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Bio 100 Chapter 19
Bio 100 Chapter 19
Bio 100 Chapter 19
Bio 100 Chapter 19
Bio 100 Chapter 19
Bio 100 Chapter 19
Bio 100 Chapter 19
Bio 100 Chapter 19
Bio 100 Chapter 19
Bio 100 Chapter 19
Bio 100 Chapter 19
Bio 100 Chapter 19
Bio 100 Chapter 19
Bio 100 Chapter 19
Bio 100 Chapter 19
Bio 100 Chapter 19
Bio 100 Chapter 19
Bio 100 Chapter 19
Bio 100 Chapter 19
Bio 100 Chapter 19
Bio 100 Chapter 19
Bio 100 Chapter 19
Bio 100 Chapter 19
Bio 100 Chapter 19
Bio 100 Chapter 19
Bio 100 Chapter 19
Bio 100 Chapter 19
Bio 100 Chapter 19
Bio 100 Chapter 19
Bio 100 Chapter 19
Bio 100 Chapter 19
Bio 100 Chapter 19
Bio 100 Chapter 19
Bio 100 Chapter 19
Bio 100 Chapter 19
Bio 100 Chapter 19
Bio 100 Chapter 19
Bio 100 Chapter 19
Bio 100 Chapter 19
Bio 100 Chapter 19
Bio 100 Chapter 19
Bio 100 Chapter 19
Bio 100 Chapter 19
Bio 100 Chapter 19
Bio 100 Chapter 19
Bio 100 Chapter 19
Bio 100 Chapter 19
Bio 100 Chapter 19
Bio 100 Chapter 19
Bio 100 Chapter 19
Bio 100 Chapter 19
Bio 100 Chapter 19
Bio 100 Chapter 19
Bio 100 Chapter 19
Bio 100 Chapter 19
Bio 100 Chapter 19
Bio 100 Chapter 19
Bio 100 Chapter 19
Bio 100 Chapter 19
Bio 100 Chapter 19
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Bio 100 Chapter 19

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  • 1. Chapter 19 Evolution of Animals Lecture OutlineCopyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  • 2. Animals have distinctive characteristics Animals are multicellular eukaryotes  Heterotrophs – must acquire nutrients from an external source  Usually reproduce sexually  Many animals have Muscles & Nerves  Search actively for food  Seek mates, shelter, suitable climate 19-2
  • 3. 3 Types of Symmetry in Animals 3 Types of symmetry  Asymmetry – no particular body shape  Sometimes sessile – attached to substrate  Exs: sponges  Radial – organized circularly Exs: jellyfish, starfish  Bilateral – right and left halves  Cephalization – head region (brain)  Exs: mammals, insects 19-3
  • 4. Symmetry & Anatomical Terms l posterior dorsa anterior l tra venradial symmetry bilateral symmetry 19-4
  • 5. 19.4 Phylum Porifera: Sponges Sponges  Only Animals without true tissues  Asymmetrical body plan Body is perforated by pores  Filter feeder 19-5
  • 6. Figure 19.4 Sponge anatomy (Cont.) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. osculum H2O out spicule pore amoeboid cell H2O in through epidermal cell pores sponge wall amoeboid collar nucleus cell central cavity flagellum Sponge organization collar cell (choanocyte) 19-6
  • 7. 19.5 Phylum Cnidaria Phylum Cnidaria – most in the sea Radial symmetry. Polyp (mouth pointed up) & Medusa (mouth pointed down) body forms Capture their prey with a ring of tentacles that have specialized stinging cells, cnidocytes Incomplete digestive tract (one opening) Exs: jellyfish, sea anemone 19-7
  • 8. Figure 19.5A Cnidarian diversity 19-8
  • 9. Phylum: Platyhelminthes Phylum Platyhelminthes = Flatworms  Bilateral symmetry Have 3 germ layers  Ectoderm from which body wall develops  Endoderm from which digestive cavity develops  Mesoderm which contributes to organ formation 19-9
  • 10.  Flatworm Ex.: Planarians  Digestive System – incomplete (only 1 opening), undigested food exits through pharynx (mouth is in middle of body)  Reproductive System – Hermaphrodites (both male and female sex organs) and perform cross-fertilization (when two flatworm mate, each is fertilized and fertilizes the other) 19-10
  • 11. Figure 19.6 Planarian anatomy (Cont.) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. auricle eye spotssense organs 5 mm © Tom E. Adams/Peter Arnold/Photolibrary 19-11
  • 12. 19.7 Some flatworms are parasitic Tapeworms  Endoparasites (internal parasites) of various vertebrates  Scolex (head region) bears hooks and suckers for attachment to the intestinal wall of the host Flukes  Endoparasites of various vertebrates  Anterior end of the animal has an oral sucker and at least one other sucker used for attachment to the host 19-12
