MILLER/SPOOLMANLIVING IN THE ENVIRONMENT              17TH                  Chapter 10                  Sustaining Terrest...
Forests Vary in Their Make-Up,             Age, and Origins• Old-growth or primary forest (36%)   • Uncut, or not disturbe...
Natural Capital: An Old-Growth Forest                                  Fig. 10-2, p. 219
Rotation Cycle of Cutting and Regrowth of     a Monoculture Tree Plantation                                     Fig. 10-3,...
Forests Provide Important Economic         and Ecological Services (1)• Support energy flow and chemical cycling• Reduce s...
Forests Provide Important Economic         and Ecological Services (2)• Wood for fuel• Lumber• Pulp to make paper• Mining•...
Science Focus: Putting a Price Tag on     Nature’s Ecological Services• Forests valued for ecological services   •   Nutri...
Estimated Annual Global Economic Values of   Ecological Services Provided by Forests                                      ...
Unsustainable Logging is a Major    Threat to Forest Ecosystems (1)• Increased erosion• Sediment runoff into waterways• Ha...
Unsustainable Logging is a Major    Threat to Forest Ecosystems (2)• Invasion by   • Nonnative pests   • Disease   • Wildl...
Natural Capital Degradation: Building Roads    into Previously Inaccessible Forests                                       ...
Major Tree Harvesting Methods                                Fig. 10-6, p. 222
Clear-Cut Logging in Washington State                                  Fig. 10-7, p. 222
Fire, Insects, and Climate Change Can      Threaten Forest Ecosystems (1)• Surface fires   • Usually burn leaf litter and ...
Surface and Crown Fires                          Fig. 10-9, p. 223
Tropical Forests are Disappearing                 Rapidly• Majority of loss since 1950• Africa, Southeast Asia, South Amer...
Natural Capital Degradation: Extreme Tropical Deforestation in Thailand                                   Fig. 10-11, p. 226
Species Diversity in Tropical Forests                                   Fig. 10-13, p. 227
Causes of Tropical Deforestation         Are Varied and Complex•   Population growth•   Poverty of subsistence farmers•   ...
Natural Capital Degradation: Large Areas of    Brazil’s Amazon Basin Are Burned                                       Fig....
We Can Improve the Management           of Forest Fires• The Smokey Bear educational campaign• Prescribed fires• Allow fir...
We Can Reduce the Demand for          Harvested Trees• Improve the efficiency of wood use   • 60% of U.S. wood use is wast...
Solutions: Fast-Growing Plant: Kenaf                                  Fig. 10-17, p. 231
Governments and Individuals Can Act     to Reduce Tropical Deforestation• Reduce fuelwood demand• Practice small-scale sus...
Some Rangelands Are Overgrazed (1)• Rangelands  • Unfenced grasslands in temperate and tropical    climates that provide f...
Some Rangelands Are Overgrazed (2)• Important ecological services of grasslands   •   Soil formation   •   Erosion control...
Some Rangelands are Overgrazed (3)• Overgrazing of rangelands  •   Reduces grass cover  •   Leads to erosion of soil by wa...
Natural Capital Degradation: Overgrazed (onleft) and Lightly Grazed (on right) Rangeland                                  ...
We Can Manage Rangelands More           Sustainably (1)• Rotational grazing• Suppress growth of invasive species   •   Her...
We Can Manage Rangelands More           Sustainably (2)• Replant barren areas• Apply fertilizer• Reduce soil erosion
Natural Capital Restoration: San Pedro River in Arizona – 10 year difference                                   Fig. 10-21,...
National Parks Face Many          Environmental Threats• Worldwide: 1100 major national parks• Parks in developing countri...
Case Study: Stresses on U.S.               Public Parks (1)• 58 Major national parks in the U.S.• Biggest problem may be p...
Case Study: Stresses on U.S.             Public Parks (2)• Damage from nonnative species   • Boars and mountain goats   • ...
Grand Teton National Park                            Fig. 10-22, p. 237
Natural Capital Degradation: Damage      From Off-Road Vehicles                                 Fig. 10-23, p. 237
Science Focus: Reintroducing the Gray  Wolf to Yellowstone National Park• Keystone species• 1995: reintroduced; 2009: 116 ...
