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Drop acid

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Session on NoSQL Databases and MongoDB. I stole the title from someone who deserves credit, but unfortunately, can't remember who. I blame the acid.

Session on NoSQL Databases and MongoDB. I stole the title from someone who deserves credit, but unfortunately, can't remember who. I blame the acid.

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  • 1. NoSQL - Death to Relational Databases Mike Feltman F1 Technologies
  • 2. Agenda• The NoSQL Movement• MongoDB Discussion & Demo• Discussion
  • 3. The NoSQL MovementNo SQL Databases: Non-relational Less ACID More BASE CAP Trading Highly Scalable Highly PerformantNoSQL = Not Only SQL
  • 4. Less ACID• Atomic • basically means supports transactions• Consistent • Has hard constraints & rejects non-conforming data• Isolated • No peaking at incomplete commits• Durable • Once a commit is finished, it lasts forever.
  • 5. More BASE• Basically Available• Soft-state• Eventually consistent
  • 6. CAP Trading• Consistency (client perceives set of operations completed)• Availability (operations terminate with an expected result)• Partition tolerance (operations will complete, even if a required resource is unavailable)• Only 2 are possible in distributed systems. – Eric Brewer
  • 7. The NoSQL MovementWhy:• SQL is tedious and difficult• Strongly typed schemas are inflexible and painful to maintain• Inadequate performance of RDBMS on huge data stores• Poor Scalability of RDBMS• Poor Replication Support
  • 8. Types of NoSQL Databases• Document Stores• Graph• Key/Value Store• Object Database• Tabular
  • 9. Major Players• Mongodb (10gen) • Dynamo (Amazon)• CouchDB (Apache) • MObStor (Yahoo)• Cassandra (Apache – • Haystack (Facebook) formerly Facebook) • Voldemort (LinkedIn)• BigTable – (Google) • HBase/Hadoop (Apache• Berkeley DB (Oracle) & Microsoft)
  • 10. MongoDB Combining the best features of document databases, key-value stores, and RDBMSes.• Scalable• High-Performance• Open Source• Schema-free• Document Oriented
  • 11. MongoDB Features• Document-oriented • Replication storage (BSON) • Auto-sharding• Dynamic Queries • MapReduce• Full index support • Driver support for many (including embedded languages objects & arrays) • Cross-Platform• Fast, in-place updates • Admin Tools• Efficient Blob storage
  • 12. Document Oriented Storage { firstName: “Nicklas”,• Data is stored in BSON lastName: “Lidstrom”, – Binary-encoded team: “Red Wings”, serialization of JSON-like stanleyCups : [1997, 1998, documents. 2002, 2008], – Lightweight, traversable norrisTrophies : [2001, & efficient 2002, 2003, 2006, 2007, – Supports embedded 2008] } objects & arrays – Document = Record
  • 13. Dynamic Queries• No indexes required to Examples find data. • All records:• RDBMSes all support db.players.find({}) this as well. • All Red Wings db.players.find({“team”: “Red Wings”})
  • 14. Index Support• B-Tree format• Default index on PK• Supports unique, compound, document indexes (indexes on nested documents) and multikeys indexes (allows indexing of arrays of values)
  • 15. Fast in-place updates• Updates are made to existing documents within a collection.• Many “NoSQL” databases (such as CouchDB) do not support updates and instead store versions of records.
  • 16. Efficient Blob Storage• Blob = Binary Large Object• Up to 4MB within document• GridFS specification is followed for larger items and external files
  • 17. Replication• Enhanced master-slave configuration – one server active for writes at a time. – Provides failover and redundancy – Implemented with Replica Pairs • When master fails slave takes over • When slave fails control reverts to master• Limited Master-master
  • 18. Auto-Sharding• Sharding: – Breaking database down into “shards” and spreading those across distributed/commodity servers. – highly scalable approach for increased throughput and performance of high-transaction, large database applications. – MongoDB manages data storage and retrieval behind the scenes.
  • 19. MapReduce • Useful for batch• Term comes from Google. operations – Patented framework for • Aggregation: NoSQL processing huge datasets answer to GROUP BY on certain kinds of distributable problems using a large number of servers. – MongoDB applies it to single server instances as well.
  • 20. Drivers• .NET (C#) • Perl• JavaScript • JVM• Python – Clojure• PHP – Groovy – Scala• Ruby• Java• C++
  • 21. Cross-Platform• 32 bit & 64 bit versions available for: – Windows – OS X – Linux – Solaris
  • 22. Admin Tools• Command Shell• Simple limited REST (http) Interface• Mongostat• Mongosniff (Unix only – use tcpdump on Windows)• Backup & Restore
  • 23. MongoDB TerminologyTraditional RDBMS MongoDB• Database • Database• Table • Collection• Record • Document• Field • Key
  • 24. Demo!• Start the server (if it’s not running). C:mongodbbinmongod• Start the shell C:mongodbbinmongo
  • 25. The MongoDB Shell
  • 26. Database Commands• Open Database • use (database name)• Create Database • use (database name)
  • 27. How it works• Focused on documents – Document = sequence of key value pairs in bson • Value can be another document • Additional types vs. JSON. ie dates, regexp• Messages (cpassed over TCP/IP) in BSON drivers convert code to BSON• Memory mapped storage engine (MMSE) – all disk access takes place through MMSE• Query Optimizer: – Find( {x:10, y:”foo”}) – Launches multiple simultaneous queries based on indexes & table scan. Stops when one finishes, remembers which one was the fastest for future similar queries. Can use hint option to specify which index to use.
  • 28. Why?• Applications where schema gets in the way• Performance• Scalability• RAD• More natural fit with OO Languages
  • 29. Resources• www.mongodb.org

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