  • 13. Figure 19.7A Tapeworm (Taenia solium) anatomy and life cycle Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. hooks sucker scolex proglottidBladder worm attachesto human intestine 250 μm 1.0 mmwhere it matures into atapeworm. As the tapeworm grows, proglottids mature, and eventually fill with eggs. (left): © James Webb/Phototake; (right): © John D. Cunningham/Visuals Unlimited 19-13
  • 14. 19.8 Body Cavity = Coelom One defining characteristic in animals is the presence or absence of a body cavity or coelom  Flatworms do not have any body cavity  Roundworms have a pseudocoelom  Body cavity incompletely lined by mesoderm  Mesoderm lines only the body wall  Molluscs, annelids, arthropods, echinoderms and chordates have a true coelom  Body cavity completely lined by mesoderm  Mesoderm lines both the body wall and the digestive tract 19-14
  • 15. Figure 19.8 Body cavities Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. pseudocoelom endoderm mesoderm coelom mesentery mesoderm endoderm mesoderm digestive cavity ectoderm digestive cavity ectoderm endoderm digestive cavity ectodermAcoelomate (flatworms) Pseudocoelomate (roundworms) Coelomate (molluscs, annelids, arthropods, echinoderms, chordates) 19-15
  • 16. 19.9 Phylum Mollusca All Molluscs have a body composed of  Foot – strong, muscular portion used for locomotion  Visceral Mass – soft-bodied portion that contains internal organs  Mantle – covering that envelops the visceral mass  May secrete an exoskeleton called a shell Rasping, tonguelike radula  Bears many rows of teeth and is used to obtain food 3 common groups  Gastropods, cephalopods, and bivalves 19-16
  • 17. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 19.9 Molluscs have a three-part body plan eyes  Gastropods  Meaning stomach-footed footgrowth line spiral shellLand snail  Includes snails tentacle gills  Animal moves by muscle contractions that pass along its foot mantle ventrally flattened footThree-stripedorisnudibranch 1 Gastropods (nudibranch): © Kenneth W. Fink/Bruce Coleman, Inc 19-17 Figure 19.9B Three groups of molluscs
  • 18. Figure 19.9B Three groups of molluscs (Cont.) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. eye arm shell tentacles suckers Two-spotted octopus 2 Cephalopods eye Chambered nautilus (nautilus): © Douglas Faulkner/Photo Researchers, Inc Cephalopods (meaning head-footed) including octopuses, squids, and nautiluses  Foot has evolved into tentacles about the head 19-18
  • 19. Figure 19.9B Three groups of molluscs (Cont.) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. eyes shell tentacles on mantle growth lines of shell Bay scallop 3 Bivalves Blue mussel (scallop): Courtesy Larry S. Roberts (mussel): © Fred Whitehead/Animals Animals; Bivalves (shells have two part) including clams, oysters, scallops, and mussels  Clam is a filter feeder and food particles and water 19-19 enter the mantle cavity by way of a siphon
  • 20. 19.10 Phylum Annelida: Segmented wormsSegmentation can be seen externally by the rings thatencircle the body  Complete digestive tractExs: Earthworms & Leeches 19-20
  • 21. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Figure 19.10A pharynx Earthworm brain anatomymouth esophagushearts (5pairs) coelom cropseminal vesicle dorsal blood vessel nephridium ventral blood vessel ventral nerve cordanus clitellum 19-21
  • 22. Figure 19.10B Other annelids (Cont.) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. anterior sucker Posterior sucker c. Medicinal leech © St. Bartholomews Hospital/SPL/Photo Researchers, Inc. 19-22
  • 23. Phylum Nematoda: Roundworms Roundworms = Nematodes  Nonsegmented  Free-living and parasitic species  Exs: Pinworms & Hookworms 19-23
  • 24. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. cyst © James Solliday/Biological Photo Service SEM 400x Figure 19.11BFigure 19.11A Ascaris Encysted Trichinella larva. 19-24
  • 25. Phylum: Arthropoda Extremely diverse – more than 1 million species Six characteristics 1.Jointed appendages 2.Exoskeleton 3.Segmentation 4.Well-developed nervous system 5.Adaptation of respiratory organs 6.Reduced competition through metamorphosis 19-25
  • 26. Figure 19.12A Exoskeleton and jointed appendages of a crayfish Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. second walking leg third walking leg first walking leg (pinching claw) fourth walking leg fifth walking leg uropods swimmerets antennule compound antenna eye mouth anus gills telson Cephalothorax Abdomen 19-26