Natural Capital Restoration: Gray Wolf                                   Fig. 10-B, p. 238
Designing and Connecting Nature               Reserves• Large versus small reserves• The buffer zone concept   • United Na...
Case Study: Costa Rica—A Global          Conservation Leader• 1963–1983: cleared much of the forest• 1986–2006: forests gr...
Solutions: Costa Rica: Parks andReserves—Eight Megareserves                                   Fig. 10-26, p. 241
We Can Use a Four-Point Strategy         to Protect Ecosystems1. Map global ecosystems; identify species2. Locate and prot...
Protecting Global Biodiversity Hot       Spots Is an Urgent Priority• 34 biodiversity hot spots rich in plant species   • ...
Endangered Natural Capital:  34 Biodiversity Hotspots                              Fig. 10-27, p. 243
Endangered Natural Capital:Biodiversity Hotspots in the U.S.                               Figure 27, Supplement 8
We Can Rehabilitate and Restore Ecosystems       That We Have Damaged (1)• Study how natural ecosystems recover   1.   Res...
We Can Rehabilitate and Restore Ecosystems       That We Have Damaged (2)• How to carry out most forms of ecological  rest...
We Can Share Areas We Dominate        With Other Species• Reconciliation ecology   • Invent and maintain habitats for spec...
What Can You Do? Sustaining  Terrestrial Biodiversity                              Fig. 10-28, p. 247
Three Big Ideas1. The economic values of the important ecological   services provided by the world’s ecosystems are far   ...
Three Big Ideas3. We can sustain terrestrial biodiversity by protecting   severely threatened areas, protecting remaining ...
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Bio 105 Chapter 10

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  • Figure 10.2: Natural capital. This old-growth forest is located in the U.S. state of Washington’s Olympic National Forest .
  • Figure 10.3: This diagram illustrates the short (25- to 30-year) rotation cycle of cutting and regrowth of a monoculture tree plantation. In tropical countries, where trees can grow more rapidly year-round, the rotation cycle can be 6–10 years. Most tree plantations (see photo, right) are grown on land that was cleared of old-growth or second-growth forests. Question: What are two ways in which this process can degrade an ecosystem?
  • Figure 10.A: This chart shows estimates of the annual global economic values of some ecological services provided by forests compared to the raw materials they produce (in billions of dollars). (Data from Robert Costanza)
  • Figure 10.5: Natural capital degradation. Building roads into previously inaccessible forests is the first step to harvesting timber, but it also paves the way to fragmentation, destruction, and degradation of forest ecosystems.
  • Figure 10.6: This diagram illustrates the three major tree harvesting methods. Question: If you were cutting trees in a forest you owned, which method would you choose and why?
  • Figure 10.7: This aerial photograph shows the results of clear-cut logging in the U.S. state of Washington .
  • Figure 10.9: Surface fires (left) usually burn only undergrowth and leaf litter on a forest floor. They can help to prevent more destructive crown fires (right) by removing flammable ground material. In fact, carefully controlled surface fires sometimes are deliberately set to prevent the buildup of flammable ground material in forests. Surface fires also recycle nutrients and thus help to maintain the productivity of a variety of forest ecosystems. Question: What is another way in which a surface fire might benefit a forest?
  • Figure 10.11: Natural capital degradation. This photo shows extreme tropical deforestation in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Such clearing of trees, which absorb carbon dioxide as they grow, helps to hasten climate change. It also dehydrates the topsoil by exposing it to sunlight. The dry topsoil can then blow away, which can lead to an irreversible ecological tipping point, beyond which a forest cannot grow back in the area.
  • Figure 10.13: Species diversity: These two species found in tropical forests are part of the earth's biodiversity. On the left is an endangered white ukari in a Brazilian tropical forest. On the right is the world's largest flower, the flesh flower (Rafflesia) growing in a tropical rain forest of West Sumatra, Indonesia. The flower of this leafless plant can be as large 1 meter (4.3 feet) in diameter and weigh 7 kilograms (15 pounds). The plant gives off a smell like rotting meat, presumably to attract the flies and beetles that pollinate the flower. After blossoming once a year for a few weeks, the blood-red flower dissolves into a slimy black mass.
