Chapter 24                                            Reproduction                                              in Plants ...
 Alternation of generations    Sporophyte          Dominant in flowering plants          Bears flowers – reproductive ...
 Plant Reproduction, cont.    Once a sperm fertilizes an egg, the zygote becomes an embryo,     still within an ovule   ...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.                              ...
 Flowers are unique to angiosperms   Produce spores, protect gametophyte, attract    pollinator, produce fruits   Exs. ...
Figure 24.1B Anatomy of a flower              Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduc...
Figure 24.1C b. Azaleas are eudicots Eudicots have flower parts in fours or fives (p = petal; s = sepal)              Copy...
Figure 24.1D A corn plant is monoecious (flowers that are only male or only femalea. The staminate flowers produce pollen ...
Figure 24BButterflies, birds, and bats are adapted for acquiring nectar from certain flowers.Flowers that attract beetles ...
 Sexual reproduction involves  1. Production of pollen grains (male gametophytes) in     the anthers of stamens  2. Produ...
Figure 24.2A Life cycle of flowering plants                 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission require...
Figure 24.2A Life cycle of flowering plants (cont.)                              Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, In...
Figure 24.2B Wind pollination of a grass, with SEM of pollen grains                                                       ...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.                              ...
 Double fertilization is unique in angiosperms   Results in not only a zygote but also a food source for    the developi...
Figure 24.2D The parts of a bean seed, a eudicot     Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for r...
24.4 The ovary becomes a fruit, which     assists in sporophyte dispersal Fruit = a ripened ovary   Protects and helps d...
24.4 The ovary becomes a fruit, which    assists in sporophyte dispersal Fleshy Versus Dry Fruits   Dry fruits      Exs...
Figure 24.4 Fruit diversity               Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction...
Figure 24.4 Fruit diversity (Cont.)              Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for repro...
 Simple Versus Aggregate & Multiple Fruits   Simple fruits are derived from the simple ovary of a    single carpel Exs: ...
Figure 24.4 Fruit diversity (Cont.)              Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for repro...
Figure 24.4 Fruit diversity (Cont.)              Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for repro...
Figure 24.4Fruit diversity (Cont.)             Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reprodu...
 Germination – seeds form into a seedling   Doesn’t usually take place until there is sufficient    water, warmth, and o...
Figure 24.5A Structure and germination of a common bean seed                Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Pe...
Figure 24.5A Structure and germination of a common bean seed (Cont.)                Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies,...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.                              ...
24.6 Plants have various ways of     reproducing asexually Also called vegetative reproduction Type of cloning – offspri...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.                              ...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.     Rhizome                  ...
24.7 Cloning of plants in tissue   culture assists agriculture Tissue culture   Growth of a tissue in an artificial liqu...
Figure 24.7A Somatic embryogenesis                Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for repr...
Figure 24.7A Somatic embryogenesis (Cont.)               Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required f...
Figure 24.7A Somatic embryogenesis (Cont.)          Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for re...
Figure 24.7B Producing whole plants from meristem tissue                                                           24-36
Connecting the Concepts:            Chapter 24 Life, as we know it, would not be possible without  vascular plants Altho...