  • 27. Figure 19.12B Monarch butterfly metamorphosis Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.Caterpillar, eating stage Pupa, cocoon stage Metamorphosis occurs Emergence of adult Butterfly, adult stage (all): © John Shaw/Tom Stack & Associates 19-27
  • 28. 19.13 Arthropods are diverse Crustaceans  Largely marine arthropods that include crabs, barnacles, shrimps, and crayfish  Head usually bears a pair of compound eyes and five pairs of appendages Centipedes and millipedes  Centipedes – pair of appendages on every segment  Millipedes – 2 pairs of appendages on most segments 19-28
  • 29. Figure 19.13A Crustacean diversity Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. eye mouth legs (5 pairs) Sally light foot crab 19-29 (crab): © Michael Lustbader/Photo Researchers, Inc
  • 30. Figure 19.13B Centipede and millipede Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. antenna antenna legs legsCentipede Millipede (centipede): © David M. Dennis/Animals Animals; (millipede): © Geof de Feu/Imagestate 19-30
  • 31. 19.13 Arthropods are diverse Arachnids include spiders, scorpions, ticks, mites, and harvestmen  Spiders have four pairs of legs  Scorpions are the oldest terrestrial arthropods  Ticks and mites are parasites 19-31
  • 32. Figure 19.13C A spider and two of its relatives Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. abdomen cephalothorax telson pedipalp stinger compound eye Horseshoe crab walking legs Giant abdomen scorpion cephalothorax Black widow spider (scorpion): © Tom McHugh/Photo Researchers, Inc.; (horseshoe crab): © Jana R. Jirak/Visuals Unlimited; 19-32 (spider): © Ken Lucas
  • 33. Figure 19.14 Insect diversity (Cont.) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Leathery forewings antennae cover membranous hindwings chewing mouthparts Grasshopper © Chris Mattison/Frank Lane Picture Agency/Corbis 19-33
  • 34. Figure 19.14 Insect diversity (Cont.) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. scale-covered wings sucking mouthparts Butterfly © McDonald Wildlife Photography/Animals Animals 19-34
  • 35. 19.15 Phylum EchinodermataRadial symmetry as adultsMove using a water vascular system (take inwater through sieve plate and pumping into tubefeet, when foot touches surface, center withdrawsand causes suction-alternate this to move)Ex: Sea stars, Sea Urchins & Sand Dollars 19-35
  • 36. Figure 19.15 Echinoderm structure and diversity Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. stomach anus arm sieve plate endoskeletal plates eyespot skin gill gonad coelom digestive tube feet ampulla gland 19-36
  • 37. Figure 19.15 Echinoderm structure and diversity (Cont.) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. spines Seaurchin 19-37 © Randy Morse/Animals Animals
  • 38. Figure 19.15 Echinoderm structure and diversity (Cont.) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Sand dollar © Andrew J. Martinez/Photo Researchers, Inc. 19-38
  • 39. 19.16 Phylum ChordataSimple Chordates Exs: Lancelet & Tunicate 4 characteristics 1. Dorsal supporting rod (notochord) 2. Dorsal tubular nerve cord 3. Pharyngeal pouches (become gills, in humans become part of the ear) 4. Postanal tail 19-39
  • 40. Figure 19.17A The invertebrate chordates Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.a.Tunicate b.Lancelet a: © Heather Angel/Natural Visions; b: © Rick Harbo 19-40
  • 41. Figure 19.17B Phylogenetic tree of the chordates Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. mammary gland common ancestor amniotic egg Mammals Amniotes Tetrapods limbs Reptiles* lungs Gnathostomes Amphibians bony Vertebrates skeleton Lobe-finned Fishes jaws Chordates Ray-finned Fishes vertebrae Cartilaginous Fishes Jawless Fishesancestralchordate Tunicates Lancelets * includes birds 19-41
  • 42. 19.18 Jaws, a bony skeleton, and lungs evolved among the fishes Jawless Fishes (Class Agnatha)  Smooth, scaleless skin, no jaws or paired fins Cartilaginous Fishes (Class Chondrichthyes) sharks & rays  Skeletons of cartilage instead of bone Bony Fishes (Class Osteichthyes)  Ray-finned fishes 19-42