  • Figure 10.15: Natural capital degradation. Large areas of tropical forest in Brazil’s Amazon basin are burned each year to make way for cattle ranches, plantation crops such as soybeans (see Figure 1-6, p. 10), and small - scale farms. Questions: What are three ways in which your lifestyle may be contributing to this process? How, in turn, might this process affect your life?
  • Figure 10.17: S olutions. The pressure to cut trees to make paper could be greatly reduced by planting and harvesting a fast-growing plant known as kenaf. According to the USDA, kenaf is “the best option for tree-free papermaking in the United States” and could replace wood-based paper within 20–30 years. Question: Would you invest in a kenaf plantation? Explain.
  • Figure 10.20: Natural capital degradation. Overgrazed rangeland is to the left of the fence, while lightly grazed rangeland is to the right.
  • Figure 10.21: Natural capital restoration. In the mid-1980s, cattle had degraded the vegetation and soil on this stream bank along the San Pedro River in the U.S. state of Arizona (left). Within 10 years, the area was restored through natural regeneration (right) after grazing and off-road vehicle use were banned ( Concept 10-3 ) .
  • Figure 10.22: Grand Teton National Park (USA) .
  • Figure 10.23: Natural capital degradation. This photo shows the damage caused by off-road vehicles in a proposed wilderness area near the U.S. city of Moab, Utah. Such vehicles pollute the air, damage soils and vegetation, disturb and threaten wildlife, and degrade wetlands and streams .
  • Figure 10.B: Natural capital restoration. After becoming almost extinct in much of the western United States, the gray wolf was listed and protected as an endangered species in 1974. Despite intense opposition from ranchers, hunters, miners, and loggers, 31 members of this keystone species were reintroduced to their former habitat in Yellowstone National Park in 1995 and 1996. By the end of 2009, there were 116 gray wolves in 12 packs in the park.
  • Figure 10.26: S olutions. Costa Rica has consolidated its parks and reserves into eight zoned megareserves designed to sustain about 80% of the country’s rich biodiversity. Green areas are protected natural parklands and yellow areas are surrounding buffer zones, which can be used for sustainable forms of forestry, agriculture, hydropower, hunting, and other human activities.
  • Figure 10.27: E ndangered natural capital. This map shows 34 biodiversity hotspots identified by ecologists as important and endangered centers of terrestrial biodiversity that contain a large number of species found nowhere else. Identifying and saving these critical habitats requires a vital emergency response ( Concept 10-5 ). Compare these areas with those on the global map of the human ecological footprint, as shown in Figure 7, p. S38, in Supplement 8. According to the IUCN, the average proportion of biodiversity hotspot areas truly protected with funding and enforcement is only 5%. See an animation based on this figure at CengageNOW. Questions: Are any of these hotspots near where you live? Is there a smaller, localized hotspot in the area where you live? (Data from Center for Applied Biodiversity Science at Conservation International)
  • Figure 10.28: I ndividuals matter. These are some ways in which you can help to sustain terrestrial biodiversity. Questions: Which two of these actions do you think are the most important? Why? Which of these things do you already do?
  • Bio 105 Chapter 10

    1. 1. MILLER/SPOOLMANLIVING IN THE ENVIRONMENT 17TH Chapter 10 Sustaining Terrestrial Biodiversity: The Ecosystem Approach
    2. 2. Forests Vary in Their Make-Up, Age, and Origins• Old-growth or primary forest (36%) • Uncut, or not disturbed for several hundred years • Reservoirs of biodiversity• Second-growth forest (60%) • Secondary ecological succession• Tree plantation, (tree farm, commercial forest) (4%) • May supply most industrial wood in the future
    3. 3. Natural Capital: An Old-Growth Forest Fig. 10-2, p. 219
    4. 4. Rotation Cycle of Cutting and Regrowth of a Monoculture Tree Plantation Fig. 10-3, p. 219
    5. 5. Forests Provide Important Economic and Ecological Services (1)• Support energy flow and chemical cycling• Reduce soil erosion• Absorb and release water• Purify water and air• Influence local and regional climate• Store atmospheric carbon• Habitats