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Bio 100 Chapter 24

  1. 1. Chapter 24 Reproduction in Plants Lecture OutlineCopyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  2. 2.  Alternation of generations  Sporophyte  Dominant in flowering plants  Bears flowers – reproductive structure  Diploid or 2n  Produces haploid microspores and megaspores by meiosis  Gametophyte  Haploid or 1n  Produces gametes  Microspore undergoes mitosis and become a pollen grain, a male gametophyte  Megaspore undergoes mitosis to become embryo sac, a female gametophyte  Upon fertilization, the cycle returns to the 2n sporophyte 24-2
  3. 3.  Plant Reproduction, cont.  Once a sperm fertilizes an egg, the zygote becomes an embryo, still within an ovule  Ovule develops into a seed, which contains the embryo and stored food surrounded by a seed coat  Ovary becomes a fruit, which aids in dispersing the seeds  When a seed germinates, a new sporophyte emerges and, through mitosis and growth, becomes a mature organism Sexual life cycle of flowering plants is adapted to land 24-3
  4. 4. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Figure 24.1A Alternation of 8 generations in flowering plants mi to s is anther 7 1 sporophyte seed 2 diploid (2n) ovule zygote 6 ovaryFERTILIZATION MEIOSIS haploid (n) 3 microsporeegg megaspore sperm m 4 5 ito si s Male gametophyte (pollen grain) Female gametophyte 24-4 (embryo sac)
  5. 5.  Flowers are unique to angiosperms  Produce spores, protect gametophyte, attract pollinator, produce fruits  Exs. of pollinators: birds, beetles, flies, butterflies, bats Typical flower  4 whorls of modified leaves attached to a receptacle 1. Sepals – protect bud 2. Petals – attract pollinators 3. Stamens – Male Portion (anther & filament) 4. Carpel – Female Portion (stigma, style & ovary) 24-5
  6. 6. Figure 24.1B Anatomy of a flower Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. stamen carpel anther stigma filament style ovary petal ovule sepal receptacle 24-6
  7. 7. Figure 24.1C b. Azaleas are eudicots Eudicots have flower parts in fours or fives (p = petal; s = sepal) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. p3 p2 carpelstamen p4 petal p1 p5b. a: © Farley Bridges; b: © Pat Pendarvis 24-7
  8. 8. Figure 24.1D A corn plant is monoecious (flowers that are only male or only femalea. The staminate flowers produce pollen that is carried by wind tob. the carpellate flowers, where ears of corn develop. 24-8
  9. 9. Figure 24BButterflies, birds, and bats are adapted for acquiring nectar from certain flowers.Flowers that attract beetles produce much pollen and those that attract flies have 24-9the smell of rotting flesh
  10. 10.  Sexual reproduction involves 1. Production of pollen grains (male gametophytes) in the anthers of stamens 2. Production of an embryo sac (female gametophyte) in an ovule located within the ovary of a carpel Pollination  Pollen transferred from anther to stigma so an egg within female gametophyte is fertilized  Most angiosperms use animals to carry out pollination 24-10
  11. 11. Figure 24.2A Life cycle of flowering plants Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Stamen Carpel anther stigma filament style ovary ovule Mitosis Sporophyte stigma Carpel fruit (mature ovary) style seed Anther (mature ovule) ovary seedcoat Ovule pollen sac embryo endosperm (3n) microspore megaspore Seed mother cell mothe rcell diploid (2n) MEIOSIS MEIOSIS 24-11
  12. 12. Figure 24.2A Life cycle of flowering plants (cont.) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. MEIOSIS haploid (n) Pollen grain Microspores Mi tos (all survive) is Megaspores sperm and pollen POLLINATION (one survives) polar nuclei tube fuse sperm generative cellsperm and (mature maleegg fuse gametophyte) degenerating egg megaspores DOUBLE FERTILIZATION Mi Ovule tos is Embryosac (mature female gametophyte) 24-12
  13. 13. Figure 24.2B Wind pollination of a grass, with SEM of pollen grains 24-13
  14. 14. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. nectar guidesAs we see it As a bee sees it (both): © Heather Angel/Natural Visions Coevolution  As one species changes, the other changes too, so that in the end, the two species are suited to one another 24-14
  15. 15.  Double fertilization is unique in angiosperms  Results in not only a zygote but also a food source for the developing zygote  Endosperm – nutritive tissue developing embryonic sporophyte uses as energy source Mature seed contains  Embryo – will develop into the plant  Stored food – endosperm  Seed coat – develops from ovule wall for protection 24-15
  16. 16. Figure 24.2D The parts of a bean seed, a eudicot Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Seed coat immature leaves Embryo hypocotyl radicle Cotyledon (stored food) (right): © Dwight Kuhn 24-16
  17. 17. 24.4 The ovary becomes a fruit, which assists in sporophyte dispersal Fruit = a ripened ovary  Protects and helps disperse the plant (“marketing for the seeds”) 24-17
  18. 18. 24.4 The ovary becomes a fruit, which assists in sporophyte dispersal Fleshy Versus Dry Fruits  Dry fruits  Exs: peas, maples  Fleshy fruits  Exs: apples, strawberries, tomatoes, corn 24-18
