold producers • China • South Africa • Australia • United States • Canada• Cyanide heap leaching • Extremely toxic to birds and mammals • Spills contaminate drinking water and kill birds and fish
Gold Mine with Cyanide Leach Piles and Ponds in South Dakota, U.S. Fig. 14-1, p. 346
The Earth Is a Dynamic Planet• What is geology? • Dynamic processes taking place on earth’s surface and in earth’s interior• Three major concentric zones of the earth • Core • Mantle • Crust • Continental crust • Oceanic crust: 71% of crust
Major Features of the Earth’s Crust and Upper Mantle Fig. 14-2, p. 348
The Earth Beneath Your Feet Is Moving (1)• Tectonic Plates• Three types of boundaries between plates • Divergent boundaries-pulled apart • Magma • Oceanic ridge • Convergent boundaries-pushed together • Subduction zone • Trench • Transform boundaries-sliding by each other • San Andreas fault
The Earth’s Crust Is Made Up of a Mosaic of Huge Rigid Plates: Tectonic Plates Fig. 14-3, p. 348
The Earth’s Major Tectonic Plates Fig. 14-4, p. 349
The San Andreas Fault as It Crosses Part of the Carrizo Plain in California, U.S. –Transform fault Fig. 14-5, p. 350
Some Parts of the Earth’s Surface Build Up and Some Wear Down • Internal geologic processes • Generally build up the earth’s surface • External geologic processes • Weathering • Physical, chemical, and biological • Erosion • Wind • Flowing water • Human activities • Glaciers
Volcanoes Release Molten Rock from the Earth’s Interior• Volcano • Fissure-crack that allows magma out • Magma-still in volcano • Lava-after it leaves volcano• Benefits of volcanic activity • New land • Nutrients • Tourism • Knowledge (buried Pompeii was preserved)
Earthquakes on the Ocean Floor Can Cause Huge Waves Called Tsunamis • Tsunami, tidal wave • Travels several hundred miles per hour • Detection of tsunamis • Buoys in open ocean show chance in ocean levels • December 2004: Indian Ocean tsunami • Magnitude 9.15 and 31-meter waves at shore • Role of coral reefs and mangrove forests in reducing death toll
Formation of a Tsunami and Map of Affected Area of Dec 2004 Tsunami Fig. 14-8, p. 352
Shore near Gleebruk in Indonesia before and after the Tsunami on June 23, 2004 Fig. 14-9, p. 353
There Are Three Major Types of Rocks (1) • Minerals • Element or inorganic compound in earth’s crust • Usually a crystalline solid • Regular and repeating arrangement of atoms • Rock • Combination of one or more minerals
There Are Three Major Types of Rocks (2) 1. Sedimentary • Sediments from eroded rocks or plant/animal remains • Transported by water, wind, gravity • Deposited in layers and compacted • Sandstone • Shale • Dolomite • Limestone • Lignite • Bituminous coal
There Are Three Major Types of Rocks (3) 2. Igneous • Forms below or at earth’s surface from magma • Granite • Lava rocks 3. Metamorphic • Preexisting rock subjected to high pressures, high temperatures, and/or chemically active fluids • Anthracite • Slate • Marble
The Earth’s Rocks Are Recycled Very Slowly• Rock cycle• Slowest of the earth’s cyclic processes
Natural Capital: The Rock Cycle Fig. 14-10, p. 354
We Use a Variety of Nonrenewable Mineral Resources (1)• Mineral resource • Can be extracted from earth’s crust and processed into raw materials and products at an affordable cost • Metallic minerals • Nonmetallic minerals• Ore • Contains profitable concentration of a mineral • High-grade ore • Low-grade ore
We Use a Variety of Nonrenewable Mineral Resources (2)• Metallic mineral resources • Aluminum • Iron for steel • Copper• Nonmetallic mineral resources • Sand, gravel, limestone• Reserves: estimated supply of a mineral resource
The Life Cycle of a Metal Resource Fig. 14-11, p. 355
There Are Several Ways to Remove Mineral Deposits (1)• Surface mining • Shallow deposits removed • Overburden removed first • Spoils: waste material• Subsurface mining • Deep deposits removed
There Are Several Ways to Remove Mineral Deposits (2)• Type of surface mining used depends on • Resource • Local topography• Types of surface mining • Open-pit mining • Strip mining • Contour strip mining • Mountaintop removal