    6. 6. Forests Provide Important Economic and Ecological Services (2)• Wood for fuel• Lumber• Pulp to make paper• Mining• Livestock grazing• Recreation• Employment
    7. 7. Science Focus: Putting a Price Tag on Nature’s Ecological Services• Forests valued for ecological services • Nutrient cycling • Climate regulation • Erosion control • Waste treatment • Recreation • Raw materials
    8. 8. Estimated Annual Global Economic Values of Ecological Services Provided by Forests Fig. 10-A, p. 221
    9. 9. Unsustainable Logging is a Major Threat to Forest Ecosystems (1)• Increased erosion• Sediment runoff into waterways• Habitat fragmentation• Loss of biodiversity
    10. 10. Unsustainable Logging is a Major Threat to Forest Ecosystems (2)• Invasion by • Nonnative pests • Disease • Wildlife species• Major tree harvesting methods: • Selective cutting • Clear-cutting • Strip cutting
    11. 11. Natural Capital Degradation: Building Roads into Previously Inaccessible Forests Fig. 10-5, p. 221
    12. 12. Major Tree Harvesting Methods Fig. 10-6, p. 222
    13. 13. Clear-Cut Logging in Washington State Fig. 10-7, p. 222
    14. 14. Fire, Insects, and Climate Change Can Threaten Forest Ecosystems (1)• Surface fires • Usually burn leaf litter and undergrowth • May provide food in the form of vegetation that sprouts after fire• Crown fires • Extremely hot: burns whole trees • Kill wildlife • Increase soil erosion
    15. 15. Surface and Crown Fires Fig. 10-9, p. 223
    16. 16. Tropical Forests are Disappearing Rapidly• Majority of loss since 1950• Africa, Southeast Asia, South America• 98% will be gone by 2022• Role of deforestation in species’ extinction• Secondary forest can grow back in 15-20 years
    17. 17. Natural Capital Degradation: Extreme Tropical Deforestation in Thailand Fig. 10-11, p. 226
    18. 18. Species Diversity in Tropical Forests Fig. 10-13, p. 227
    19. 19. Causes of Tropical Deforestation Are Varied and Complex• Population growth• Poverty of subsistence farmers• Ranching• Lumber• Plantation farms: palm oil• Begins with building of roads• Many forests burned• Can tilt tropical forest to tropical savanna
    20. 20. Natural Capital Degradation: Large Areas of Brazil’s Amazon Basin Are Burned Fig. 10-15, p. 228
    21. 21. We Can Improve the Management of Forest Fires• The Smokey Bear educational campaign• Prescribed fires• Allow fires on public lands to burn• Protect structures in fire-prone areas• Thin forests in fire-prone areas
    22. 22. We Can Reduce the Demand for Harvested Trees• Improve the efficiency of wood use • 60% of U.S. wood use is wasted• Make tree-free paper • Kenaf • Hemp • Kudzu
    23. 23. Solutions: Fast-Growing Plant: Kenaf Fig. 10-17, p. 231
    24. 24. Governments and Individuals Can Act to Reduce Tropical Deforestation• Reduce fuelwood demand• Practice small-scale sustainable agriculture and forestry in tropical forest• Government protection• Plant trees• Buy certified lumber and wood products
    25. 25. Some Rangelands Are Overgrazed (1)• Rangelands • Unfenced grasslands in temperate and tropical climates that provide forage for animals• Pastures • Managed grasslands and fences meadows used for grazing livestock
    26. 26. Some Rangelands Are Overgrazed (2)• Important ecological services of grasslands • Soil formation • Erosion control • Nutrient cycling • Storage of atmospheric carbon dioxide in biomass • Maintenance of diversity
    27. 27. Some Rangelands are Overgrazed (3)• Overgrazing of rangelands • Reduces grass cover • Leads to erosion of soil by water and wind • Soil becomes compacted • Enhances invasion of plant species that cattle won’t eat
    28. 28. Natural Capital Degradation: Overgrazed (onleft) and Lightly Grazed (on right) Rangeland Fig. 10-20, p. 234
    29. 29. We Can Manage Rangelands More Sustainably (1)• Rotational grazing• Suppress growth of invasive species • Herbicides • Mechanical removal • Controlled burning • Controlled short-term trampling
    30. 30. We Can Manage Rangelands More Sustainably (2)• Replant barren areas• Apply fertilizer• Reduce soil erosion
    31. 31. Natural Capital Restoration: San Pedro River in Arizona – 10 year difference Fig. 10-21, p. 235