  • 43. Figure 19.18B Diversity of fishes Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. gill slits (seven pairs)toothed oral diskLamprey, a jawless fish (lamprey): © Heather Angel/Natural Visions 19-43
  • 44. Figure 19.18B Diversity of fishes Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. gill slits dorsal fin jaw with teeth pectoral finsand tiger shark, a cartilaginous fish (shark): © James Watt/Animals Animals 19-44
  • 45. Figure 19.18B Diversity of fishes Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. caudal fin second dorsal fin first dorsal fin anal fin pelvic finSoldier fish, a bony fish pectoral fin operculum (bony fish): © Ron & Valerie Taylor/Bruce Coleman, Inc. 19-45
  • 46. 19.19 Amphibians Class Amphibia  Means living on both land and in the water  Represented by frogs, toads, newts, and salamanders  Characteristics  Adults have small lungs – air enters the mouth by way of nostrils  Respiration is supplemented by gas exchange through the smooth, moist, skin  Most members lead an amphibious life  Larval stage lives in water, and adult stage is on land 19-46
  • 47. Figure 19.19 Frogs and salamanders are well-known amphibians Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. tympanum eye moist, smooth skin hindlimb (to side)Tree frog hindlimb Barred tiger salamander fleshy toes (frog): © Joe McDonald/Visuals Unlimited; (salamander): © Suzanne L. Collins & Joseph T. Collins/Photo Researchers, Inc. 19-47
  • 48. 19.20 Reptiles Class Reptilia  Exs: Alligators, crocodiles, turtles, snakes, & lizards  Body is covered with hard scales for protection  Fertilization is internal, and the female lays leathery, flexible, shelled eggs  Ectotherms: “cold-blooded” 19-48
  • 49. Figure 19.20A Reptilian diversity (Cont.) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. venom gland fang rattle Diamondback rattlesnake (rattlesnake): © Joel Sartorie/National Geographic/Getty Images 19-49
  • 50. Figure 19.20A Reptilian diversity (Cont.) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. thick, scaly skin tail tongue nostrilAmerican alligator (alligator): © OS21/PhotoDisc/Getty RF 19-50
  • 51. 19.20 Class Aves = Birds Birds  Characterized by the presence of feathers  Birds are adapted to fly  Forelimbs are modified as wings  Hollow, light bones  Horny beak has replaced jaws with teeth  4 chambered heart  Endotherms – generate internal heat 19-51
  • 52. Figure 19.20C Types of bird beaks Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Bald eagle 19-52 © Thomas Kitchin/Tom Stack & Associates
  • 53. Figure 19.20C Types of bird beaks (Cont.) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Cardinal 19-53 © Kirtley Perkins/Visuals Unlimited
  • 54. 19.21 Mammals Characteristics of mammals:  Hair: for insulation  Mammary glands to nurse their young 19-54
  • 55. 19.21 Mammals have hair and mammary glands Monotremes  Egg – laying mammals  Exs: platypus Marsupials  Begin their development inside the female’s body, but they are born in a very immature condition  Newborns crawl up into a pouch on their mother’s abdomen  Exs: koala 19-55
  • 56. Figure 19.21A Monotremes and marsupials Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. a. Duckbill platypus,a monotreme of Australian streams © Fritz Prenzel/Animals Animals 19-56
  • 57. Figure 19.21A Monotremes and marsupials (Cont.) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. b. Virginia oppossum, the only American marsupial 19-57 © Stephen J. Krasemann/Getty Images
  • 58.  Placental mammals  Placenta  Organ of exchange between maternal blood and fetal blood  Some groups  Ungulates – hoofed mammals – horses, rhinos  Carnivores – dogs, cats  Primates – monkeys, gorillas, humans  Cetaceans – whales and dolphins  Chiroptera – bats  Rodents – mice, rats, porcupines 19-58
  • 59. Figure 19.21B Placental mammals Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. White-tailed deer,a forest dwelling ungulate © Stephen J. Krasemann/Photo Researchers, Inc 19-59
  • 60. Connecting the Concepts: Chapter 19 Animals differ in complexity. Animals acquire food in diverse ways Progression from the multicellular level of organization to the tissue level, to the organ level, and finally to the organ system level 19-60

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