  19. 19. Figure 24.4 Fruit diversity Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. pea flower pea pod pericarp stigma (fruit wall) ovary wall seed ovule 1 Pea pods are a dry, dehiscent (can open to reveal seeds) fruit. 24-19
  20. 20. Figure 24.4 Fruit diversity (Cont.) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. seed covered by pericarp wing 2 Maple tree fruits are dry, in dehiscent. © James Mauseth 24-20
  21. 21.  Simple Versus Aggregate & Multiple Fruits  Simple fruits are derived from the simple ovary of a single carpel Exs: grapes, tomatoes  Accessory fruits form from other flower parts in addition to ovary Exs: strawberry, apple  Aggregate and multiple fruits are examples of compound fruits derived from several individual ovaries  Strawberry – aggregate fruit, each ovary becomes a one- seeded fruit called an achene  Pineapple – a multiple fruit derived from many individual flowers, each with its own carpel 24-21
  22. 22. Figure 24.4 Fruit diversity (Cont.) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. one fruit flesh is from receptacle 3 Strawberries are a fleshy aggregate fruit. © Corbis RF 24-22
  23. 23. Figure 24.4 Fruit diversity (Cont.) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. one fruit fruits from ovaries of one flower 4 Raspberries are an aggregate fruit. © C Squared Studios/Getty RF 24-23
  24. 24. Figure 24.4Fruit diversity (Cont.) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. fruits from ovaries of many flowers one fruit 5 Pineapple is a multiple fruit. 24-24 © BJ Miller/Biological Photo Service
  25. 25.  Germination – seeds form into a seedling  Doesn’t usually take place until there is sufficient water, warmth, and oxygen to sustain growth  For seeds, dormancy is the time during which no growth occurs, even though conditions may be favorable for growth 24-25
  26. 26. Figure 24.5A Structure and germination of a common bean seed Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Embryo: epicotyl- plumule Cotyledon (two) hypocotyl radicle Seed coat Cotyledon (stored food) Bean seed 24-26 (right): © Ed Reschke
  27. 27. Figure 24.5A Structure and germination of a common bean seed (Cont.) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. first true leaves (primary leaves) epicotyl with red cotyledons seed cotyledons coat (two) hypocotyl hypocotyl secondary root primary primary root root 24-27
  28. 28. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Figure 24.5B Structure and pericarp germination of a Seed coat corn kernel endosperm cotyledon (one) coleoptile Embryo: plumule radicle coleorhizaCorn kernel true leaf first leaf coleoptile prop root coleoptile radicle adventitious root primary root coleorhiza 24-28 (Top right): © James Mauseth
  29. 29. 24.6 Plants have various ways of reproducing asexually Also called vegetative reproduction Type of cloning – offspring exactly like parent Plants can grow from axillary buds of above or below ground stems  Rhizome – underground horizontal stem (iris, many grasses)  Tuber – enlarged portion of rhizome (potato)  Corm – bulbous underground stems (onion) 24-29
  30. 30. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. stolon Asexually produced offspring © G.I. Bernard/Animals AnimalsFigure 24.6 Asexual reproduction in plants 24-30
  31. 31. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Rhizome Tuber Corm rhizome branch papery axillary leaves adventitious roots bud corm axillary bud rhizome tuber adventitious rootsFigure 24.6 Asexual reproduction in plants (cont.) 24-31
  32. 32. 24.7 Cloning of plants in tissue culture assists agriculture Tissue culture  Growth of a tissue in an artificial liquid or on agar  3 methods  Somatic embryogenesis – technique that uses hormones to cause plant tissues to generate small masses of cells  Meristem tissue culture – many new shoot tips from a single shoot tip  Anther tissue culture – produces haploid plantlets or chromosomal doubling chemically induced 24-32
  33. 33. Figure 24.7A Somatic embryogenesis Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.a. Protoplasts, naked cells b. Cell wall regeneration (both): Courtesy Prof. Dr. Hans-Ulrich Koop, from Plant Cell Reports, 17:601-604 24-33
  34. 34. Figure 24.7A Somatic embryogenesis (Cont.) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.c. Aggregates of cells d. Callus, undifferentiated mass (both): Courtesy Prof. Dr. Hans-Ulrich Koop, from Plant Cell Reports, 17:601-604 24-34
  35. 35. Figure 24.7A Somatic embryogenesis (Cont.) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.e. Somatic embryo f. Plantlet (both): Courtesy Prof. Dr. Hans-Ulrich Koop, from Plant Cell Reports, 17:601-604 24-35
  36. 36. Figure 24.7B Producing whole plants from meristem tissue 24-36
  37. 37. Connecting the Concepts: Chapter 24 Life, as we know it, would not be possible without vascular plants Although we now live in an industrialized society, we are still dependent on plants and have put them to many more uses  We grow plants for food, shelter, beauty and substances for industry  Half of all pharmaceutical drugs have their origin in plants 24-37
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