Natural Capital Degradation: Open-Pit Mine in Arizona Fig. 14-13, p. 357
Area Strip Mining in Wyoming Fig. 14-14, p. 357
Natural Capital Degradation: Contour Strip Mining Fig. 14-15, p. 358
Mining Has Harmful Environmental Effects (1) • Scarring and disruption of the land surface • E.g., spoils banks • Mountain top removal for coal • Loss of rivers and streams • Air pollution • Groundwater disruption • Biodiversity decreased
Mining Has Harmful Environmental Effects (2) • Subsurface mining • Subsidence • Major pollution of water and air • Effect on aquatic life • Large amounts of solid waste
Spoils Banks in Germany from Area Strip Mining Fig. 14-16, p. 358
Mountaintop Coal Mining in West Virginia Fig. 14-17, p. 359
Ecological Restoration of a Mining Site in Indonesia (rare) Fig. 14-18, p. 360
Removing Metals from Ores Has Harmful Environmental Effects (1)• Ore extracted by mining • Ore mineral • Gangue = waste material • Smelting using heat or chemicals• Air pollution• Water pollution
Removing Metals from Ores Has Harmful Environmental Effects (2)• Liquid and solid hazardous wastes produced• Use of cyanide salt of extract gold from its ore • Summitville gold mine: Colorado, U.S.
Individuals Matter: Maria Gunnoe• West Virginia environmental activist• Won $150,000 Goldman Environmental Prize for efforts against mountaintop coal mining• Her home • Flooded 7 times • Coal sludge in yard • Well contaminated http://www.goldmanprize.org/2009/northamerica
Supplies of Nonrenewable Mineral Resources Can Be Economically Depleted (1)• Future supply depends on • Actual or potential supply of the mineral • Rate at which it is used
Supplies of Nonrenewable Mineral Resources Can Be Economically Depleted (2)• When it becomes economically depleted • Recycle or reuse existing supplies • Waste less • Use less • Find a substitute • Do without• Depletion time: time to use a certain portion of reserves
Natural Capital Depletion: Depletion Curves for a Nonrenewable Resource Fig. 14-19, p. 361
Market Prices Affect Supplies of Nonrenewable Minerals• Subsidies and tax breaks to mining companies keep mineral prices artificially low• Does this promote economic growth and national security?• Scarce investment capital hinders the development of new supplies of mineral resources
Case Study: The U.S. General Mining Law of 1872• Encouraged mineral exploration and mining of hard- rock minerals on U.S. public lands• Developed to encourage settling the West (1800s)• Until 1995, public land could be bought for 1872 prices ($2.50-5.00 per acre) and anything could be done with it• Companies must now pay for clean-up
Colorado Gold Mine Must Be Cleaned up by the EPA-will cost taxpayers $120 million Company that owned it declared bankruptcy and abandoned it, rather than cleaning up the acids and toxic metals that leaked from the site into the nearby Alamosa River. Fig. 14-20, p. 363
We Can Recycle and Reuse Valuable Metals• Recycling • Lower environmental impact than mining and processing metals from ores• Reuse
Aluminum Cans Ready for Recycling Fig. 14-22, p. 366
We Can Use Mineral Resources More Sustainability• How can we decrease our use and waste of mineral resources?• Pollution and waste prevention programs
Case Study: Pollution Prevention Pays• Begun in 1975 by 3M company, a very large manufacturing company• Redesigned equipment and processes• Fewer hazardous chemicals• Recycled or sold toxic chemical outputs• Began making nonpolluting products• Company saved $1.2 billion• Sparked cleaner production movement
Three Big Ideas1. Dynamic forces that move matter within the earth and on its surface recycle the earth’s rocks, form deposits of mineral resources, and cause volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and tsunamis.2. The available supply of a mineral resource depends on how much of it is in the earth’s crust, how fast we use it, mining technology, market prices, and the harmful environmental effects of removing and using it.3. We can use mineral resources more sustainably by trying to find substitutes for scarce resources, reducing resource waste, and reusing and recycling nonrenewable minerals.