    32. 32. National Parks Face Many Environmental Threats• Worldwide: 1100 major national parks• Parks in developing countries • Greatest biodiversity • 1% protected against • Illegal animal poaching • Illegal logging and mining
    33. 33. Case Study: Stresses on U.S. Public Parks (1)• 58 Major national parks in the U.S.• Biggest problem may be popularity • Noise • Congestion • Pollution • Damage or destruction to vegetation and wildlife
    34. 34. Case Study: Stresses on U.S. Public Parks (2)• Damage from nonnative species • Boars and mountain goats • Introduced plants, insects, worms• Native species sometimes killed or removed• Threatened islands of biodiversity • Air pollution• Need billions in trail and infrastructure repairs
    35. 35. Grand Teton National Park Fig. 10-22, p. 237
    36. 36. Natural Capital Degradation: Damage From Off-Road Vehicles Fig. 10-23, p. 237
    37. 37. Science Focus: Reintroducing the Gray Wolf to Yellowstone National Park• Keystone species• 1995: reintroduced; 2009: 116 wolves in park• Prey on elk and push them to a higher elevation • Regrowth of aspen, cottonwoods, and willows • More beaver dams, more wetlands, more aspens• Reduced the number of coyotes • Fewer attacks on cattle • More smaller mammals
    38. 38. Natural Capital Restoration: Gray Wolf Fig. 10-B, p. 238
    39. 39. Designing and Connecting Nature Reserves• Large versus small reserves• The buffer zone concept • United Nations: 553 biosphere reserves in 107 countries• Habitat corridors between isolated reserves • Advantages • Disadvantages
    40. 40. Case Study: Costa Rica—A Global Conservation Leader• 1963–1983: cleared much of the forest• 1986–2006: forests grew from 26% to 51% • Goal: net carbon dioxide emissions to zero by 2021• ¼ of land in nature reserves and natural parks – global leader• Earns $1 billion per year in tourism
    41. 41. Solutions: Costa Rica: Parks andReserves—Eight Megareserves Fig. 10-26, p. 241
    42. 42. We Can Use a Four-Point Strategy to Protect Ecosystems1. Map global ecosystems; identify species2. Locate and protect most endangered ecosystems and species3. Restore degraded ecosystems4. Development must be biodiversity-friendly• Are new laws needed?
    43. 43. Protecting Global Biodiversity Hot Spots Is an Urgent Priority• 34 biodiversity hot spots rich in plant species • 2% of earth’s surface, but 50% of flowering plant species and 42% of terrestrial vertebrates • 1.2 billion people• Drawbacks of this approach • May not be rich in animal diversity • People may be displaced and/or lose access to important resources
    44. 44. Endangered Natural Capital: 34 Biodiversity Hotspots Fig. 10-27, p. 243
    45. 45. Endangered Natural Capital:Biodiversity Hotspots in the U.S. Figure 27, Supplement 8
    46. 46. We Can Rehabilitate and Restore Ecosystems That We Have Damaged (1)• Study how natural ecosystems recover 1. Restoration 2. Rehabilitation 3. Replacement 4. Creating artificial ecosystems
    47. 47. We Can Rehabilitate and Restore Ecosystems That We Have Damaged (2)• How to carry out most forms of ecological restoration and rehabilitation 1. Identify what caused the degradation 2. Stop the abuse 3. Reintroduce species, if possible 4. Protect from further degradation• Preventing ecosystem damage is cheaper than restoration
    48. 48. We Can Share Areas We Dominate With Other Species• Reconciliation ecology • Invent and maintain habitats for species diversity where people live, work, and play• Community-based conservation • Belize and the black howler monkeys • Protect vital insect pollinators
    49. 49. What Can You Do? Sustaining Terrestrial Biodiversity Fig. 10-28, p. 247
    50. 50. Three Big Ideas1. The economic values of the important ecological services provided by the world’s ecosystems are far greater than the value of the raw materials obtained from those systems.2. We can manage forests, grasslands, parks, and nature preserves more effectively by protecting more land, preventing over-use of these areas, and using renewable resources provided by them no faster than such resources can be replenished by natural processes.
    51. 51. Three Big Ideas3. We can sustain terrestrial biodiversity by protecting severely threatened areas, protecting remaining undisturbed areas, restoring damaged ecosystems, and sharing with other species much of the land we dominate.
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